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Where Does Blockchain Store Data

Blockchain - Wikipedia

Blockchain - Wikipedia

For other uses, see Block chain (disambiguation) . Blockchain formation. The main chain (black) consists of the longest series of blocks from the genesis block (green) to the current block. Orphan blocks (purple) exist outside of the main chain. A blockchain [1] [2] [3] originally block chain [4] [5] is a continuously growing list of records , called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography . [1] [6] Each block typically contains a hash pointer as a link to a previous block, [6] a timestamp and transaction data. [7] By design, blockchains are inherently resistant to modification of the data. Harvard Business Review defines it as "an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way." [8] For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires collusion of the network majority. Blockchains are secure by design and are an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance . Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a blockchain. [9] This makes blockchains potentially suitable for the recording of events, medical records, [10] [11] and other records management activities, such as identity management , [12] [13] [14] transaction processing , documenting provenance , or food traceability . [15] The first blockchain was conceptualised in 2008 by an anonymous person or group known as Satoshi Nakamoto and implemented in 2009 as a core component of bitcoin where it serves as the public ledger for all transactions. Continue reading >>

Storj - Decentralized Cloud Storage

Storj - Decentralized Cloud Storage

"Storj is like an Internet filesystem. Data blocks are encrypted and distributed across a globally distributed set of storage nodes using block-chain algorithm. It is quite impressive and much needed innovation in the storage space." "Decentralized file storage systems like Storj have the potential to eliminate high markup costs and market inefficiencies and provide a much higher level of privacy, reliability and quality of service than we see today." "The power of the Storj platform is its unique ability indiscriminately utilize the free capacity of a storage node, whether a single end-user PC or a massive data center. Storj is bringing an unprecedented degree of efficiency to globally distributed data storage." "Storj is a unique market phenomena. It sets new standards of unit economics for distributed data storage." "As a seed investor, we were more than happy to join the next round for Storj with a great line up of co-investors. We want storing files to be cheaper, faster and more secure and the progress the team has made towards that mission has been phenomenal to watch. We are looking forward to putting more and more of our documents on the Blockchain thanks to Storj." Continue reading >>

Blockchain Data Storage

Blockchain Data Storage

Blockchain technology will be used to create new, decentralized data storage networks, putting the power of choice back in the end-user's hands. One of the most heralded achievements of the internet era, both for personal and industry use, is cloud data storage. While this invention is quite recent it is already under threat of being upended by incoming blockchain storage technology competitors. One of the examples of this representative of near future blockchain use cases is how cloud storage companies try to avoid the loss of data. While big companies depend on spreading file duplicates throughout various data centers in order to avoid intrusion, decentralized blockchain technology would more or less eliminate the risk of meaningful disruptions. The decentralization of blockchain storage can have various additional financial benefits, such as potentially allowing the user to save on bandwidth since files are stored and downloaded from multiple nodes instead of from a single server. This is due to data being stored on dozens of individual nodes, intelligently distributed across the globe, with no central entity needing to control access to a users files, improving security and decreasing costs via decentralized file storage.While current network scalability still needs to evolve in order to accommodate large-scale file blockchain storage infrastructures, we can easily envision an industry where fragmented, encrypted data is supported by a network of decentralized nodes in a much more user-friendly and cost-effective way than the current, central database solutions. Another way blockchain use cases could revolutionize current file storage systems is by using what is known as an incentive layer. This means that while data is not actually stored on a decentralized ledger Continue reading >>

Where Do Decentralized Applications Store Their Data?

Where Do Decentralized Applications Store Their Data?

Where do decentralized applications store their data? Now there is a boom in blockchain projects. Some blockchains are so powerful that they claim to be a platform for building applications on top of them. Applications automatically turn out to be decentralized, resistant to censorship and blocking. But is everything so good and simple? In this article, we will try to look at the blockchain as a platform for applications, taking off the rose-colored glasses. Blockchain (chain of blocks) is an immutable data structure consisting of a list of blocks where each next block contains a hash of the previous block. As a result of this hashing, the chain of blocks becomes unchanged: you can not change or delete a block from the middle of the chain without rebuilding all the blocks above, because the slightest change will require a rebuild (recalculating hashes) of all blocks above the changed one. If the calculation of the hash of each block is computationally or economically complex operation, then the data change in the middle of the chain becomes practically impossible at all. The combination of the new block hash calculation complexity, as well as the ease of checking the correctness of the hash, provides blockchain with a serious resistance to unsanctioned changes. This is what holds the safety of bitcoin and other blockchains. Thanks to this, blockchain projects can be publicly decentralized. That is, anyone can put the working node of the blockchain and generate new blocks. In most implementations of the blockchain for the generation of a block a reward is given - this process is called mining. And since it is difficult to mine, and your results can be easily verified, it is profitable to act only honestly. Otherwise, you will spend resources on mining, and other miners Continue reading >>

Where And How Application Data Is Stored In Ethereum?

Where And How Application Data Is Stored In Ethereum?

Where and how application data is stored in Ethereum? Ethereum can host decentralized applications, DAPPs. These applications exist through small programs that live on the Blockchain: Smart Contracts. But when I write a Smart Contract, where is my application data Stored? We want to understand how data storage works before working on this platform. Code execution, servers and programming language are rarely critical to the design of an application. But the Data, its structure, and its security will constrain most of our design. Lets imagine we are porting apps to Ethereum: For a Facebook-like, where are the publications and comments data? For a Dropbox-like, where are my private files? Or for a Slack-like chat app, where do we store discussion channels? What about Private Messages? Were going to forget about the Blockchain for a minute: we already know its a machine that generates Consensus . We can forget the Blockchain and assume that Ethereum is a big, slow, reliable, computer. Were looking at the Ethereum System from a higher level of abstraction: the Software part. Ethereum holds a set of accounts. Every account has an owner and a balance (some Ether). If I prove my identity, I can transfer Ether from my account to another. The money will flow from one account to the other. Its an atomic operation called a Transaction. The Ethereum Software is a Transaction Processing System: 1. We have a state: the set of all accounts and their balance, 3. We get a new state: an updated set of accounts and their balances. Today we look into the ability to execute code and programs within a transaction. Thats where Smart Contracts come into play. Every account has an owner and a balance. But some of these accounts are special; they own themselves. At creation time, we give them a Continue reading >>

How Blockchain Can Be Used To Secure Sensitive Data Storage

How Blockchain Can Be Used To Secure Sensitive Data Storage

How Blockchain Can be Used to Secure Sensitive Data Storage Click to learn more about author Mary Ann Callahan. Data Security is no longer a luxury or an afterthought. With so much of our private, personal, and sensitive information being stored and transmitted online, tight security and privacy are now necessities for everyone. But, just as more of our lives are going online, we are hearing about more data breaches and hacks than ever. Here were going to take a look at how Blockchain technology can improve on current, centralized data security solutions, and help keep us safe and in control. Data is quickly becoming one of the most valuable resources in the world. The list of the top 10 companies by market capitalization is now dominated by data-centric companies like Facebook, Alphabet, Microsoft, Apple, and Amazon. That value means your data, especially your sensitive data, is now a prime target for cyber criminals, and you probably arent as protected as you think. Even giant companies like Anthem , Target Corp, and Home Depot have had major data breaches over the last few years affecting hundreds of millions of people. Clearly, current solutions arent good enough to keep us safe. Cloud services often arent the solution either. As hugely centralized systems, they are more valuable targets still. You also need to trust a 3rd party to store your sensitive data for you, which for many companies often isnt desirable or even legal. A new solution is needed. Blockchain technology has been one of the major technological breakthroughs of this century. Bitcoin, the first Blockchain application, allows a network of users to perform transactions without requiring the trust of anyone on the network, or a third party. Everything is encrypted, and nobody can tamper with the Block Continue reading >>

Storing Data On Blockchain

Storing Data On Blockchain

I am working on a POC where I have to store some data e.g. ID of an object, price, owner and things like that. Is it possible to store such things on Blockchain using smart contracts. And if not what are the ways to use Blockchain to achieve it. (I did some research, and people are using Blockchain in SCM industry. They must have stored these kind of datas). Consider following tutorial from Hyperledger Fabric " Getting Started " pages. Basically you implement requested logic on by leveraging chaincodes , you will have to implement following golang interface: // Chaincode interface must be implemented by all chaincodes. The fabric runs// the transactions by calling these functions as specified.type Chaincode interface { // Init is called during Instantiate transaction after the chaincode container // has been established for the first time, allowing the chaincode to // initialize its internal data Init(stub ChaincodeStubInterface) pb.Response // Invoke is called to update or query the ledger in a proposal transaction. // Updated state variables are not committed to the ledger until the // transaction is committed. Invoke(stub ChaincodeStubInterface) pb.Response} type myStoreChaincode struct {}func (cc *myStoreChaincode) Init(stub ChaincodeStubInterface) pb.Response { return shim.Success(nil)}func (cc *myStoreChaincode) Invoke(stub ChaincodeStubInterface) pb.Response { action, params = stub.GetFunctionAndParameters() if action == "storeItem" { cc.StoreItem(stub, params) } // Handle here other cases and possible parameters combinations return shim.Success(nil)}func (cc *myStoreChaincode) StoreItem(stub ChaincodeStubInterface, params []string) { // Store item on ledger, where params[0] is a key and params[1] actual value stub.PutState(params[0], params[1])} This is only a Continue reading >>

Data Directory - Bitcoin Wiki

Data Directory - Bitcoin Wiki

The data directory is the location where Bitcoin's data files are stored, including the wallet data file. Go to Start -> Run (or press WinKey+R) and run this: Bitcoin's data folder will open. For most users, this is the following locations: C:\Documents and Settings\YourUserName\Application data\Bitcoin (XP)C:\Users\YourUserName\Appdata\Roaming\Bitcoin (Vista and 7) "AppData" and "Application data" are hidden by default. You can also store Bitcoin data files in any other drive or folder. If you have already downloaded the data then you will have to move the data to the new folder.If you want to store them in D:\BitcoinData then click on "Properties" of a shortcut to bitcoin-qt.exe andadd -datadir=D:\BitcoinData at the end as an example: "C:\Program Files (x86)\Bitcoin\bitcoin-qt.exe" -datadir=d:\BitcoinData Start Bitcoin, now you will see all the files are created in the new data directory. By default Bitcoin will put its data here: You need to do a "ls -a" to see directories that start with a dot. If that's not it, you can do a search like this: find / -name wallet.dat -print 2>/dev/null By default Bitcoin will put its data here: Bitcoin's verbose log file. Automatically trimmed from time to time. Storage for keys, transactions, metadata, and options. Please be sure to make backups of this file. It contains the keys necessary for spending your bitcoins. Storage for ip addresses to make a reconnect easier Storage for peer information to make a reconnect easier. This file uses a bitcoin-specific file format, unrelated to any database system [1] . fee_estimates.dat [Versions v0.10.0 and later] Statistics used to estimate fees and priorities. Saved just before program shutdown, and read in at startup. The data, index and log files are used by Oracle Berkeley DB , the embe Continue reading >>

Forever Isnt Free: The Cost Of Storage On A Blockchain Database

Forever Isnt Free: The Cost Of Storage On A Blockchain Database

Internet Policy Intern at IPDB Foundation. Forever Isnt Free: The Cost of Storage on a Blockchain Database Cloud storage services work as follows: You pay a monthly fee up front for a fixed amount of storage space. During the paid time, you can use any amount of storage space up to that limit. When your paid time expires, you have two choices: pay for another month or your files get deleted. Your cloud provider only keeps your files for as long as you keep paying. Blockchain databases cant work on this model. A blockchain database must store data indefinitely, so the recurring payment model doesnt work. Data storage costs must be paid up front, and must cover not just that month but all the months and years to come. IPDB has developed a sustainable model for the long term storage of data: a one time, up-front payment that covers the cost of indefinite data storage. The payment must be enough to cover the cost of storage and the IPDB Foundations operating expenses. This blog post is a deep dive into the numbers that led to a single per-GB price point the cost of storing data indefinitely in a blockchain database. This kind of analysis has been lacking in the hype around blockchain technology. There are many problems that could be addressed with blockchain technology, but without an understanding of what a blockchain solution will cost, it is impossible to say whether economic efficiencies can be achieved. This post is a first step toward understanding which use cases could truly benefit from the application of blockchains. Before we dive into the model, lets outline some of our underlying assumptions: Conservative predictions: As a general rule, we have tried to keep estimates and assumptions very conservative. We would rather have happy surprises than unhappy surprises Continue reading >>

Blockchain And The Promise Of Cooperative Cloud Storage

Blockchain And The Promise Of Cooperative Cloud Storage

Blockchain and the promise of cooperative cloud storage Blockchain technology allows distributed retention of encrypted data and is at the heart of cooperative cloud storage Chrome OS: Why it may be time to approach desktop IT in a different way Inside the distros: A year in Linux development How to make the leap from traditional bank to digital bank Given that crypto-currency bitcoin is the poster-child for blockchain technology, its no surprise that much of the blockchain fuss and, indeed, much of the actual blockchain work is focused on payment systems and related areas such as invoicing and tax reporting. Top tips for managing storage in a virtual server environment Get a complete run-through of the main choices in data storage for containers, look at the essentials of virtual server storage and learn about storage performance in virtual server and desktop environments. This email address doesnt appear to be valid. This email address is already registered. Please login . You have exceeded the maximum character limit. Please provide a Corporate E-mail Address. By submitting my Email address I confirm that I have read and accepted the Terms of Use and Declaration of Consent. By submitting your personal information, you agree that TechTarget and its partners may contact you regarding relevant content, products and special offers. You also agree that your personal information may be transferred and processed in the United States, and that you have read and agree to the Terms of Use and the Privacy Policy . Yet blockchain as a technology is far more widely applicable than this. At heart, it is simply a cryptographic method of distributing data and recording transactions. Blockchains power lies not only its heavy encryption, but also its distribution across a chain of co Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between A Blockchain And A Database?

What Is The Difference Between A Blockchain And A Database?

Join 4,500+ attendees at Consensus 2018. Register Now! What is the Difference Between a Blockchain and a Database? As stated in our guide "What is Blockchain Technology?" , the difference between a traditional database and a blockchain begins with architecture, or how the technologies are orchestrated. A database running on the World Wide Web is most often using a client-server network architecture. A user (client) with permissions associated with their account can change entries that are stored on a centralized server. By changing the 'master copy', whenever a user accesses a database using their computer, they will get the updated version of the database entry. Control of the database remains with administrators, allowing for access and permissions to be maintained be a central authority. This is not at all the same as with a blockchain. For a blockchain database, each participant maintains, calculates and updates new entries into the database. All nodes work together to ensurethey are all coming to the same conclusions, providing in-built security for the network. The consequences of this difference is that blockchains are well-suited as a system of record for certain functions, while a centralized database is entirely appropriate for other functions. Blockchains allow different parties that do not trust each other to share information without requiring a central administrator. Transactions are processed by a network of users acting as a consensus mechanism so that everyone is creating the same shared system of record simultaneously. The value of decentralized control is that it eliminates the risks of centralized control. With a centralized database, anybody with sufficient access to that system can destroy or corrupt the data within. This makes users dependent on Continue reading >>

How Does A Blockchain Store Any Data?

How Does A Blockchain Store Any Data?

I read here that since Bitcoin is a networked ledger, it is a good way to back up data. I would like to know two things: How does a blockchain store 'any' data? I would like to know more about a blockchain's anatomy that enables it to do so. If anyone can store data in blockchains, what prevents blockchains from becoming astronomically larger? Even today, a Bitcoin client takes forever to synchronize. I honestly can't tell if that site is a joke. Poe's law in action, I guess. Nick ODell Oct 31 '14 at 23:55 Most people think of Bitcoin as a currency, but this is only one use of its protocol & network. No. It is just a currency. The Bitcoin protocol can be used for different services, but the Bitcoin network is certainly not for gene distribution, or any other form of data back-up. That is not the intention of Bitcoin. You can, however, abuse the protocol to store unnecessary unrelated information. And yes I say abuse, because we as normal Bitcoin users have to download larger blocks for reasons that are opaque to us and no not necessarily concern us (like your genetic code). They are interfering with the purpose of Bitcoin. Getting to your questions now:you cannot really store data in Bitcoin in a normal fashion, simply because that is not what Bitcoin is concerned with. You can, however, embed additional information in transactions, which are broadcasted and distributed to the network, in multiple ways, thus essentially storing your information in the blockchain. This assumes you know the storage format of course, since you need differentiate the ordinary transaction information from your additional data. No nothing prevents the block chain from getting arbitrary large. In practice, however, this will not fill your hard drive so fast (especially if you take Moore's law Continue reading >>

Blockchain: Is It The Future Of Data Storage?

Blockchain: Is It The Future Of Data Storage?

Blockchain: Is it the future of data storage? Blockchain is the number-one trend worldwide. Still, there is a lack of understanding of this technology among regular people, as they are used to considering it from the perspective of cryptocurrency. However, the Blockchain concept goes well beyond the digital currency marketplace and bitcoin exchange . Most of us have heard key phrasessuch as: decentralisation, no third party, autonomous, peer-to-peer. Although, many people do not have a keen insight on how in fact everything actually works. Lets learn the ropes and figure out, whether blockchain is a far-reaching and ambitious concept or a hyped falsehood. Like the Internet, Blockchain technology deals with information, but it takes it to a whole new level. So, from now on, you have to understand that everything can be perceived as information, even money. (For example: Bitcoin, the first of its kind cryptocurrency , in terms of which blockchain was implemented for the first time, is no more than a piece of digital information that has a certain value that you own.) Now, lets try to piece things together and go through the key phrases again. Blockchain is: A technology, on the basis of which a certain network can be designed. This network differs markedly from any other networks we recently had, because... It is decentralized. (For example: any website is hosted on a server, that means it is centralized.) Blockchain network, on the contrary, is allocated among tens or hundreds of thousands devices worldwide that process the network. In this regard... It doesnt require a third party. When it comes to valuable information, a third-party service is, commonly, required to be the guarantor of the security of this information. Due to the fact that blockchain is allocated and Continue reading >>

So, You Want To Use A Blockchain For That? - Coindesk

So, You Want To Use A Blockchain For That? - Coindesk

So, You Want to Use a Blockchain for That? Antony Lewis is abitcoin and blockchain consultant and blogger, who previously served as the director of business development at bitcoin exchangeitBit. In this article, Lewis attempts to break down some of the more misunderstood questions circulating among institutions seeking to adapt distributed blockchain tech for alternative uses. There are good reasons and bad reasons to use blockchains. In conversations with people considering blockchain use cases, I have noticed common confusions arising from certain words. At issue, is that they were initially used in a narrow context (usually to describe bitcoin's blockchain), and are now being interpreted more generically for other blockchains, in cases where they may no longer apply. In this post, I hope to untangle some of these common misconceptions. Bitcoin has specific security features for writing data due to the burden of proof-of-work consensus . That is, in order to add blocks of transactions to the blockchain, you have to validate all the transactions within the block (easy) and then perform repeated calculations (called hashing) to find a magic number that makes your block valid and acceptable to the other participants according to the rules of the network (easy, but computationally expensive, therefore energy intensive, therefore expensive). This proof-of-work burden combined with the longest chain rule makes it expensive to mine your own subversive chain. Private blockchains on the other hand, with known block validators, may have other mechanisms replacing proof-of-work that limit the ability of others to subvert the chain. These rules can specify that blocks need to be signed by a limited, known list of signatories. The round-robin fashion by which entities take it in Continue reading >>

Blockchain And Cryptocurrency May Soon Underpin Cloud Storage

Blockchain And Cryptocurrency May Soon Underpin Cloud Storage

Blockchain and cryptocurrency may soon underpin cloud storage Emerging now: P2P networks that use blockchain to manage cloud storage based on the sharing of excess drive and network capacity on PCs and in data centers. Those who share capacity get free storage and can be paid in cryptocurrency. Use commas to separate multiple email addresses How to fix a hard disk in Windows using the command prompt Through blockchain, Roberto Galoppini sees an opportunity to kill two birds with one stone: His organization, FileZilla, can offer users free online data storage while also allowing them to earn valuable cryptocurrency. Galoppini, director of strategy for FileZilla , the popular, open-source FTP client, said his service is planning to shift direction this year by using a peer-to-peer (P2P), distributed storage platform from Atlanta-based Storj Labs Inc. that will be managed via blockchain. [ Related: Blockchain in the real world: 3 enterprise use cases ] FileZilla, which has been piloting the Storj decentralized storage for several months,had been making money through its free file-sharing service, which is hosted on SourceForge.net. It pitches users third-party software or offers to let them make money by testing a new web or mobile application. In turn, FileZilla would share revenue with the third-party software vendors. Some users, however, reported adware was being installed without consent, and in general, the advertising isn't always popular with users, Galoppini said. By sharing revenue with Storj Labs, FileZilla would be able to continue offering users its free service and even expand feature sets using the native cryptography of blockchain, such as offering free access to a VPN. "People have been using FileZilla for free for so many years, it's important to find a Continue reading >>

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