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What Ethereum Block Are We On

Life Cycle Of An Ethereum Transaction

Life Cycle Of An Ethereum Transaction

Learn How an Ethereum Transaction is Created and Propagated to theNetwork Transactions are at the heart of the Ethereum blockchain (or any blockchain for that matter). When you interact with the Ethereum blockchain, you are executing transactions and updating its state. Have you ever wondered what exactly happens when you execute a transaction in Ethereum? Lets try to understand it by looking at an example transaction. In this post, we will cover the following. An end to end traversal of an Ethereum transaction starting from your browser/console to the Ethereum network and back to your browser/console Understand how transactions work when you use a plugin such as Metamask or Myetherwallet instead of running your own node What to do if you are too paranoid and dont trust any plugins to execute your transaction? This post assumes that you have a basic understanding of Ethereum and its components such as accounts, gas and contracts. Here is a good explanation of these concepts. If you are a developer new to Ethereum, you might find this helpful. You can also learn to build a simple dapp here . This post will make more sense if you have executed few transactions yourself. An example of a transaction is you sending some ether to another person or a contract. Another example is if you have interacted with a dapp. For example, if you go here and buy some tokens, that would be a transaction. If you vote for a candidate, that would be another transaction. 1. End to end overview of an Ethereum transaction Lets take the following contract call as an example and traverse through the entire flow of how this function call/transaction gets executed and gets permanently stored on the blockchain. You can find the entire contract here . At a high level, its a voting contract where you i Continue reading >>

Ethereum: Everything You Want To Know Aboutgas

Ethereum: Everything You Want To Know Aboutgas

Gas keeps Ethereum Blockchain alive, thanks to it we can transfer Ether and other Ethereum tokens such as: GameCredits (GAME), OmiseGo (OMG) or Golem (GNT), it also allows to smart contracts to do their job. In this blogpost Im going to explain: what is Gas? how is it used? and why is it so important for the future of Ethereum? Important: Dont be misled by the Token named GAS which is something completely different. Ethereum blockchain is run by nodes that keep the blockchain state but also calculate new blocks. New blocks are needed to change Blockchains state e.g. move Ethereum from one account to another. Calculation of the new block is made by miners, to cover their effort transaction sender must pay a fee. Transaction fee depends on complexity of transaction sender wants to make, if its a regular send Ether transaction or more complex one like create smart contract (smart contract a special kind of the blockchain account, that can not only keep Ether but also computer program with its state). Sending Ether from one account to the other costs 21,000 Gas. On the other hand creating smart contract which is responsible for handling OmiseGo Token costed 1,197,977 Gas. So the more complex transaction, the more Gas we need to pay for its execution on Blockchain. Main complexity factors are: operations performed by the smart contracts code e.g. arithmetical operations data that is stored on blockchain e.g. storing information in the smart contract or updating an amount of Ether on the account We know more or less what Gas is, but how much does it cost? The answer is as always it depends. Each transaction sender (e.g. person who is sending Ether) is defining price of Gas for created transaction (e.g. 1 Gas = 0.000000001 ETH). If the price is high enough, transaction will b Continue reading >>

How To Read An Ethereum Transaction

How To Read An Ethereum Transaction

Last updated on October 30th, 2017 at 08:01 am Although 99Bitcoins has been around for a while, it just occurred to me that weve never really covered the basics of Ethereum transactions even though weve discussed Ethereum itself. So this post is aimed at all of the Ethereum newbies out there: lets understand how to read an Ethereum transaction. The first thing youre going to need in orderto read a transaction is an Ethereum block explorer. A block explorer is a search engine that allows you to search inside the Ethereum blockchain for transactions, addresses, and other interesting information. In this case, well use EtherScan , one of the most popular Ethereum block explorers out there today. Lets take a look at a random Ether transaction via EtherScan. Now lets break down the data that are displayed: TxHash Also known as the transaction ID, TxHash is a way to look up a specific transaction on the Ethereum blockchain. Block Height The block number in which the transaction was included (for an in-depth explanation of blocks, watch this video ) Time Stamp The time the transaction entered the blockchain (i.e., the time the block was mined) From/To The sending and receiving Ethereum addresses Value How much Ether was sent and the equivalentUSD value Before we move to the rest of the terms, lets look at a short explanation of gas. Gas in Ethereum is somewhat similar to transaction fees in Bitcoin . Each operation on the Ethereum network requires a fixed amount of gas (adding two numbers costs 3 gas, calculating a hash costs 30 gas, and sending a transaction costs 21,000 gas, for example). Gas is paid in Ether, but you cant own gas. Its just calculated at a fixed gas/ether exchange rate when you send a transaction on the Ethereum blockchain. Well talk more about gas in a dif Continue reading >>

Ethereum Project

Ethereum Project

You are responsible for your own computer security. If your machine is compromised you will lose your ether, access to any contracts and possibly more. You are responsible for your own actions. If you mess something up or break any laws while using this software, it's your fault, and your fault only. You are responsible for your own karma. Don't be a jerk and respect the rights of others. What goes around comes around. The user expressly knows and agrees that the user is using the Ethereum platform at the users sole risk. The user acknowledges that the user has an adequate understanding of the risks, usage and intricacies of cryptographic tokens and blockchain-based open source software, eth platform and ethereum The user acknowledges and agrees that, to the fullest extent permitted by any applicable law, the disclaimers of liability contained herein apply to any and all damages or injury whatsoever caused by or related to risks of, use of, or inability to use, ethereum or the Ethereum platform under any cause or action whatsoever of any kind in any jurisdiction, including, without limitation, actions for breach of warranty, breach of contract or tort (including negligence) and that neither Stiftung Ethereum (i.e. Ethereum Foundation) nor Ethereum team shall be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, exemplary or consequential damages, including for loss of profits, goodwill or data that occurs as a result. Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion of certain warranties or the limitation or exclusion of liability for certain types of damages. Therefore, some of the above limitations in this section may not apply to a user. In particular, nothing in these terms shall affect the statutory rights of any user or exclude injury arising from any willful misconduct Continue reading >>

Transactions - What Are The Mechanisms That Use The Ethereum Network To Decide When A Block B Is Done And We Are Going To Mine Block B+1? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Transactions - What Are The Mechanisms That Use The Ethereum Network To Decide When A Block B Is Done And We Are Going To Mine Block B+1? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

What are the mechanisms that use the Ethereum network to decide when a block B is done and we are going to mine block B+1? I know from the Ethereum Stats that a block is mined on average within 14 secs. But that is only on average. I want to know, step by step if possible, what are he mechanisms to say "okay, this block is done, let's create a new one". In my opinion, it is not a limit of block size (even if there is one), because the Ethereum network can adapt itself if transactions does not consume more than 3 141 592 gas , which represent a lot of transactions. So, I think this is related to the nounce which set the difficulty to have a block/12 secs. But I'm not sure about it. Thank you for your valuable time and help. So basically, ethereum is a state machine. You have a database of states (for example accounts with amounts). How these states change? by via of transactions. Which can be give X ether from A to B to smart contracts invocations. OK, the transactions are grouped in a block. And here is where it gets interesting. You have the universe of miners working on producing blocks. They take transactions from the pool, process them, until they reach the gasLimit, assigning to their designated account (called the etherbase) the transaction fees and the reward for block found in the end, and from here they produce a random nonce. The nonce is important: from this nonce and the block you made, you create a hash, complicated enough to make your machine work a lot (i.e. using a lot of CPU, memory and energy. That's why it's called Proof of work). Once the miner has a hash, this is compared to the target, which is no other than 2**256 / Difficulty, so the greater the difficulty, the lesser the odds of finding a hash lesser than the target. Since you can produce rando Continue reading >>

What Is Ether?

What Is Ether?

Ether is a necessary element a fuel for operating the distributed application platform Ethereum. It is a form of payment made by the clients of the platform to the machines executing the requested operations. To put it another way, ether is the incentive ensuring that developers write quality applications (wasteful code costs more), and that the network remains healthy (people are compensated for their contributed resources). If you just want to test the technology, you probably don't need real ether. Download the latest Wallet app and switch to the Test Network Check your ether presale balance safely here: The total supply of ether and its rate of issuance was decided by the donations gathered on the 2014 presale. The results were roughly: 60 million ether created to contributors of the presale 12 Million (20% of the above) were created to the development fund, most of it going to early contributors and developers and the remaining to the Ethereum Foundation 5 ethers are created every block (roughly 15 seconds) to the miner of the block 2-3 ethers are sometimes sent to another miner if they were also able to find a solution but his block wasn't included (called uncle/aunt reward) Note that after the Byzantium update is implemented, the mining and uncle reward is reduced to 3 ethers and 0.625-2.625 ethers, respectively. No. According to the terms agreed by all parties on the 2014 presale, issuance of ether is capped at 18 million ether per year (this number equals 25% of the initial supply). This means that while the absolute issuance is fixed, the relative inflation is decreased every year. In theory if this issuance was kept indefinitely then at some point the rate of new tokens created every year would reach the average amount lost yearly (by misuse, accidental key Continue reading >>

What Is Ethereum? A Step-by-step Beginners Guide

What Is Ethereum? A Step-by-step Beginners Guide

If you want to know what is Ethereum and how it works and what it can be used for, without going deep into the technical abyss, this guide is perfect for you. Important Note: This guide assumes a basic understanding of blockchain technology. If youre unfamiliar with blockchain, check out this step by step introduction for beginners . Beyond Bitcoin & first generation decentralized applications Although commonly associated with Bitcoin , blockchain technology has many other applications that go way beyond digital currencies. In fact, Bitcoin is only one of several hundred applications that use blockchain technology today. [Blockchain] is to Bitcoin, what the internet is to email. A big electronic system, on top of which you can build applications. Currency is just one. Sally Davies, FT Technology Reporter Until relatively recently, building blockchain applications has required a complex background in coding, cryptography, mathematics as well as significant resources. But times have changed. Previously unimagined applications, from electronic voting & digitally recorded property assets to regulatory compliance & trading are now actively being developed and deployed faster than ever before. By providing developers with the tools to build decentralized applications, Ethereum is making all of this possible. At its simplest, Ethereum is an open software platform based on blockchain technology that enables developers to build and deploy decentralized applications. Is Ethereum similar to Bitcoin? Well, sort of, but not really. Like Bitcoin , Ethereum is a distributed public blockchain network. Although there are some significant technical differences between the two, the most important distinction to note is that Bitcoin and Ethereum differ substantially in purpose and capabil Continue reading >>

How Ethereum Works - Coindesk

How Ethereum Works - Coindesk

CoinDesk Launches 2017 Year in Review Opinion and Analysis Series Now that we've covered what ethereum is, let's dive deeper into how the platform functions under the hood. Consider the online notebook application described in " What is Ethereum? " Using ethereum, the appdoesn't require one entityto store and control its data. To accomplish this, ethereum borrows heavily from bitcoin's protocol and its blockchain design, but tweaks it to support applications beyond money. Ethereum aims to abstract away bitcoin's design, however, so that developers can create applications or agreements that have additional steps, new rules of ownership, alternative transaction formats or different ways to transfer state. The goal of ethereum's 'Turing-complete' programming language is to allow developers to write more programs in which blockchain transactions could govern and automate specific outcomes. This flexibility is perhaps ethereum's primary innovation, as explained in the guide " How Ethereum Smart Contracts Work ". The structure of the ethereum blockchain is very similar to bitcoin's, in that it is a shared record of the entire transaction history. Every node on the network stores a copy of this history. The big difference withethereum is that its nodes store the most recent state of each smart contract, in addition to all of the ether transactions. (This is much more complicated than described, but the text below should help you get your feet wet.) For each ethereum application, the network needs to keep track of the 'state', or the current information of all of these applications, including each user's balance, all the smart contract code and where it's all stored. Bitcoin uses unspent transaction outputs to track who has how muchbitcoin. While it sounds more complex, the id Continue reading >>

Ethereum Block Production Continues Toslide

Ethereum Block Production Continues Toslide

Blockchain Enthusiast, Founder QuickBlocks.io and Philadelphia Ethereum Meetup, MS Computer Science UPenn Ethereum Block Production Continues toSlide Two weeks ago, we wrote this Medium post in which we describe the slowdown in per-week block production due to the Ice Age or Ethereum Difficulty Bomb. We thought it would be interesting to continue to watch the process as it unfolds. We wondered Is the difficulty bomb having its desired effect? The following chart is the one we presented two weeks ago. It shows the number of blocks produced each week since the inception of the Ethereum chain (August, 2015). The slowdown in block production is readily apparent. As you can see, the difficulty bomb whose nominal purpose is to slow down block production is workingvery well. The number of blocks produced during the week ending September 8, 2017 was as low as its been since the inception of the chain. Interesting. The inverse of the lowering of the number of blocks produced per period is the time it takes to produce each block. Here, the exponential decrease in per-period block production is more apparent. In this chart we show the number of seconds it takes to create each block on average since inception. As you can see, after the Homestead fork, the number of seconds needed to produce a block hovered almost exactly on 14 seconds for more than a year. Its been rapidly increasing since April when the difficulty bomb began. The step-wise behaviour of the increase is also apparent if one looks closely. Does Less Blocks Mean Less Transactions? Given tweets such as the one to the left and this one , which seem to contradict the idea that there are less blocks being produced, we wondered if increasing transactions and less blocks could both be true at the same time. If the number o Continue reading >>

A Gentle Introduction To Ethereum

A Gentle Introduction To Ethereum

Ethereum builds on blockchain and cryptocurrency concepts, so if you are not familiar with these, its worth reading a gentle introduction to bitcoin and a gentle introduction to blockchain technology first. This article assumes the reader has a basic familiarity with how Bitcoin works. Ethereum is software running on a network of computers that ensures that data and small computer programs called smart contracts are replicated and processed on all the computers on the network, without a central coordinator. The vision is to create an unstoppable censorship-resistant self-sustaining decentralised world computer. The officialwebsite is Itextends the blockchain concepts from Bitcoin which validates, stores, and replicates transaction data on many computers around the world (hence the term distributed ledger). Ethereum takes this one step further, and also runs computer code equivalently on many computers around the world. What Bitcoin does for distributed data storage, Ethereum does for distributed data storage plus computations. The small computer programsbeing run are called smart contracts, and the contractsare run by participants on their machines using asort ofoperating system called a Ethereum Virtual Machine. To run Ethereum, you can download (or write yourself if you have the patience) some software called an Ethereum client. Just like BitTorrent or Bitcoin, the Ethereum client will connect over the internet to other peoples computers running similar client softwareand start downloading the Ethereum blockchain from them to catch up. It will also independently validate that each block conforms to the Ethereum rules. What does the Ethereum client software do? You can use itto: Create new transactions and smart contracts Your computer becomes a node on the network, r Continue reading >>

Blockchain: A Very Short History Of Ethereum Everyone Should Read

Blockchain: A Very Short History Of Ethereum Everyone Should Read

Blockchain: A Very Short History Of Ethereum Everyone Should Read Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. Even those who are not familiar with blockchain are likely to have heard about Bitcoin, the cryptocurrency and payment system that uses the technology. Another platform called Ethereum, that also uses blockchain, is predicted by some experts to overtake Bitcoin this year. Ethereum is an open-source public service that uses blockchain technology to facilitate smart contracts and cryptocurrency trading securely without a third party. There are two accounts available through Ethereum: externally owned accounts (controlled by private keys influenced by human users) and contract accounts. Ethereum allows developers to deploy all kinds of decentralized apps. Even though Bitcoin remains the most popular cryptocurrency, its Ethereums aggressive growth that has many speculating it will soon overtake Bitcoin in usage. While there are many similarities between Ethereum and Bitcoin, there are also significant differences. Here are a few : Bitcoin trades in cryptocurrency, while Ethereum offers several methods of exchange, including cryptocurrency (Ethereums is called Ether), smart contracts and the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). They are based on different security protocols : Ethereum uses a "proof of stake" system as opposed the "proof of work" system used by Bitcoin. Bitcoin allows only public (permissionless or censor-proof) transactions to take place; Ethereum allows both permissioned and permissionless transactions. The average block time for Ethereum is significantly less than Bitcoins: 12 seconds versus 10 minutes. This translates into more block confirmations, which allows Ethereums miners to complete more blocks and receive more Ether. It is estimat Continue reading >>

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