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Where Is Blockchain Data Stored

8 Answers - Where Is The Blockchain Ledger Of Bitcoin Transactions Stored And How Is It Being Backed Up? - Quora

8 Answers - Where Is The Blockchain Ledger Of Bitcoin Transactions Stored And How Is It Being Backed Up? - Quora

Where is the blockchain ledger of bitcoin transactions stored and how is it being backed up? The answer to this question is what basically makes blockchains so popular/revolutionary. The ledger i.e. blockchain is stored on every computer (node) that partakes in the network. As such there is no central hub that manages everything; it is a decentralized network that cannot be taken down at any specific point; it cannot be 'muted'. To partake in the network you could just download the Core ( Open source P2P money ) or a Bitcoin wallet. Thus the beauty of this system is that it is backed up by every single participant in the network. That is the point of blockchains, really; they record events and engrave them into digital, unerodable rock. Blockchain is stored on all the computers running Bitcoin node. There are thousands of computers running full node. Each of these node record every new transaction in the blockchain. All of these nodes run as backup for the blockchain. You can also run a Bitcoin node and backup it in your computer: Go to Start -> Run (or press WinKey+R) and run this: Bitcoin's data folder will open. For most users, this is the following locations: C:\Documents and Settings\YourUserName\Application data\Bitcoin (XP)C:\Users\YourUserName\Appdata\Roaming\Bitcoin (Vista and 7) "AppData" and "Application data" are hidden by default. You can also store Bitcoin data files in any other drive or folder. By default Bitcoin will put its data here: You need to do a "ls -a" to see directories that start with a dot. If that's not it, you can do a search like this: find / -name wallet.dat -print 2>/dev/null By default Bitcoin will put its data here: Content Director For Cryptosomniac (Cryptocurrencies) #1 Cryptocurrency FaceBook Group: Log into Facebook | Facebook Continue reading >>

Data Directory - Bitcoin Wiki

Data Directory - Bitcoin Wiki

The data directory is the location where Bitcoin's data files are stored, including the wallet data file. Go to Start -> Run (or press WinKey+R) and run this: Bitcoin's data folder will open. For most users, this is the following locations: C:\Documents and Settings\YourUserName\Application data\Bitcoin (XP)C:\Users\YourUserName\Appdata\Roaming\Bitcoin (Vista and 7) "AppData" and "Application data" are hidden by default. You can also store Bitcoin data files in any other drive or folder. If you have already downloaded the data then you will have to move the data to the new folder.If you want to store them in D:\BitcoinData then click on "Properties" of a shortcut to bitcoin-qt.exe andadd -datadir=D:\BitcoinData at the end as an example: "C:\Program Files (x86)\Bitcoin\bitcoin-qt.exe" -datadir=d:\BitcoinData Start Bitcoin, now you will see all the files are created in the new data directory. By default Bitcoin will put its data here: You need to do a "ls -a" to see directories that start with a dot. If that's not it, you can do a search like this: find / -name wallet.dat -print 2>/dev/null By default Bitcoin will put its data here: Bitcoin's verbose log file. Automatically trimmed from time to time. Storage for keys, transactions, metadata, and options. Please be sure to make backups of this file. It contains the keys necessary for spending your bitcoins. Storage for ip addresses to make a reconnect easier Storage for peer information to make a reconnect easier. This file uses a bitcoin-specific file format, unrelated to any database system [1] . fee_estimates.dat [Versions v0.10.0 and later] Statistics used to estimate fees and priorities. Saved just before program shutdown, and read in at startup. The data, index and log files are used by Oracle Berkeley DB , the embe Continue reading >>

Blockchain - Where Are The User's Bitcoins Actually Stored? - Bitcoin Stack Exchange

Blockchain - Where Are The User's Bitcoins Actually Stored? - Bitcoin Stack Exchange

Where are the user's bitcoins actually stored? Where does that information reside that tells others and me how much bitcoins I have? I assume it can't be on my PC because I could easily hack the file that contains that data and get myself more bitcoins, right? It seems like what's called for here is a basic explanation of two of Bitcoin's big concepts: the wallet and the blockchain: A "wallet" is a collection of ECDSA keypairs. For those not familiar with cryptography, a keypair consists of a "public key" and a "private key" which can be used to encrypt or sign bits of data. The public key, as the name suggests, is known to everyone and can be used to encrypt messages in such a way that the holder of the private key alone may decrypt them. The private key may also be used to sign messages in such a way that anyone holding the public key may verify that the message truly came from you. Every Bitcoin address consists of such a keypair - the "address" you send people is the public half and the private half resides in your wallet.dat file. The "blockchain" is a constantly growing database of transaction information which is sent out to all nodes in the Bitcoin network. When you perform a transaction, that transaction is distributed to the network and assuming the transaction is valid, will be included in the next "block." This is where the coins themselves are stored. When you initiate a transaction, all previous transactions to or from that address are scanned and a balance is calculated. If your transaction exceeds this available balance, it will be rejected by the network and will not be included in a block. It's also important to note that the blockchain technically doesn't store "coins" it stores transaction information. The coins themselves are not discrete things wh Continue reading >>

Forever Isnt Free: The Cost Of Storage On A Blockchain Database

Forever Isnt Free: The Cost Of Storage On A Blockchain Database

Internet Policy Intern at IPDB Foundation. Forever Isnt Free: The Cost of Storage on a Blockchain Database Cloud storage services work as follows: You pay a monthly fee up front for a fixed amount of storage space. During the paid time, you can use any amount of storage space up to that limit. When your paid time expires, you have two choices: pay for another month or your files get deleted. Your cloud provider only keeps your files for as long as you keep paying. Blockchain databases cant work on this model. A blockchain database must store data indefinitely, so the recurring payment model doesnt work. Data storage costs must be paid up front, and must cover not just that month but all the months and years to come. IPDB has developed a sustainable model for the long term storage of data: a one time, up-front payment that covers the cost of indefinite data storage. The payment must be enough to cover the cost of storage and the IPDB Foundations operating expenses. This blog post is a deep dive into the numbers that led to a single per-GB price point the cost of storing data indefinitely in a blockchain database. This kind of analysis has been lacking in the hype around blockchain technology. There are many problems that could be addressed with blockchain technology, but without an understanding of what a blockchain solution will cost, it is impossible to say whether economic efficiencies can be achieved. This post is a first step toward understanding which use cases could truly benefit from the application of blockchains. Before we dive into the model, lets outline some of our underlying assumptions: Conservative predictions: As a general rule, we have tried to keep estimates and assumptions very conservative. We would rather have happy surprises than unhappy surprises Continue reading >>

Blockchain And Data Storage: The Future Is Decentralized

Blockchain And Data Storage: The Future Is Decentralized

Blockchain and Data Storage: The Future is Decentralized 2017 was the year when blockchain technology burst into the public consciousness. Even beyond the truly startling rise of cryptocurrencies, we became aware of how a range of markets could be transformed by applications built on the technology. But as with any emerging technology that suddenly gains fame and begins to be applied across real-world use cases, issues have emerged around the underlying characteristics of blockchain many of which should be a primary focus of the coming year. Chief among these concerns is scalability. That being said, the existence of these issues serves as a marker of just how far blockchain has come. Tech leaders now posit that it could underpin the next phase of the internet, creating the decentralized world wide web. As we look ahead to this new, decentralized internet, it is important to consider one of its most important elements: decentralized storage. While blockchain is on the rise, its hardly the only technology thats straining existing storage systems. Artificial Intelligence (AI), and particularly the Internet of Things (IoT), are also challenging the current boundaries of storage. Its estimated that there will be over 20 billion connected devices by 2020 , all of which will generate and then require management, storage, and retrieval of enormous amounts of data. Connected devices, combined with consumer personalization apps and the increasing need to share data across business lines, are all playing their part in increasing demand for storage. Businesses wanting to launch new, data-driven applications face a mountain of time, effort and coordination to provision new databases today. This drive towards a richer, more data-centric (and data-heavy) way of working is taking pla Continue reading >>

So, You Want To Use A Blockchain For That? - Coindesk

So, You Want To Use A Blockchain For That? - Coindesk

So, You Want to Use a Blockchain for That? Antony Lewis is abitcoin and blockchain consultant and blogger, who previously served as the director of business development at bitcoin exchangeitBit. In this article, Lewis attempts to break down some of the more misunderstood questions circulating among institutions seeking to adapt distributed blockchain tech for alternative uses. There are good reasons and bad reasons to use blockchains. In conversations with people considering blockchain use cases, I have noticed common confusions arising from certain words. At issue, is that they were initially used in a narrow context (usually to describe bitcoin's blockchain), and are now being interpreted more generically for other blockchains, in cases where they may no longer apply. In this post, I hope to untangle some of these common misconceptions. Bitcoin has specific security features for writing data due to the burden of proof-of-work consensus . That is, in order to add blocks of transactions to the blockchain, you have to validate all the transactions within the block (easy) and then perform repeated calculations (called hashing) to find a magic number that makes your block valid and acceptable to the other participants according to the rules of the network (easy, but computationally expensive, therefore energy intensive, therefore expensive). This proof-of-work burden combined with the longest chain rule makes it expensive to mine your own subversive chain. Private blockchains on the other hand, with known block validators, may have other mechanisms replacing proof-of-work that limit the ability of others to subvert the chain. These rules can specify that blocks need to be signed by a limited, known list of signatories. The round-robin fashion by which entities take it in Continue reading >>

Where Is The Blockchain Stored On My Computer?

Where Is The Blockchain Stored On My Computer?

Where is the Blockchain stored on my computer? I was wondering where the blockchain was stored on a normal windows computer. I believe it is in the temp folder as it isn't in the bitcoin-qt folders. I only question this as I would like to move all this data from two different drives to one drive set just for bitcoin. I have the blockchain on one drive, and the wallet itself on another drive. I'm just wondering because I am expecting a larger ledger in the next couple of years (maybe even months). Quote from: ezeminer on April 15, 2015, 04:49:48 PM I was wondering where the blockchain was stored on a normal windows computer. I believe it is in the temp folder as it isn't in the bitcoin-qt folders. I only question this as I would like to move all this data from two different drives to one drive set just for bitcoin. I have the blockchain on one drive, and the wallet itself on another drive. I'm just wondering because I am expecting a larger ledger in the next couple of years (maybe even months). Continue reading >>

Blockchained Technology

Blockchained Technology

Storage Capabilities of Cryptographic Networks Distributed cloud storage is not a new service that was created by the emergence of Bitcoin. Cryptography is used today by large cloud storage firms to secure data, but the network structure of these firms is different then Bitcoin cloud services. Data is stored remotely on servers owned and maintained by a company offering storage services. The core difference offered by a Bitcoin cloud service is the blockchain ledger that records Data Inputs and Outputs. Data shards are audited while accessed, automatized when indexing, monitored by decentralized consensus, and secured by using cryptography. Decentralized autonomous organizations (DAO) offer new avenues to store data digitally. DAOs use a consensus protocol, built into bitcoin transactions, to grant access to data stored with their service. Storj encrypts portions of a file into the leased hard drive space of miners. Those encrypted portions of files are defined as shards and stored in the leased hard disk space. A shard is typically 8-32 MB in size, and may be further modified depending on outside file-sharing auditing requirements. A 32 MB shard does not necessarily mean that all 32MB are the contents of one file. Shards can be combined to create more fluid data flow of specific client information. Majority consensus of the network will allow the data to be recalled if the correct keys are presented. Consensus of the network is accomplished by Proof-of-Storage and Proof-of-Redundancy. Visualizing storing data on Storj ( Whitepaper ) Merkle Roots are recorded on transactions (See Below) To create a trust-less data storage network, Storj uses Proof-of-Storage versus Proof-of-Work that is common in solving Bitcoin algorithms. Proof-of-Storage provides reliability that th Continue reading >>

Blockchain - Wikipedia

Blockchain - Wikipedia

For other uses, see Block chain (disambiguation) . Blockchain formation. The main chain (black) consists of the longest series of blocks from the genesis block (green) to the current block. Orphan blocks (purple) exist outside of the main chain. A blockchain [1] [2] [3] originally block chain [4] [5] is a continuously growing list of records , called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography . [1] [6] Each block typically contains a hash pointer as a link to a previous block, [6] a timestamp and transaction data. [7] By design, blockchains are inherently resistant to modification of the data. Harvard Business Review defines it as "an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way." [8] For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires collusion of the network majority. Blockchains are secure by design and are an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance . Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a blockchain. [9] This makes blockchains potentially suitable for the recording of events, medical records, [10] [11] and other records management activities, such as identity management , [12] [13] [14] transaction processing , documenting provenance , or food traceability . [15] The first blockchain was conceptualised in 2008 by an anonymous person or group known as Satoshi Nakamoto and implemented in 2009 as a core component of bitcoin where it serves as the public ledger for all transactions. Continue reading >>

Storing Medical Records Gets Easier With Blockchain In Healthcare

Storing Medical Records Gets Easier With Blockchain In Healthcare

Storing Medical Records Gets Easier With Blockchain in Healthcare Other than keeping cryptocurrency transactions secure, where can Blockchain technology utilize its underlying potential? Blockchain has found itself useful in many industries and out of these one of the most promising name is blockchain in healthcare. With applications evolving in healthcare IT, researchers are curious with questions such as can blockchain make the storage of medical records any easier with blockchain medical records? Is it possible to improve data security with blockchain in healthcare ? The current way of storing health records is acceptable yet it has many issues which need to be addressed. The system is inefficient and allows too many roadblocks in the way of sharing patients health data. Patient data is scattered all around the healthcare system as there is no single healthcare provider who stores this information instead fragments of data are stored in different places. This not only makes it extremely difficult for the data to be collected in the time of need, but also raises different issues such as follows: Patients data becomes vulnerable to theft When splitting data between providers and associates, probability of breach increases While HIPAA requires healthcare entities to implement safeguards to ensure health information, different healthcare entity apply their own security controls Increase in the number of entities accessing healthcare data increases the potential of probable due to exposure of data. According to the Department of Health and Human Services Office for Civil Rights Breach portal, HIPAA-covered healthcare organizations and their business partners arent always aware where and how their data is being stored, transferred and used, and even when they are, it is q Continue reading >>

Where And How Application Data Is Stored In Ethereum?

Where And How Application Data Is Stored In Ethereum?

Where and how application data is stored in Ethereum? Ethereum can host decentralized applications, DAPPs. These applications exist through small programs that live on the Blockchain: Smart Contracts. But when I write a Smart Contract, where is my application data Stored? We want to understand how data storage works before working on this platform. Code execution, servers and programming language are rarely critical to the design of an application. But the Data, its structure, and its security will constrain most of our design. Lets imagine we are porting apps to Ethereum: For a Facebook-like, where are the publications and comments data? For a Dropbox-like, where are my private files? Or for a Slack-like chat app, where do we store discussion channels? What about Private Messages? Were going to forget about the Blockchain for a minute: we already know its a machine that generates Consensus . We can forget the Blockchain and assume that Ethereum is a big, slow, reliable, computer. Were looking at the Ethereum System from a higher level of abstraction: the Software part. Ethereum holds a set of accounts. Every account has an owner and a balance (some Ether). If I prove my identity, I can transfer Ether from my account to another. The money will flow from one account to the other. Its an atomic operation called a Transaction. The Ethereum Software is a Transaction Processing System: 1. We have a state: the set of all accounts and their balance, 3. We get a new state: an updated set of accounts and their balances. Today we look into the ability to execute code and programs within a transaction. Thats where Smart Contracts come into play. Every account has an owner and a balance. But some of these accounts are special; they own themselves. At creation time, we give them a Continue reading >>

Storing Data On Blockchain

Storing Data On Blockchain

I am working on a POC where I have to store some data e.g. ID of an object, price, owner and things like that. Is it possible to store such things on Blockchain using smart contracts. And if not what are the ways to use Blockchain to achieve it. (I did some research, and people are using Blockchain in SCM industry. They must have stored these kind of datas). Consider following tutorial from Hyperledger Fabric " Getting Started " pages. Basically you implement requested logic on by leveraging chaincodes , you will have to implement following golang interface: // Chaincode interface must be implemented by all chaincodes. The fabric runs// the transactions by calling these functions as specified.type Chaincode interface { // Init is called during Instantiate transaction after the chaincode container // has been established for the first time, allowing the chaincode to // initialize its internal data Init(stub ChaincodeStubInterface) pb.Response // Invoke is called to update or query the ledger in a proposal transaction. // Updated state variables are not committed to the ledger until the // transaction is committed. Invoke(stub ChaincodeStubInterface) pb.Response} type myStoreChaincode struct {}func (cc *myStoreChaincode) Init(stub ChaincodeStubInterface) pb.Response { return shim.Success(nil)}func (cc *myStoreChaincode) Invoke(stub ChaincodeStubInterface) pb.Response { action, params = stub.GetFunctionAndParameters() if action == "storeItem" { cc.StoreItem(stub, params) } // Handle here other cases and possible parameters combinations return shim.Success(nil)}func (cc *myStoreChaincode) StoreItem(stub ChaincodeStubInterface, params []string) { // Store item on ledger, where params[0] is a key and params[1] actual value stub.PutState(params[0], params[1])} This is only a Continue reading >>

Where Do Decentralized Applications Store Their Data?

Where Do Decentralized Applications Store Their Data?

Where do decentralized applications store their data? Now there is a boom in blockchain projects. Some blockchains are so powerful that they claim to be a platform for building applications on top of them. Applications automatically turn out to be decentralized, resistant to censorship and blocking. But is everything so good and simple? In this article, we will try to look at the blockchain as a platform for applications, taking off the rose-colored glasses. Blockchain (chain of blocks) is an immutable data structure consisting of a list of blocks where each next block contains a hash of the previous block. As a result of this hashing, the chain of blocks becomes unchanged: you can not change or delete a block from the middle of the chain without rebuilding all the blocks above, because the slightest change will require a rebuild (recalculating hashes) of all blocks above the changed one. If the calculation of the hash of each block is computationally or economically complex operation, then the data change in the middle of the chain becomes practically impossible at all. The combination of the new block hash calculation complexity, as well as the ease of checking the correctness of the hash, provides blockchain with a serious resistance to unsanctioned changes. This is what holds the safety of bitcoin and other blockchains. Thanks to this, blockchain projects can be publicly decentralized. That is, anyone can put the working node of the blockchain and generate new blocks. In most implementations of the blockchain for the generation of a block a reward is given - this process is called mining. And since it is difficult to mine, and your results can be easily verified, it is profitable to act only honestly. Otherwise, you will spend resources on mining, and other miners Continue reading >>

How Is A Hyperledger Fabric Blockchain Stored On A Pc?

How Is A Hyperledger Fabric Blockchain Stored On A Pc?

I'm trying to get my head around blockchain and I'm finding it difficult to get a straight forward answer to this. Say I create a web application that interacts with a blockchain. A user opens my web app, logs in and uses that web application and so a transaction occurs and a new block is added to the chain. How is that blockchain stored on their PC, since the point of blockchain is that it is stored on every participating node? In what format is it stored? Continue reading >>

How Blockchain Will Disrupt Data Storage

How Blockchain Will Disrupt Data Storage

Among many other industries and sectors, Blockchain technology is poised to majorly disrupt data storage and cloud computing in the next few years. Instead of storing files and information on centralized servers such as Google Drive, Dropbox or Amazon S3, platforms like Sia or Storj use Blockchain technology to decentralize data storage by breaking up files into multiple pieces, encrypting and sending them to hard drives located all around the world. Individuals and private businesses can participate by renting out their unused hard drive space and make money. Sia and Storj have launched their own cryptocurrencies (Siacoin, Storjcoin) in order to incentivize usage and to create a market for buying and selling decentralized storage. So what are the main advantages of decentralized cloud service vs. private centralized cloud services offered by Amazon, IBM, Dropbox, etc.? More security & privacy. Decentralized data is also more difficult to attack than centralized data. On a decentralized network, files are broken apart and spread across multiple nodes (with sharding). The files are encrypted with a private key which makes it impossible for the node (participant in the network) to look at your file. Moreover, due to sharding, the files are just a fraction of their original self which render the reading of their content impossible. File loss prevention through redundancy in data (extra copies stored in case of error in storing or transmission of data). Cost reduction due to more efficiency. Blockchain storage costs can reduce the price of cloud computing between 50% -100%. (Storj VS Amazon S3 vs Microsoft Azure, via Storj Website) Increased speed due to servers proximity, scaling effects and fragmentation of data (smaller fragments can be saved and retrieved concurrently) Continue reading >>

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