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What Is A Cryptonight?

Drive-by Mining And Ads: The Wild Wild West

Drive-by Mining And Ads: The Wild Wild West

Drive-by mining and ads: The Wild Wild West Posted: September 25, 2017 by Jrme Segura There seems to be a trend lately for publishers to monetize their traffic by having their visitors mine for cryptocurrencies while on their site. The idea is that you are accessing content for free and in exchange, your computer (its CPU in particular) will be used for mining purposes. The Pirate Bay started to run a miner on its site and later publicly acknowledged it. In other cases, the mining was a byproduct of malicious adverts or done via legitimate but compromised websites that are being injected with cryptomining code directly . Needless to say, this practice is raising many eyebrows and not everyone is on the same page about whether this new business model could be a long-term replacement for ads (although most people agree that ads are often annoying and malicious). But what exactly happens when publishers turn your PC into a miner and display ads at the same time? In this post, we take a look at what is arguably a bad mix. Because mining happens in the browser via JavaScript without user interaction, we could compare it to drive-by downloads. As publishers need to retain the visitors attention so that the JavaScript code runs uninterrupted for as long as possible, this is where the type of content matters. We know that for example gaming or video streaming sites tend to keep people on their page much longer than others. Figure 1: A streaming site that is (not so) silently mining cryptocurrency There is one exception here, in that in some cases, loading the JavaScript mining code once is enough, no matter whether the user decides to change site afterward, the mining will continue. This particular abuse technique affects Internet Explorer (i.e. the zombie script ) and was ide Continue reading >>

Can Monero Only Be Mined With Cryptonight Algorithm? : Monero

Can Monero Only Be Mined With Cryptonight Algorithm? : Monero

Monero can't be hacked to steal your funds, due to the power of distributed consensus. This means that you are responsible for your own money, and don't have to trust any entity to keep it safe for you. The power of the blockchain usually increases security at the cost of privacy, but with Monero's sophisticated privacy-centric technology, you get all of the security benefits of the blockchain without any of the privacy trade-offs. By taking advantage of ring signatures, Monero makes it ambiguous which funds have been spent, and thus extremely unlikely that a transaction could be linked to any particular user. Because of its on-by-default privacy technologies, Monero is fungible, which means that one Monero will always be equal to another. This ensures that there will be no discrimination over the origin or history of your coins, lessening the worry of potential blacklisting by exchanges or vendors. Breaking the guidelines may result in a deleted post and possible ban. Follow redditquette and the rules of reddit. Continue reading >>

Where Can I Find A Description Of The Cryptonight Hash Algorithm?

Where Can I Find A Description Of The Cryptonight Hash Algorithm?

Where can I find a description of the CryptoNight hash algorithm? Both a thorough and ELI5 description of the hash algorithm would be appreciated (hello, this is my first post) in the code I see just at the beginning > #define MEMORY (1 << 21) // 2MB scratchpad > #define ITER (1 << 20) Question is the 2MB "chunk" fixed or can I use an other value as well ? in the mean Time, I learned that "Monero" with 1MB already exists it is called "aeon" an other crypto currency. Andreas Otto Jan 25 at 21:28 The description of the CryptoNight hash algorithm and the steps it performs can be found in the code as well as in a written file by the CryptoNote team, which can be found here . Lastly, in his blog, professor David Anderson also briefly describes the CryptoNight algorithm with an accompanying graph that illustrates it. From the blog: This was a brilliantly designed proof-of-work function targeting the strengths of modern CPUs -- native AES encryption and fast 64 bit multipliers -- tuned to use a scratchpad exactly the size of the per-core L3 cache on Intel CPUs (about 2MB) that someone then wrapped in such a thick blanket of crap it was nearly unrecognizable until you started jumping in, tearing it apart, and putting it back together again. Here's what it looks like without the crud (diagram shows one round): Some initial 128 bit values are determined by hashing the block state using a Keccak (sha3) variant - call them A and B. The big lookup table is also populated using that same state, mixed around using AES. Then, executed 500,000 times, are rounds of mixing as shown at the right: Use A to determine a pseudorandom location in the scratchpad, take that, mix it in, AES encrypt it (one round), use the result to determine a second location, use that in a 64 bit multiply, store Continue reading >>

[ann][new][cryptonight][coin] Pinkstarcoin

[ann][new][cryptonight][coin] Pinkstarcoin

[ANN][NEW][CRYPTONIGHT][COIN] PINKSTARCOIN As anticipated, in the next month, a swap will be managed from PNKS to PSTAR, this is becoming necessary as many changes will be made to the code and new functions will be implemented. The swap will be managed on the site /register.php, if you are in possession of PNKS the only thing you will have to worry about, will be to deposit, keep on balance (not in open orders) no later than April 23rd 2018 at 24:00 (Italian time) ) your PNKS on CrepCoin Exchange, starting from April 24th, within one week your PNKS will be automatically converted into PSTAR, download the new Wallet and enjoy your PSTAR. INSTAGRAM PINKSTARCOIN (PNKS) is a cryptocurrency started on January 10, 2018. Pinkstarcoin is a fork Bytecoin and uses the unique algorithm CryptoNight. Based on CryptoNote technology UKRAINE Thanks to stichnemo PREMINE: 20% / 240.000.000,00000000 PNKS (10% BOUNTY CAMPAIGN, 7% COIN MAINTENANCE, 3% RESERVED) DIFFICULTY_TARGET: 60 seconds (1 BLOCK EVERY 60 SECONDS) REWARD FOR BLOCK: 444 PNKS (THE REWARD DECREASES TO EVERY BLOCK) WINDOWS CLI Unzip the folder, open the command prompt and go inside the folder ( es. cd pinkstarcoin-windows ) Start the DAEMONE with pinkstarcoind.exe --config-file configs/pinkstarcoin.conf Before closing always remember to type exit and press enter. Start SIMPLEWALLET with simplewallet.exe --config-file configs/pinkstarcoin.conf Start MINER with miner.exe --address YOUADDRESSPNKS REMEMBER that in order to use SIMPLEWALLET and MINER, DAEMON must always be open and synchronized LINUX WALLET GUI BETA LINUX CLI Unzip the folder, open it and open the terminal inside it To open DAEMON, type ./pinstarcoind --config-file configs/pinkstarcoin.conf Before closing always remember to type exit and press enter. To open SIM Continue reading >>

Cryptonight Algorithm And How To Mine Cryptocurrency Monero, Bytecoin Etc.

Cryptonight Algorithm And How To Mine Cryptocurrency Monero, Bytecoin Etc.

1. You need a program for mining. Go to the link to the website Minergate . 2. Register on the website clicking "Sign up" 3. In the Downloads tab choose one of three options GUI miners, Console miners, Admin edition and download the program for mining. I recommend GUI miners tab for the beginners . 4. Install the program on your computer according to your operating system, run the program and enter your login and password. 5. Go to the "Miner" tab and choose the currency you want to mine. In "PU cores" choose the number of processor cores that will work for mining. I dont recommend to load up all the cores, because the computer will work very slow. You can also connect a video card to help the processor. My video card mines Ethereum, so I use only 2 cores of the CPU. In the "Dashboard" tab on the website you will be able to see the indices of your mining. You can withdraw your coins using the "Dashboard tab on the website or using the program in the "Wallet" tab. You will also receive fun rewards. Notifications can be disabled in the "Achievments" tab. In the "Calculator" tab on the website you will be able to calculate the approximate number of coins that you mined on your hashrate. I have a i5 3570K processor. It produces hashrate of about 60-100 H/s on 2 cores. The amount of mined coins is small, but I have only one computer. If you have several of them, then using all your computers for mining you can get a substantial hashrate and a lot of coins. You can also earn something from an affiliate program on this website. In the "Affiliate program" tab you will get a link, which you can share with your friends, partners, acquaintances. You can trade coins on the exchange (Poloniex or Hitbtc). That's all I wanted to tell you about the CryptoNight algorithm and mining the Continue reading >>

Miner/cryptonight.md At Master Hardlydifficult/miner Github

Miner/cryptonight.md At Master Hardlydifficult/miner Github

The following text is from the Cryptonight spec , with comments to try and explain my understanding. CryptoNight is a memory-hard hash function. It is designed to beinefficiently computable on GPU, FPGA and ASIC architectures. By memory-hard, they mean that calculating the hash requires more storage than a typical GPU or ASIC provides, which provide fast computation but have limited memory. This is why it does not perform well on those devices. TheCryptoNight algorithm's first step is initializing large scratchpadwith pseudo-random data. The scratchpad is the memory requirement referred to above. 'Pseudo-random' means that the data appears to be random but is always the same given the same inputs. The next step is numerous read/writeoperations at pseudo-random addresses contained in the scratchpad. Reading/writing to the scratchpad like this creates a pseudo-random scratchpad, just like what we had before this step... but this makes the process take longer, and is what makes the process inefficient on GPUs and ASICs. The final step is hashing the entire scratchpad to produce theresulting value. Hashing is the process of converting data of any size into a fixed sized pseudo-random number. hash function: an efficiently computable function which maps data ofarbitrary size to data of fixed size and behaves similarly to arandom function The Hash Function is the method used for hashing. If you know the hash function, and are given the same input, the result will always be the same. scratchpad: a large area of memory used to store intermediate valuesduring the evaluation of a memory-hard function The scratchpad is a large amount of data, we'll be reading and writing to specific parts of this throughout. First, the input is hashed using Keccak [KECCAK] with parameters b =1600 Continue reading >>

How Does The Cryptonight Algorithm Work?

How Does The Cryptonight Algorithm Work?

Answered 27w ago Author has 88 answers and 50.4k answer views There is plenty of info out there, so I'll assume that's out of your reach to grasp for this answer. Cryptonight takes a 2mb scratchpad and pulls an initial value, blends with a constant, and then checks against the desired hash result. If there is a match, great, otherwise the incorrect value becomes the basis for the next value as pulled from the scratchpad. The algorithm runs in a semi random fashion, and a very expensive fpga can optimize the algorithm very well, even though the memory requirements are significant. After 500,000 iterations (if my memory serves me correctly) the hash of the scratchpad is checked for a block match to the blockchain. The catch with fpga optimization is that when you rewrite the hashing process to generate similar results, your method will be different enough that your suggested blockchain direction will be significantly different from the majority of miners, so you will have to make sure to submit more than 50% of all hashes. I took a look at this earlier this spring, and it looked like I could manage to support around 16% of monero, but the chances of a reject block would be stupidly high, potentially as much as 2/3s of the time. Knut Andre , studied Business & International Economics Answered 8w ago Author has 507 answers and 442.3k answer views CryptoNight is a memory-hard hash function. It is designed to be inefficiently computable on GPU, FPGA and ASIC architectures. The CryptoNight algorithm's first step is initializing large scratchpad with pseudo-random data. The next step is numerous read/write operations at pseudo-random addresses contained in the scratchpad. The final step is hashing the entire scratchpad to produce the hash function: an efficiently computable fu Continue reading >>

Cryptonote - Wikipedia

Cryptonote - Wikipedia

CryptoNote is an application layer protocol that powers several decentralized privacy-oriented digital currencies . It aims to be an evolution of the ideas behind Bitcoin . [1] [ unreliable source ] [2] The main difference between the two technologies is that Bitcoin (and most digital currencies) is less opaque than CryptoNote-based currencies due to the latter's blockchain being almost anonymous, contrary to non-Cryptonote blockchains. [3] [4] CryptoNote currencies use a distributed public ledger that records all balances and transactions of its in-built currency like Bitcoin. Unlike Bitcoin, CryptoNote's transactions cannot be followed through the blockchain in a way that reveals who sent or received coins. The approximate amount of a transaction can be known, but the origin, destination, or actual amount cannot be learned. The only information available is that the actual amount was lower than the displayed amount. The only people with access to the whole set of data about a transaction are the sender or receiver of the transaction and the person who possesses one or both secret keys. Another significant difference is CryptoNote's hash -based proof-of-work algorithm. Bitcoin uses SHA-256 , which is a CPU-bound function. That means that participants (miners) are only limited by their calculation speeds, and it is relatively cheap to create an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) device, which will surpass an ordinary computer in hashes per unit of money. [5] CryptoNote uses memory bound function CryptoNight , which cannot be easily pipelined . [6] CryptoNote codebase is not forked from Bitcoin's, so it also has other different inner algorithms, for things such as recalculating new difficulty level or new block size. [6] CryptoNote technology was first descr Continue reading >>

Monero (cryptocurrency)

Monero (cryptocurrency)

Monero (XMR) is an open-source cryptocurrency created in April 2014 that focuses on privacy , decentralization , and scalability [ citation needed ] that runs on Windows, MacOS , Linux, Android, and FreeBSD. [2] [ not in citation given ] Monero uses a public ledger to record transactions while new units are created through a process called mining. Monero aims to improve on existing cryptocurrency design by obscuring sender, recipient and amount of every transaction made as well as making the mining process more egalitarian. [3] The focus on privacy has attracted illicit use by people interested in evading law enforcement. [2] [4] The egalitarian mining process made it viable to distribute the mining effort opening new funding avenues for both legitimate online publishers and malicious hackers who covertly embed the mining code into websites and apps. [5] Unlike many cryptocurrencies that are derivatives of Bitcoin, Monero is based on the CryptoNote protocol and possesses significant algorithmic differences relating to blockchain obfuscation . [6] [7] By providing a high level of privacy, Monero is fungible , meaning that every unit of the currency can be substituted by another unit. These units are indistinguishable from one another. This makes Monero different from public-ledger cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin , where addresses previously associated with undesired activity can be blacklisted and refused by network members. [3] In particular, the ring signatures mix spender's address with a group of others, making it exponentially more difficult to establish a link between each subsequent transaction. [4] [8] Also the "stealth addresses" generated for each transaction make it impossible to discover actual destination by anyone else but the address owner. Finally, the "ri Continue reading >>

Cryptonight Coins: Mining Coins Using Regular Computers

Cryptonight Coins: Mining Coins Using Regular Computers

A Problem that occurred as Bitcoin became used by more people, was that mining became harder and harder, this was done by design, as well as in more obvious ways like the Block Halving. So at first you could mine Bitcoin with a Laptop, but if you got a GPU you could really get some Bitcoins, then the ASICs came out and first it was Butterfly Labs and Block Erupter USBs, then eventually GPUs became impossible to use profitably, and CPUs were completely pointless because the electricity cost way more than what you get back, and you would have to have hundreds of computers running, and even then you wouldnt get much. You have to have ASICs, and a lot of them. Then around the time of Butterfly Labs first big ASICs there was Litecoin, and Feathercoin. But the same thing happened to them. And by the time DOGE came out there were already farms starting that could mine coins. Then as other types of coins were created, at first ASICs werent made for them yet, but eventually someone would make an ASIC and then more would come out. And CPUs and GPUs would fade out. And now, CryptoNight coins have been created. CryptoNight (Kryptonite, like with Superman) is a coin that can only be mined by CPU, and GPU if you use a program that allows you to used GPUs at a dramatically reduced Hash Rate. Continue reading >>

Pow Change And Key Reuse

Pow Change And Key Reuse

Posted by: dEBRYUNE, dnaleor and the Monero project Lately, a common reoccurring subject has been ASIC resistance and how we should react to any (potential) threat from ASICs. This blog post sets out our (somewhat) formal stance on ASIC resistance and our intention to maintain ASIC resistance by swiftly reacting to any potential threat from ASICs and considering slightly modifying the PoW at every hardfork. An ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) is custom mining hardware that is specialized for a particular use. For example, Bitcoin ASICs are specialized to mine cryptocurrencies utilizing a SHA256 hash algorithm. Due to the fact that they are designed for a specific use, they will typically have a large performance advantage over hardware that is intended for general-purpose use like CPUs, GPUs, and even FPGAs. Thus, any newly developed ASIC will obtain a significant majority of the network hashrate and introduce centralization. The Monero code was forked from the CryptoNote reference implementation. In the CryptoNote whitepaper (one of the identified deficiencies of Bitcoin is the Proof of Work due to its centralizing nature, as we will discuss below. In order to create a more egalitarian mining network and foster decentralization, the original CryptoNote developers created the Cryptonight Proof of Work function to "close the gap between CPU (majority) and GPU/FPGA/ASIC (minority) miners." While the CryptoNote authors admit that "It is appropriate that some users can have a certain advantage over others," they propose that "their investments should grow at least linearly with the power." Thus, it is recognized that ASICs may be an inevitable development for any Proof of Work. We also concede that ASICs may be inevitable, but we feel that any transition to a Continue reading >>

Cryptonote Vs Cryptonight

Cryptonote Vs Cryptonight

June 25, 2017 by thehihoguy | No Comments CryptoNote is the name of the cryptocurrency technology (application layer) that Monero (AEON and various others) is based on. CryptoNight is the name of the hash function that is used in the CryptoNote Proof-of-Work algorithm. CryptoNight-Lite (used by AEON) is a modification of CryptoNight that uses half as much memory and fewer hash rounds. So basically CryptoNight is the algorithm for Monero and CryptoNight-Lite is the algorithm for AEON. Different coins use different algorithms, here some examples: SHA256 (bitcoin), Scrypt (litecoin), Ethhash/Dagger-hashimoto (ethereum) CryptoNote is the technology/application layer/frame behind Monero/Aeon/etc CryptoNight is the hashing algorithm used by CryptoNote AEON uses CryptoNight-lite -> modified CryptoNight algorithm If you compare the mining between AEON and Monero on the same hardware, youll see a higher Hash/s number on Aeon (does not mean you earn automatically more by mining on AEON since different algorithm have different approach of Proof of Work). Continue reading >>

Cryptonite - Home

Cryptonite - Home

Cryptonite is the first implementation of the light weight mini-blockchain scheme . Nodes will never again spend days synchronizing with the network and the average user will not have to fear becoming a full node. This is possible because of our decentralized balance sheet approach . Cryptonite combines many great ideas developed by the altcoin community and also includes several novel features not seen in another cryptocurrency until now. Two innovative features which help improve security and trust are unmalleable transactions and withdrawal limits . Cryptonite achieves smart coin distribution by adjusting the difficulty and the block reward every block, adapting quickly to changes and providing smoother transitions. The dynamic max block size mechanism ensures that the transaction capacity of the network naturally grows over time. Cryptonite has an unparalleled potential for scalability and transaction capacity. The total coin supply has a full 64 bits of granularity , the nonce and timestamp have also been increased to 64 bits. The M7 PoW algorithm uses multiple cryptographically secure hashing algorithms. Cryptonite has superior support for micro-transactions because we don't have to worry about keeping any so called "dust" in the blockchain forever. Since blockchain bloat is not a problem, blocks can be larger and we can encourage the use of custom transaction messages . Cryptonite has full native support for multi-signature transactions , which require multiple parties to sign a transaction with different keys before it is considered valid. Multi-sig transactions are useful in many real world situations, especially for consumer protection and escrow schemes. IMPORTANT: Cryptonite is highly experimental software and the concepts underpinning it lack extensive tes Continue reading >>

Cryptonight - Crypto Mining Blog

Cryptonight - Crypto Mining Blog

All About BTC, LTC, ETH mining as well as other alternative crypto currencies NiceHash to Support Both CryptoNight and the New CryptoNightV7 Algorithms The controversy surrounding the release of a number of CryptoNight ASIC miners from various manufacturers and the upcoming fork of Monero (XMR) and some other crypto coins to a new ASIC-proof CryptoNightV7 algorithm continues. NiceHash has recently announced that they will continue to support both the old CryptoNight as well as the new CryptoNightV7 algorithms. The service should add support for the new V7 algorithm by the end of the month, probably before the Monero fork planned to happen later this month. Furthermore a new NiceHash Miner that will bring support for the CryptoNightV7 algorithm should also be available soon, so while the updated POW algorithm will be ASIC-proof you would still be able to rent a lot of GPU hashpower apparently. Other crypto coins that are using the same cryptoNight proof of work mining algorithm are expected to follow suit and also fork to the new ASIC-proof version of CryptoNight, though it would most likely take them some extra time. There are some coins that have already announced their plans to do a hard fork and follow in the footsteps of Monero (XMR), others are still considering and of course there will be some for sure that will remain on the old algorithm that can be mined using the upcoming wave of CryptoNight ASIc miners. Still going for a CryptoNight ASIC miner at the moment is considered very risky and will most likely cost you much more that you would be able to mine back, though there are no guarantees. InterPlanetery Broadcast Coin (IPBC) With a Web Media Miner InterPlanetery Broadcast Coin (IPBC) is a new project for sharing digital content online with with an integrated Continue reading >>

Cryptonight - Bitcoin Wiki

Cryptonight - Bitcoin Wiki

CryptoNight is a proof-of-work algorithm.It is designed to be suitable for ordinary PC CPUs, but currently no special purpose devices for mining are available.Therefore, CryptoNight can only be CPU-mined for the time being.CryptoNight was originally implemented in the CryptoNote codebase. CryptoNight relies on random access to the slow memory and emphasizes latency dependence. Each new block depends on all the previous blocks (unlike, for example, scrypt ). The algorithm requires about 2 Mb per instance: It fits in the L3 cache (per core) of modern processors. A megabyte of internal memory is almost unacceptable for the modern ASICs. GPUs may run hundreds of concurrent instances, but they are limited in other ways. GDDR5 memory is slower than the CPU L3 cache and remarkable for its bandwidth, not random access speed. Significant expansion of the scratchpad would require an increase in iterations, which in turn implies an overall time increase. "Heavy" calls in a trustless p2p network may lead to serious vulnerabilities, because nodes are obliged to check every new block's proof-of-work. If a node spends a considerable amount of time on each hash evaluation, it can be easily DDoSed by a flood of fake objects with arbitrary work data (nonce values). Continue reading >>

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