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Store Data In Bitcoin Blockchain

Coineva - Cryptocurrency Code Factory - Use Nulldata To Write Messages On The Bitcoin Blockchain

Coineva - Cryptocurrency Code Factory - Use Nulldata To Write Messages On The Bitcoin Blockchain

Not many people know that besides transacting and storing value, the bitcoin blockchain offersan option to send data and store small amounts of data in the blockchain. To store data in the blockchain you just send a transaction, but instead of sending it to another bitcoinaddress you send a Null Data transaction with a zero value output. So 1 of the outputs does not containan amount and address, but a message and an amount of zero. A Null Data transaction and consists of an OP_RETURN byte followed by the lenght of the and thenthe actual 0 to 80 bytes of data. The output amount of the Null Data output is zero, but the transaction still requires an input with enough valueto cover the transaction fees. As far as I know there is no GUI wallet offering the option to send a data transaction at the moment,but with some code and the Python BitcoinLib it is easy to do. from bitcoinlib.transactions import Outputfrom bitcoinlib.wallets import wallet_create_or_openfrom bitcoinlib.encoding import varstrwallet = wallet_create_or_open('Messenger')wk = wallet.get_key()wallet.utxos_update()utxos = wallet.utxos()if not utxos: print("Please deposit to %s to start creating Nulldata transactions" % wk.address)else: lock_script = b'j' + varstr(b'Please leave a message after the beep') t_output = Output(0, lock_script=lock_script) print(wallet.send([t_output])) The locking script of the Null Data output starts with the OP_RETURN opcode followed by the data string.The data string can contain anything you like, a size byte is added by the varstr() method. Besides tagging the blockchain with your graffiti this has some useful applications. The blockchainis a timestamped database of records which cannot be modified or deleted after they are included in theblockchain. This is nice (and necessary) Continue reading >>

Exploding Costs Of Storing Data On A Blockchain Content Blockchain

Exploding Costs Of Storing Data On A Blockchain Content Blockchain

Average costs of transactions increased by a factor of 39 for Bitcoin and 76 for Ethereum in the course of only 20 months. 3 For simplification we assume to store as few as 100 bytes of information as a text comment with each transaction, so the cost of storing 100 bytes of information represents the transaction price.Assessing how expensive these transactions are compared to other data storage solutions is not easy. Its not helpful to just compare these costs with the costs of storing 100 bytes of information on a hard disk (currently roughly 0.000000003 USD) because a single HDD is at no time highly secure, highly available and immutable like a blockchain.The closest alternative to the distributed nature of a blockchain would be a global-scale, distributed database network. There are several possibilities and existing products for such a database. In this article we specifically chose Google Cloud Spanner as an example. 4 Cost 5 of writing 100 bytes in Google Cloud Spanner: 0.0002 USD.Cost of reading 100 bytes 1000 times in Google Cloud Spanner: 0.000015 USD.The cost of storing only a few bytes of information on the Ethereum or Bitcoin network is currently roughly 2000 to 8000 times higher than using a global-scale, internet-grade database. Additionally, an actual database is faster than a blockchain by multiple orders of magnitude.It could be argued that comparing a public blockchain to a distributed database is necessarily like comparing apples and oranges. This objection is certainly correct: a blockchain and a distributed database are completely different things built for different purposes, but they are comparable as to the storage of arbitrary information in a structured way.Additionally, it could be argued that a private / permissioned blockchain would drastic Continue reading >>

Child Abuse Imagery Found Within Bitcoin's Blockchain

Child Abuse Imagery Found Within Bitcoin's Blockchain

Child abuse imagery found within bitcoin's blockchain Researchers discover illegal content within the distributed ledger, making possession of it potentially unlawful in many countries This especially endangers the multi-billion dollar markets powering cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin, RWTH Aachen University researchers said.Photograph: Chesnot/Getty Images German researchers have discovered unknown persons are using bitcoins blockchain to store and link to child abuse imagery, potentially putting the cryptocurrency in jeopardy. The blockchain is the open-source, distributed ledger that records every bitcoin transaction, but can also store small bits of non-financial data. This data is typically notes about the trade of bitcoin, recording what it was for or other metadata. But it can also be used to store links and files. Researchers from the RWTH Aachen University, Germany found that around 1,600 files were currently stored in bitcoins blockchain. Of the files least eight were of sexual content, including one thought to be an image of child abuse and two that contain 274 links to child abuse content, 142 of which link to dark web services. Our analysis shows that certain content, eg, illegal pornography, can render the mere possession of a blockchain illegal, the researchers wrote . Although court rulings do not yet exist, legislative texts from countries such as Germany, the UK, or the USA suggest that illegal content such as [child abuse imagery] can make the blockchain illegal to possess for all users. This especially endangers the multi-billion dollar markets powering cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin. While the spending of bitcoin does not necessarily require a copy of the blockchain to facilitate, some processes, such as some mining techniques, require the downlo Continue reading >>

Proof Of Existence - About

Proof Of Existence - About

This website requires JavaScript. The certification service calculates the cryptographic digest of your document client-side. Alternatively, you can calculate and submit your document data using shasum and curl. See the Developer API for more information, read our about page , get the news , or contact us . The original Blockchain notary service, offering instant, anonymous, distributed, and secure proof of existence for any document, agreement, or contract. Use our service to anonymously and securely store an online distributed proof of existence for any document. Your documents are NOT stored in our database or in the bitcoin blockchain, so you don't have to worry about your data being accessed by others. All we store is a cryptographic digest of the file, linked to the time in which you submitted the document. In this way, you can later certify that the data existed at that time. This is the first online service allowing you to publicly prove that you have certain information without revealing the data or yourself, with a decentralized certification based on the bitcoin network . The key advantages are anonymity, privacy, and getting a decentralized proof which can't be erased or modified by anyone (third parties or governments). Your document's existence is permanently validated by the blockchain even if this site is compromised or down, so you don't depend or need to trust any central authority. All previous data timestamping solutions lack this freedom. Demonstrating data ownership without revealing actual data. You can publicly reveal the digest and if conflict arises you can prove you had the data that generates the digest. Useful for copyrighted material, patents, etc. You can prove certain data exists at a certain moment of time. As we use the bitcoin blockch Continue reading >>

Hidden Surprises In The Bitcoin Blockchain And How They Are Stored: Nelson Mandela, Wikileaks, Photos, And Python Software

Hidden Surprises In The Bitcoin Blockchain And How They Are Stored: Nelson Mandela, Wikileaks, Photos, And Python Software

Xerox Alto restoration, IC reverse engineering, chargers, and whatever Hidden surprises in the Bitcoin blockchain and how they are stored: Nelson Mandela, Wikileaks, photos, and Python software Every Bitcoin transaction is stored in the distributed database known as the Bitcoin blockchain.However, people have found ways to hack the Bitcoin protocol to store more than just transactions. I've searched through the blockchain and found many strange and interesting things - from images to source code in JavaScript, Python, and Basic. If you're running a Bitcoin client, you probably have all this data stored on your system. [1] The Bitcoin blockchain contains this image of Nelson Mandela and the tribute text. Someone encoded this data into fake addresses in Bitcoin transactions, causing it to be stored in the Bitcoin system. "I am fundamentally an optimist. Whether that comes from nature or nurture, I cannot say. Part of being optimistic is keeping ones head pointed toward the sun, ones feet moving forward. There were many dark moments when my faith in humanity was sorely tested, but I would not and could not give myself up to despair. That way lays defeat and death." "I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear." "Difficulties break some men but make others. No axe is sharp enough to cut the soul of a sinner who keeps on trying, one armed with the hope that he will rise even in the end." "It always seems impossible until its done." "When a man has done what he considers to be his duty to his people and his country, he can rest in peace." "Real leaders must be ready to sacrifice all for the freedom of their "Everyone can rise above their circumstances and achieve Continue reading >>

Storing Data In Bitcoin Blockchain

Storing Data In Bitcoin Blockchain

When people are saying that we can use the blockchain technology to either store or just verify documents, do they mean the bitcoin blockchain or is it just the idea behind the bitcoin blockchain that could be utilized in other blockchains? I have found which creates a transaction with a hashed value of a document which can then be verified. I think it's a good idea, but isn't it spam in the bitcoin blockchain? Shouldn't there be a separate blockchain for document verification, so the bitcoin blockchain can be only about transfering money? Nowadays people rather mean the blockchain idea than Bitcoin blockchain. In the first days of Bitcoin people tried to used it not only for currency transactions, but also as a messaging system and even file transfer service, as as it allows to add some informational "payload" to any transaction. It was clear that blockchain concept and huge computational power attracted by Bitcoin may be used for many other purposes. The source code is publicly available, so many non-currency (or not primarily currency) blockchain projects emerged, like Bitmessage or Namecoin . Not so long ago Etherium , which is a generalised blockchain platform, has been released. Unlike Namecoin, it does not imply cryptocurrency functionality by default, but you may run as many cryptocurrencies as you wish on it. Its capabilities are not limited to cryptocurrencies, as it allows you to create any type of self-executable contracts. In other words, Etherium implements utopian principle: "code is law". And couple of months ago this principle struck back: what happened to The DAO looks like a fraud from a conventional point of view, but it's absolutely legal from the point of view of Etherium's "code is law" philosophy. The attacker of DAO did not compromise blockchai Continue reading >>

Forever Isnt Free: The Cost Of Storage On A Blockchain Database

Forever Isnt Free: The Cost Of Storage On A Blockchain Database

Internet Policy Intern at IPDB Foundation. Forever Isnt Free: The Cost of Storage on a Blockchain Database Cloud storage services work as follows: You pay a monthly fee up front for a fixed amount of storage space. During the paid time, you can use any amount of storage space up to that limit. When your paid time expires, you have two choices: pay for another month or your files get deleted. Your cloud provider only keeps your files for as long as you keep paying. Blockchain databases cant work on this model. A blockchain database must store data indefinitely, so the recurring payment model doesnt work. Data storage costs must be paid up front, and must cover not just that month but all the months and years to come. IPDB has developed a sustainable model for the long term storage of data: a one time, up-front payment that covers the cost of indefinite data storage. The payment must be enough to cover the cost of storage and the IPDB Foundations operating expenses. This blog post is a deep dive into the numbers that led to a single per-GB price point the cost of storing data indefinitely in a blockchain database. This kind of analysis has been lacking in the hype around blockchain technology. There are many problems that could be addressed with blockchain technology, but without an understanding of what a blockchain solution will cost, it is impossible to say whether economic efficiencies can be achieved. This post is a first step toward understanding which use cases could truly benefit from the application of blockchains. Before we dive into the model, lets outline some of our underlying assumptions: Conservative predictions: As a general rule, we have tried to keep estimates and assumptions very conservative. We would rather have happy surprises than unhappy surprises Continue reading >>

How Can Blockchain Be Used As A Database To Store Data?

How Can Blockchain Be Used As A Database To Store Data?

How can blockchain be used as a database to store data? Currently decentralized blockchain applications have few options to store data. Decentralized storage options are: Decentralized cloud file storages, such as Storj, Sia, Ethereum Swarm, etc. Distributed Databases, such as Apache Cassandra, Rethink DB, etc. Storing everything in blockchain itself: Storing everything in blockchain is the simplest solution. Currently most of the simple decentralized applications work exactly this way. However, this approach has significant drawbacks. First of all transactions to blockchain are slow to confirm. It may seem to be fast for money transfer (anyone can wait a minute), but it is extremely slow for a rich application data flow. Rich application may require many thousands transactions per second. Secondly, it is immutable. The immutability is the strength of blockchain that gives it high robustness but it is a weakness for a data storage. User may change their profile or replace their photo, still all the previous data will sit in blockchain forever and can be seen by anyone. The immutability results in one more drawback - the capacity. If all the applications would keep their data in blockchain, the blockchain size will grow rapidly, exceeding publicly available hard drive capacity. Full nodes can require special hardware. It may result in dangerous centralization of blockchain. Thats why storing data in blockchain only is not a good option for a rich decentralized application. Peer to peer file system, such as InterPlanetary File System. IPFS allows to share files on client computers and unites them in the global file system. The technology is based on BitTorrent protocol and Distributed Hash Table. There are several good moments. It is really peer to peer - to share anythi Continue reading >>

So, You Want To Use A Blockchain For That? - Coindesk

So, You Want To Use A Blockchain For That? - Coindesk

So, You Want to Use a Blockchain for That? Antony Lewis is abitcoin and blockchain consultant and blogger, who previously served as the director of business development at bitcoin exchangeitBit. In this article, Lewis attempts to break down some of the more misunderstood questions circulating among institutions seeking to adapt distributed blockchain tech for alternative uses. There are good reasons and bad reasons to use blockchains. In conversations with people considering blockchain use cases, I have noticed common confusions arising from certain words. At issue, is that they were initially used in a narrow context (usually to describe bitcoin's blockchain), and are now being interpreted more generically for other blockchains, in cases where they may no longer apply. In this post, I hope to untangle some of these common misconceptions. Bitcoin has specific security features for writing data due to the burden of proof-of-work consensus . That is, in order to add blocks of transactions to the blockchain, you have to validate all the transactions within the block (easy) and then perform repeated calculations (called hashing) to find a magic number that makes your block valid and acceptable to the other participants according to the rules of the network (easy, but computationally expensive, therefore energy intensive, therefore expensive). This proof-of-work burden combined with the longest chain rule makes it expensive to mine your own subversive chain. Private blockchains on the other hand, with known block validators, may have other mechanisms replacing proof-of-work that limit the ability of others to subvert the chain. These rules can specify that blocks need to be signed by a limited, known list of signatories. The round-robin fashion by which entities take it in Continue reading >>

Blockchain - Wikipedia

Blockchain - Wikipedia

For other uses, see Block chain (disambiguation) . Blockchain formation. The main chain (black) consists of the longest series of blocks from the genesis block (green) to the current block. Orphan blocks (purple) exist outside of the main chain. A blockchain [1] [2] [3] originally block chain [4] [5] is a continuously growing list of records , called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography . [1] [6] Each block typically contains a hash pointer as a link to a previous block, [6] a timestamp and transaction data. [7] By design, blockchains are inherently resistant to modification of the data. Harvard Business Review defines it as "an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way." [8] For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires collusion of the network majority. Blockchains are secure by design and are an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance . Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a blockchain. [9] This makes blockchains potentially suitable for the recording of events, medical records, [10] [11] and other records management activities, such as identity management , [12] [13] [14] transaction processing , documenting provenance , or food traceability . [15] The first blockchain was conceptualised in 2008 by an anonymous person or group known as Satoshi Nakamoto and implemented in 2009 as a core component of bitcoin where it serves as the public ledger for all transactions. Continue reading >>

How Blockchain Can Be Used To Secure Sensitive Data Storage

How Blockchain Can Be Used To Secure Sensitive Data Storage

How Blockchain Can be Used to Secure Sensitive Data Storage Click to learn more about author Mary Ann Callahan. Data Security is no longer a luxury or an afterthought. With so much of our private, personal, and sensitive information being stored and transmitted online, tight security and privacy are now necessities for everyone. But, just as more of our lives are going online, we are hearing about more data breaches and hacks than ever. Here were going to take a look at how Blockchain technology can improve on current, centralized data security solutions, and help keep us safe and in control. Data is quickly becoming one of the most valuable resources in the world. The list of the top 10 companies by market capitalization is now dominated by data-centric companies like Facebook, Alphabet, Microsoft, Apple, and Amazon. That value means your data, especially your sensitive data, is now a prime target for cyber criminals, and you probably arent as protected as you think. Even giant companies like Anthem , Target Corp, and Home Depot have had major data breaches over the last few years affecting hundreds of millions of people. Clearly, current solutions arent good enough to keep us safe. Cloud services often arent the solution either. As hugely centralized systems, they are more valuable targets still. You also need to trust a 3rd party to store your sensitive data for you, which for many companies often isnt desirable or even legal. A new solution is needed. Blockchain technology has been one of the major technological breakthroughs of this century. Bitcoin, the first Blockchain application, allows a network of users to perform transactions without requiring the trust of anyone on the network, or a third party. Everything is encrypted, and nobody can tamper with the Block Continue reading >>

Is Blockchain Technology Really The Answer To Decentralized Storage?

Is Blockchain Technology Really The Answer To Decentralized Storage?

Is Blockchain Technology Really the Answer to Decentralized Storage? Blockchain is extraordinary technology, but may not be appropriate for storing large files, other data. The Blockchain has become much more than a simple piece of technology. It has become a symbol for freedom, transparency and fairness. With this being said, its no wonder we see projects leveraging Blockchain tech as a one-size-fits-all tool to solve all sorts of problems, many of which could not be further from the original purpose of the Blockchain. Nowadays, the words Blockchain technology are thrown around alot and sometimes the use of the technology itself is unnecessary. Tim Swanson, Director of Market Research at R3CEV has even coined the term " chain washing "to describe companies/startups that are using or trying to use Blockchain technology in certain areas when in fact, they could be using more advanced technology for the purpose at hand. This becomes especially evident when it comes to file and data storage. Although the Bitcoin Blockchain is basically a decentralized database for transactions, accounts and balances, keeping that information on a decentralized ledger is already proving to be a challenge due to capacity issues. Nevertheless, several projects and companies insist on looking at Blockchain-based solutions for storage and, while there are clear cases of misguided enthusiasm when it comes to the use of Blockchain technology, there are some projects out there that are worth taking a look at. Blockchain Technology as an Incentive Layer When it comes to a mutualistic relation between Decentralized Ledger Technology (DLT) and data storage, the most common use case for the Blockchain is as an incentive layer. This means that data isnt stored on the Blockchain itself, but the network Continue reading >>

Storj - Decentralized Cloud Storage

Storj - Decentralized Cloud Storage

"Storj is like an Internet filesystem. Data blocks are encrypted and distributed across a globally distributed set of storage nodes using block-chain algorithm. It is quite impressive and much needed innovation in the storage space." "Decentralized file storage systems like Storj have the potential to eliminate high markup costs and market inefficiencies and provide a much higher level of privacy, reliability and quality of service than we see today." "The power of the Storj platform is its unique ability indiscriminately utilize the free capacity of a storage node, whether a single end-user PC or a massive data center. Storj is bringing an unprecedented degree of efficiency to globally distributed data storage." "Storj is a unique market phenomena. It sets new standards of unit economics for distributed data storage." "As a seed investor, we were more than happy to join the next round for Storj with a great line up of co-investors. We want storing files to be cheaper, faster and more secure and the progress the team has made towards that mission has been phenomenal to watch. We are looking forward to putting more and more of our documents on the Blockchain thanks to Storj." Continue reading >>

How Blockchain Technology Keeps Data Secure

How Blockchain Technology Keeps Data Secure

How blockchain technology keeps data secure Bitcoin may be controversial to some, but the infrastructure that underpins it could be of big use for the banking sector Since first appearing in 2009, bitcoin has sparked much speculation about the future of finance. But while interest in the currency itself has fluctuated widely as its value continues to soar and crash, the database technology underlying bitcoin has steadily been garnering interest from the worlds largest banks and investment firms. Similar to an enormous ledger, the blockchain records and indexes each movement of bitcoin, creating a searchable database of every transaction in the process. However, unlike traditional digital ledgers that record information on a central server, the blockchain stores transaction data across vast networks of computers that constantly check and verify information with each other. Distributed ledger systems that dissipate information in this way overcome a key challenge for financial firms - how can critical data be stored securely? Stringent regulations exist to ensure companies that handle financial data are doing so in accordance to the highest cybersecurity standards. But despite these requirements, instances of financial data breaches are on the rise. Last year, unidentified hackers successfully compromised the servers of Bangladesh Bank and stole $100 million, while in the UK, Tesco Bank was targeted by a cyber-attack that resulted in money being siphoned out of some 20,000 current accounts. Because of the high amount of trust consumers place in banks, cybersecurity breaches like these can be devastating to hard-earned reputations. By storing financial information across a network of computers, the task of compromising data becomes much more difficult for hackers. Instead Continue reading >>

Data Directory - Bitcoin Wiki

Data Directory - Bitcoin Wiki

The data directory is the location where Bitcoin's data files are stored, including the wallet data file. Go to Start -> Run (or press WinKey+R) and run this: Bitcoin's data folder will open. For most users, this is the following locations: C:\Documents and Settings\YourUserName\Application data\Bitcoin (XP)C:\Users\YourUserName\Appdata\Roaming\Bitcoin (Vista and 7) "AppData" and "Application data" are hidden by default. You can also store Bitcoin data files in any other drive or folder. If you have already downloaded the data then you will have to move the data to the new folder.If you want to store them in D:\BitcoinData then click on "Properties" of a shortcut to bitcoin-qt.exe andadd -datadir=D:\BitcoinData at the end as an example: "C:\Program Files (x86)\Bitcoin\bitcoin-qt.exe" -datadir=d:\BitcoinData Start Bitcoin, now you will see all the files are created in the new data directory. By default Bitcoin will put its data here: You need to do a "ls -a" to see directories that start with a dot. If that's not it, you can do a search like this: find / -name wallet.dat -print 2>/dev/null By default Bitcoin will put its data here: Bitcoin's verbose log file. Automatically trimmed from time to time. Storage for keys, transactions, metadata, and options. Please be sure to make backups of this file. It contains the keys necessary for spending your bitcoins. Storage for ip addresses to make a reconnect easier Storage for peer information to make a reconnect easier. This file uses a bitcoin-specific file format, unrelated to any database system [1] . fee_estimates.dat [Versions v0.10.0 and later] Statistics used to estimate fees and priorities. Saved just before program shutdown, and read in at startup. The data, index and log files are used by Oracle Berkeley DB , the embe Continue reading >>

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