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Storing Data On Ethereum Blockchain

Where And How Application Data Is Stored In Ethereum?

Where And How Application Data Is Stored In Ethereum?

Where and how application data is stored in Ethereum? Ethereum can host decentralized applications, DAPPs. These applications exist through small programs that live on the Blockchain: Smart Contracts. But when I write a Smart Contract, where is my application data Stored? We want to understand how data storage works before working on this platform. Code execution, servers and programming language are rarely critical to the design of an application. But the Data, its structure, and its security will constrain most of our design. Lets imagine we are porting apps to Ethereum: For a Facebook-like, where are the publications and comments data? For a Dropbox-like, where are my private files? Or for a Slack-like chat app, where do we store discussion channels? What about Private Messages? Were going to forget about the Blockchain for a minute: we already know its a machine that generates Consensus . We can forget the Blockchain and assume that Ethereum is a big, slow, reliable, computer. Were looking at the Ethereum System from a higher level of abstraction: the Software part. Ethereum holds a set of accounts. Every account has an owner and a balance (some Ether). If I prove my identity, I can transfer Ether from my account to another. The money will flow from one account to the other. Its an atomic operation called a Transaction. The Ethereum Software is a Transaction Processing System: 1. We have a state: the set of all accounts and their balance, 3. We get a new state: an updated set of accounts and their balances. Today we look into the ability to execute code and programs within a transaction. Thats where Smart Contracts come into play. Every account has an owner and a balance. But some of these accounts are special; they own themselves. At creation time, we give them a Continue reading >>

Storj - Decentralized Cloud Storage

Storj - Decentralized Cloud Storage

"Storj is like an Internet filesystem. Data blocks are encrypted and distributed across a globally distributed set of storage nodes using block-chain algorithm. It is quite impressive and much needed innovation in the storage space." "Decentralized file storage systems like Storj have the potential to eliminate high markup costs and market inefficiencies and provide a much higher level of privacy, reliability and quality of service than we see today." "The power of the Storj platform is its unique ability indiscriminately utilize the free capacity of a storage node, whether a single end-user PC or a massive data center. Storj is bringing an unprecedented degree of efficiency to globally distributed data storage." "Storj is a unique market phenomena. It sets new standards of unit economics for distributed data storage." "As a seed investor, we were more than happy to join the next round for Storj with a great line up of co-investors. We want storing files to be cheaper, faster and more secure and the progress the team has made towards that mission has been phenomenal to watch. We are looking forward to putting more and more of our documents on the Blockchain thanks to Storj." Continue reading >>

Github - Howardwu/ipfs-ethereum-storage: A Simple Datastore Solution Using Ipfs And Ethereum

Github - Howardwu/ipfs-ethereum-storage: A Simple Datastore Solution Using Ipfs And Ethereum

A simple datastore solution using IPFS and Ethereum We will create a simple datastore solution using IPFS and Ethereum. IPFS provides a convenient interface for distributed data storage, with a hash-based content address for reference to our file. This address will be stored in our smart contract on a private Ethereum blockchain. To retrieve the latest data, we will fetch the address from our blockchain and query IPFS for the associated file. Continue reading >>

Forever Isnt Free: The Cost Of Storage On A Blockchain Database

Forever Isnt Free: The Cost Of Storage On A Blockchain Database

Internet Policy Intern at IPDB Foundation. Forever Isnt Free: The Cost of Storage on a Blockchain Database Cloud storage services work as follows: You pay a monthly fee up front for a fixed amount of storage space. During the paid time, you can use any amount of storage space up to that limit. When your paid time expires, you have two choices: pay for another month or your files get deleted. Your cloud provider only keeps your files for as long as you keep paying. Blockchain databases cant work on this model. A blockchain database must store data indefinitely, so the recurring payment model doesnt work. Data storage costs must be paid up front, and must cover not just that month but all the months and years to come. IPDB has developed a sustainable model for the long term storage of data: a one time, up-front payment that covers the cost of indefinite data storage. The payment must be enough to cover the cost of storage and the IPDB Foundations operating expenses. This blog post is a deep dive into the numbers that led to a single per-GB price point the cost of storing data indefinitely in a blockchain database. This kind of analysis has been lacking in the hype around blockchain technology. There are many problems that could be addressed with blockchain technology, but without an understanding of what a blockchain solution will cost, it is impossible to say whether economic efficiencies can be achieved. This post is a first step toward understanding which use cases could truly benefit from the application of blockchains. Before we dive into the model, lets outline some of our underlying assumptions: Conservative predictions: As a general rule, we have tried to keep estimates and assumptions very conservative. We would rather have happy surprises than unhappy surprises Continue reading >>

Storing Data On Blockchain

Storing Data On Blockchain

I am working on a POC where I have to store some data e.g. ID of an object, price, owner and things like that. Is it possible to store such things on Blockchain using smart contracts. And if not what are the ways to use Blockchain to achieve it. (I did some research, and people are using Blockchain in SCM industry. They must have stored these kind of datas). Consider following tutorial from Hyperledger Fabric " Getting Started " pages. Basically you implement requested logic on by leveraging chaincodes , you will have to implement following golang interface: // Chaincode interface must be implemented by all chaincodes. The fabric runs// the transactions by calling these functions as specified.type Chaincode interface { // Init is called during Instantiate transaction after the chaincode container // has been established for the first time, allowing the chaincode to // initialize its internal data Init(stub ChaincodeStubInterface) pb.Response // Invoke is called to update or query the ledger in a proposal transaction. // Updated state variables are not committed to the ledger until the // transaction is committed. Invoke(stub ChaincodeStubInterface) pb.Response} type myStoreChaincode struct {}func (cc *myStoreChaincode) Init(stub ChaincodeStubInterface) pb.Response { return shim.Success(nil)}func (cc *myStoreChaincode) Invoke(stub ChaincodeStubInterface) pb.Response { action, params = stub.GetFunctionAndParameters() if action == "storeItem" { cc.StoreItem(stub, params) } // Handle here other cases and possible parameters combinations return shim.Success(nil)}func (cc *myStoreChaincode) StoreItem(stub ChaincodeStubInterface, params []string) { // Store item on ledger, where params[0] is a key and params[1] actual value stub.PutState(params[0], params[1])} This is only a Continue reading >>

How Can Blockchain Be Used As A Database To Store Data?

How Can Blockchain Be Used As A Database To Store Data?

How can blockchain be used as a database to store data? Currently decentralized blockchain applications have few options to store data. Decentralized storage options are: Decentralized cloud file storages, such as Storj, Sia, Ethereum Swarm, etc. Distributed Databases, such as Apache Cassandra, Rethink DB, etc. Storing everything in blockchain itself: Storing everything in blockchain is the simplest solution. Currently most of the simple decentralized applications work exactly this way. However, this approach has significant drawbacks. First of all transactions to blockchain are slow to confirm. It may seem to be fast for money transfer (anyone can wait a minute), but it is extremely slow for a rich application data flow. Rich application may require many thousands transactions per second. Secondly, it is immutable. The immutability is the strength of blockchain that gives it high robustness but it is a weakness for a data storage. User may change their profile or replace their photo, still all the previous data will sit in blockchain forever and can be seen by anyone. The immutability results in one more drawback - the capacity. If all the applications would keep their data in blockchain, the blockchain size will grow rapidly, exceeding publicly available hard drive capacity. Full nodes can require special hardware. It may result in dangerous centralization of blockchain. Thats why storing data in blockchain only is not a good option for a rich decentralized application. Peer to peer file system, such as InterPlanetary File System. IPFS allows to share files on client computers and unites them in the global file system. The technology is based on BitTorrent protocol and Distributed Hash Table. There are several good moments. It is really peer to peer - to share anythi Continue reading >>

Storage - How Can I Store Data In Ethereum Blockchain - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Storage - How Can I Store Data In Ethereum Blockchain - Ethereum Stack Exchange

How can I store data in ethereum blockchain I want to store pdf hash in blockchainI already read this post What are some proposed ways of storing data in Ethereum? But I'm beginner in this domain and I don't understand... Is it possible to store data (hash in my case) in Ethereum? How many cost to store data in Ethereum? And how can I do this with python or an other language? In a special place on the blockchain reserved for contract data In a special place on the blockchain reserved for transaction input data To store your data in a special place 1 you'll need to create a contract and deploy it on the blockchain. To store your data in a special place 2 you'll need to send someone a transaction and include your data in it. Before you you can interact with the blockchain you will need to get access to the web3 object. There are multiple ways of doing so. I'd suggest you installing MetaMask plugin for Chrome browser. After you install it, you will have access to web3 object. The ways of interacting with web3 object can be found here (web3 api documentation) Now that you've installed MetaMask plugin. Choose Morden testnet in the configs. Now you can use solidity browser compiler . Try to compile and deploy a simple contract there: You will need some ether in your account(MetaMask provided account) to deploy contracts. Go to and get 5 testnet ether for free. And after I install web3, could I store data in a special place 1? wxcvbn Aug 9 '16 at 12:15 @wxcvbn, I updated my response, check it out, feel free to ask Eugene Epifanov Aug 9 '16 at 12:26 Thank a lot for your answer! Can I insert several hash in one contract? Or is it possible to open an existing contract and add a hash? I need some ether for each contract created or for each data insert in contract? wxcvbn Aug 9 '1 Continue reading >>

Chainy: Aeon Short Links And Proof Of Exists. Engraved On The Ethereum Blockchain.

Chainy: Aeon Short Links And Proof Of Exists. Engraved On The Ethereum Blockchain.

Irreplaceable short URLS engraved on the blockchain Be sure, that link once created will always point to original location URL shorteners (e.g. bit.ly) are useful in our online life. But did it occur to you that those links may not always lead where they're supposed to? Using short links is a great way for hackers and malware operators to send you to a phishing or malware-infected site, instead of your favorite cookie recipe. Chainy.link solves this problem with the help of an Ethereum smart contract ( how it works? ). If you are a moderator of content submitted by different users, you need to make sure users can't replace the short links included with their submitted content. If you know the shortened URL in the article today leads to Forbes.com, you want to make sure that long after publication this link won't lead users somewhere else. Replacing linked shortened with third-party services, after content has been approved and published, is the most common way to get unexpecting traffic to bad sites. Using Chainy prevents this and makes it impossible to ever replace short URLs. The real address destination is saved in the blockchain with the unique short code, and never can be changed by anybody. Sample link to chainy github: Blockchain record of this link: A short link to a file and digital signature in one place How often you need to sign a file and provide a link, allowing others to see this file and to check its signature? For security or privacy reasons you may not want to trust saving your file on a server belonging to a third party. Chainy solves this problem by saving the proof and a link to the file together in a smart contract. You can even include the proof link directly in the smart contract. We made the link so short (and unique at the same time) that it's Continue reading >>

Where Do Decentralized Applications Store Their Data?

Where Do Decentralized Applications Store Their Data?

Where do decentralized applications store their data? Now there is a boom in blockchain projects. Some blockchains are so powerful that they claim to be a platform for building applications on top of them. Applications automatically turn out to be decentralized, resistant to censorship and blocking. But is everything so good and simple? In this article, we will try to look at the blockchain as a platform for applications, taking off the rose-colored glasses. Blockchain (chain of blocks) is an immutable data structure consisting of a list of blocks where each next block contains a hash of the previous block. As a result of this hashing, the chain of blocks becomes unchanged: you can not change or delete a block from the middle of the chain without rebuilding all the blocks above, because the slightest change will require a rebuild (recalculating hashes) of all blocks above the changed one. If the calculation of the hash of each block is computationally or economically complex operation, then the data change in the middle of the chain becomes practically impossible at all. The combination of the new block hash calculation complexity, as well as the ease of checking the correctness of the hash, provides blockchain with a serious resistance to unsanctioned changes. This is what holds the safety of bitcoin and other blockchains. Thanks to this, blockchain projects can be publicly decentralized. That is, anyone can put the working node of the blockchain and generate new blocks. In most implementations of the blockchain for the generation of a block a reward is given - this process is called mining. And since it is difficult to mine, and your results can be easily verified, it is profitable to act only honestly. Otherwise, you will spend resources on mining, and other miners Continue reading >>

Marriage Smart Contract On Ethereum

Marriage Smart Contract On Ethereum

I got the inspiration to make this page because of a tweet from Joseph Lubin after I posted about my 1 year wedding anniversary. I am storing data immutably to the Ethereum blockchain. This is an example of a proof-of-existence application of blockchains that is very important. Blockchains, when properly designed, provide a way to permanently store data with an un-hackable audit trail. On the Ethereum blockchain, users create smart contracts to store and manipulate data. Smart contracts are permanently on the Ethereum blockchain and contain their own storage. Whenever the internal contract storage is changed, the blockchain updates the smart contract data, while still maintaining a history of the previous data. Cool, huh? View smart contract on the Ethereum blockchain Continue reading >>

Off-chain Data Storage: Ethereum &ipfs

Off-chain Data Storage: Ethereum &ipfs

function read() public view returns (bytes) { Ive deployed this contract on Rinkeby test net and generated 1024 of random bytes using then stored 1kB of data using the write function. The resulting transaction can be seen here: The Gas used amounted to 754,365 @ 20Gwei Gas price = 0.0150873 Ether. At the time of writing this post (Oct 17, 2017) the Ether price is currently 328.79 USD/ETH. So storing 1kB of data would have cost $4.96 to run on the Ethereum Main Net. That means ~ 5 Million USD / GB! Saving a few bytes to the EVM is ok but for larger chunks of data the costs are probably too high for most projects. One solution is to modify our data storage strategy and save the data off-chain (as opposed to the on-chain approach we took above). There are multiple off-chain storage options: IPFS and Swarm are 2 popular ones. Ill use IPFS in this post but Swarm works equally well. Looking at the wikipedia article on IPFS: InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is a protocol designed to create a permanent and decentralized method of storing and sharing files IPFS allows p2p storage and we can use it as a distributed file system to store data. Saving data on IPFS provides a unique hash. Instead of storing the data on the contract, well only store the hash on the contract and then we can use the hash to retrieve the data. In production wed need to create our own IPFS node, but INFURA provides a node for developers which we can use for free. Here is a js snippet you can try out on to save data to IPFS: const ipfs = new IPFS({host: ipfs.infura.io, port: 5001, protocol: https}); const randomData = 8803cf48b8805198dbf85b2e0d514320; // random bytes for testing and this should return our data: 8803cf48b8805198dbf85b2e0d514320 One remark is that the hash string size is independent of the Continue reading >>

Storing Medical Records On The Ethereum Blockchain Healthcare In America

Storing Medical Records On The Ethereum Blockchain Healthcare In America

Building a Foundation for the Decentralized Web Storing Medical Records On The Ethereum Blockchain Heres an uncontroversial take: medicine in the United States is fucked. Not so much regarding the actual treatment of patients, but more the bureaucracy surrounding (and often impeding) treatment of those patients. Whether you believe in medical deregulation or single-payer nationalized health insurance, the current system blows, as 54% of Americans are dissatisfied with a healthcare industry that often puts the onus on individuals to coordinate their own care. Unsurprisingly, much of the conversation about healthcare in the United States revolves around health insurance and cost. Insurance and procedure/drug costs are enormous enormous factors in the quality and availability of the care people receive. However, in looking to improve the efficiency and equity of flawed systemssomething toward which I imagine the blockchain community is particularly inclinedit is important to examine smaller, less obvious routes toward managing and improving the system as a whole. TL; DR: We should all put medical records on the blockchain (eventually). But how would storing medical records on the blockchain work? What purpose would it serve? And, is it even possible? Right now, the truth is we dont really know what Ethereum can do. A lot of very impressive people believe the network and its underlying blockchain technology will revolutionize the way we lead our livesperhaps even save the world. Of course, that will take time. As of right now, storing information on the Ethereum blockchain is very expensive. Just in case youre new, or need a quick review, heres why: Most people think of ether as a currency, like dollars or even Bitcoin, but it is also possible to think of ether as the fuel Continue reading >>

Blockchain Bloat: How Ethereum Is Tackling Storage Issues

Blockchain Bloat: How Ethereum Is Tackling Storage Issues

Blockchain Bloat: How Ethereum Is Tackling Storage Issues Jan 18, 2018 at 05:22 UTC|UpdatedJan 24, 2018 at 02:53 UTC 24,270 tokens. 27,358 pending transactions. 463,713 digital kittens . Ethereum has hosted a lot of activity recently, and while many crypto enthusiasts see that as a positive sign, as the network's usage soars, its history gets longer and its blockchain more unruly. And although network congestion leading to transaction backlogs and rising fees has taken the spotlight, there's another issue this scale causes - a growing database that puts significant storage costs on users wanting to run a full node. That database, called the ethereum state, hold all the computations that need to be memorized by the computers supporting the platform and the ethereum blockchain itself. And with the costs (both in time and money) of storing the state increasing, fewer and fewer people are choosing to run full nodes, which many worry will centralize the network into the hands of only a few arbitrators. For one thing, ethereum developers are well underway engineering protocol-level changes such as sharding , aimed at minimizing the database. But since these technologies are still in development, other stakeholders, namely those running ethereum clients - the software needed for users to communicate with the blockchain - have been under fresh pressure to cope with the growth of the state database. "The fact that improving this stuff is critical has been known since late 2016, the ideas have been floating around for half a year to over a year. Where are the implementations?" said ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin on a developer channel recently. The frustration is palpable with both Buterin and Afri Schoedon, who manages technical communications at ethereum software client prov Continue reading >>

Understanding Data Storage

Understanding Data Storage

I'm trying to understand how Ethereum stores data that I send, if I have a transaction that sends 20 bytes of data to a contract then before the contract has even been executed the blockchain has access to my sender account, the 20 bytes of data and my tx signature. Does this get stored in the blockchain? Can I access it via an API? Or do I need to make sure my contract uses storage to save the 20 bytes because its not saved in the blockchain? I would have thought the blockchain needs to store the full tx including 20 bytes so that other nodes can replicate it. Continue reading >>

How Should I Store Data In An Ethereum Blockchain : Ethereumnoobies

How Should I Store Data In An Ethereum Blockchain : Ethereumnoobies

I am working on a blockchainbased voting system and I have to store large amount of data like list of voters , their details , who they voted for and so on . How should I store this data . I have a few options Smart contracts - I can have multiple smart contract each concerned with specific data - One for storing a map from voters address to a voter_details struct . Another one for voting details . Is this method feasible ? I can have maybe 1 million users. Is there any limit to the amount of data stored ? OrbitDB - Apart from the blockchain , I can maintain a p2p database system ie every system can run an ipfs node and an ethereum node . 3.A mongodb server - I can have a server dedicated for database application . In method 2 & 3 I'm planing to index data with its hash . I can maintain a collection for votes with details of to whom vote is cast . The details of vote is stores in a db and can be indexed by hash of voting details . The vote is cast by sending a transaction to a specific ethereum node from voters address with data field containing hash to index db . Which method should I use . I really want to know more about using smart contract for data storage . Continue reading >>

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