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Sharding Ethereum

How Sharding-based Blockchains Could Handle More Transactions Than Visa

How Sharding-based Blockchains Could Handle More Transactions Than Visa

How Sharding-Based Blockchains Could Handle More Transactions Than Visa While Blockchain brings a paradigm shift to many businesses and applications, scalability still remains a problem. When it comes to facilitating transactions, advocates of Blockchain technology often point to the fact that transactions come with a built-in, fail-proof layer of security, thanks to the inherent nature of the ledger on which the transactions are recorded. Because of this, Blockchain is being heralded as the future of secure and efficient transactions, as it could eliminate the need of trust on any central party for validation and bookkeeping. While Blockchain certainly brings a paradigm shift to many businesses and applications, theres just one minor problem: scalability. This problem is nothing new. A quick Google search on the topic of Blockchain scalability produces hundreds of results from forums, websites, and blogs that all describe the same problem. While cryptocurrency is enjoying more and more mainstream adoption, it does not process transactions fast enough for it to be used on a massive, or even near massive, scale. As recently as June, Bitcoin , one of the most prominent cryptocurrencies so far, could only process a maximum of seven transactions per second (tps) under optimal conditions, with more realistic numbers looking like two to three, compared to PayPals 115 and VISAs 2,000 tps. As revolutionary as it has proven to be so far, if Blockchain technology is to re-shape our financial system at its core, it must be capable of scaling out and conducting at least as many transactions per second as networks like VISA do today. There are a number of promising projects that could help Ethereum scale to match the transaction rate of VISA , including Plasma and Raiden, but these Continue reading >>

What Is Sharding? The Merkle

What Is Sharding? The Merkle

There are quite a few interesting aspects of the Ethereum ecosystem most people are still confused about. The Ethereum developers have been talking about sharding for quite some time now, yet few people even knowwhat this means. Now is a good time to look into this matter and try to make sense of the concept of sharding. It is quite an interesting way to go about validation portions of the Ethereum blockchain, to say the least. Sharding Will Change The Way The Blockchain is Validated Before we can explain what sharding is, one needs to know how the Ethereum blockchain is validated right now. In the current form, all nodes on the network store and process all transactions taking place on the network. This is quite a labor-intensive way of going about things, even though it adds additional security to the ecosystem as well. In terms of scaling, this way of validating the Ethereum blockchain leaves much to be desired, though. To combat this problem, the developers have come up with a way to alleviate these problems through an alternative form of validation. Referred to as sharding, a small subset of network nodes will validate every single transaction. This means the Ethereum blockchain will remain secure as it has always been, yet it will allowfor better scaling. There are quite a few different sharding proposals as well, although it is difficult to find one that checks all of the right boxes. To be more specific, sharding as part of the Ethereum ecosystem is designed to process thousands of transactions every second without forcing all nodes to store terabytes of state data. Achieving this goal is not easy by any means. After all, the developers want to make sure people can use both cheap and expensive hardware to validate transactions as node operators. By introducing Continue reading >>

Part One Of Ethereum's Sharding Roadmap Is Nearly Done

Part One Of Ethereum's Sharding Roadmap Is Nearly Done

Part One of Ethereum's Sharding Roadmap Is Nearly Done Jan 26, 2018 at 17:10 UTC|UpdatedJan 27, 2018 at 02:39 UTC Ethereum is getting closer to deploying new technology that would allow the network to scale, its founder said. "It seems like part one of phase one is getting something like being already done," Vitalik Buterin said in a developer meeting. The technology, known as sharding,attempts to split the ethereum blockchain's data into more manageable parts. Pointing to an initial spec posted on Github, Buterin said: "It's theoretically a good spec of what minimal sharding is going to look like." Ethereum is under pressure to keep up with the rising popularity of the platform, which has led to slower transaction times and high processing fees. The congestion has already led some token-based projects to build atop other blockchains such as Stellar . Buterin went to state that the next phase of the four-stage scaling proposal will be completed in "a month and a bit," adding that development work will likely circulate on stateless clients, a type of ethereum software that does not need to process the complete history of the platform. "Then from there we're going to try and shard it into a working test, a kind of test network," the ethereum founder said. In the meeting, Buterin also reflected on Casper, ethereum's new consensus protocol that is currently in testing. As detailed by CoinDesk , the test network has been derailed by issues with the software it deploys. However, Buterin said that in spite of hiccups, the core of the project is sound, or as he put it: "the Casper aspect of Casper... is totally successful." Still, with the code yet to be adapted for use across different ethereum software clients, he acknowledged: "That's on a bit of a back burner for now." The Continue reading >>

Sharding, Raiden, Plasma: The Scaling Solutions That Will Unchainethereum

Sharding, Raiden, Plasma: The Scaling Solutions That Will Unchainethereum

Sharding, Raiden, Plasma: The Scaling Solutions that Will UnchainEthereum And how REX is positioned to grow with the blockchain of tomorrow Cryptocurrency heavyweights such as Bitcoin and Ethereum are beginning to garner the attention of mainstream media in thanks largely to their monstrous rise in value over the past year. This coverage has piqued the interest of people all over the world who are eager learn more about the underlying technology and how to get involved. However, it also raises concerns of scalability growing the capacity of blockchain networks to handle the massive influx of traffic that comes alongside mainstream adoption one of the biggest challenges facing blockchain technology today. In our previous blog post , we discussed how the current throughputs of Bitcoin and Ethereum are limited, which results in a backlog of unconfirmed transactions when their networks are at full capacity. This issue was laid front and center just this week, and provides a perfect example of the challenges facing the extreme growth of blockchain technology CryptoKitties, a recently launched dApp upon which users trade virtual kittens, went viral and tested the networks capacity, providing essential scaling data and a valuable case study for Ethereums viability in asset management, and for the Ethereum blockchains current transactional capabilities. In the span of four days,CryptoKitties went from accounting for 3% of all Ethereum transactions to 11.77%. This resulted in transaction backlogs, network delays and higher gas fees. Real estate, a 217 trillion dollar global asset class, will be among the largest industries to benefit from the blockchain. However, blockchain technology will struggle to reach its full potential if it fails to overcome this obstacle and facilitate Continue reading >>

How To Scale Ethereum: Sharding Explained

How To Scale Ethereum: Sharding Explained

rauljordan.com | Harvard University | Thiel Fellow | Blockchain Engineer | Ethereum Protocol Developer How to Scale Ethereum: Sharding Explained The scalability debate is at the front and center of the crypto community. With major occurrences such as the Cryptokitties debacle clogging up the entire Ethereum network over the span of a few days, it is well-known that the biggest, public blockchains in their current state do not scale. So what are the approaches the community has decided to take? The solution is two-fold. The first approach is to improve scaling through off-chain solutions, also known as layer-2 scaling, where some transactions are handled off the blockchain and only interact with it sparingly. The other approach is to modify the design of the protocol altogether to fix the fundamental problems with parallelizability the blockchain faces. Unfortunately, many of us protocol devs often look at these problems and instantly feel put off by the immense difficulty they pose. Although were still in the early stages of Ethereum, the community is filled with some of the smartest minds in tech, with so many innovations happening at breakneck speed. Its easy to feel that there are smarter devs out there that are probably way more qualified to tackle monumental problems such as scalability, but this feeling is whats holding us back. Truth is, the community is willing and ready to help anyone who wants to get involved, and yes that includes YOU! This post will break down the current approach the Ethereum core team is taking towards sharding and expose its current limitations and paths for improvement. By the end of this post, youll know enough to explore this problem on your own and who knows, maybe youll be the one to build the first sharding client! As the number of Continue reading >>

Blockchain - What Is A Shard? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Blockchain - What Is A Shard? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Proof of Stake brings new concepts to the Blockchain ecosystem. In the dictionary "Shard" is defined as "A broken piece or fragment, as of pottery or glass". Shard is a concept not so much related to the Proof-Of-Stake, but rather to the scalability improvement. The idea of 'sharding' is to split the space of possible accounts (contracts are accounts too) into subspaces, for example, based on first digits of their numerical addresses. Each shard gets its own set of validators (therefore PoS is a pre-requisite), and these validators will not normally need to validate all the shards. Messages (transactions) between the accounts within the same shard would work in the same way as they work today. Contracts wishing to communicate across multiple shards will need to employ some special techniques, based on the concept of transaction receipts. The crucial difference between calling a contract directly and verifying the receipts is that for direct call one needs to run the code of the contract you're calling, but for verifying a receipt you only need to be sure that receipt cannot be produced by anything else than the transaction you want. For example, if you want to accept a payment in tokens managed by a different shard, you would generate the payment ID, give it to the payer, ask the payer to pay in the remote shard (with payment ID), and 'bring you back' the receipt. Sharding allows scaling Ethereum further, because not all nodes of the network will have to execute all of the transactions. Here is the DEVCON1 talk given by Vitalik Buterin explaining this: In Ethereum, all miners are working on the same problem at the same time. (This is why people usually say: "Equate the Ethereum computer to a Commodore 64". It takes a lot to keep everything in sync.) My guess is that, w Continue reading >>

Update On The Ethereums Casper Pos Hybrid And Sharding

Update On The Ethereums Casper Pos Hybrid And Sharding

All seems to be going well for development at the worlds second most valuable cryptocurrency. The team at the Ethereum foundation is actively busy testing the latest featured of the Metropolis upgrade . One of the most important of these features was the movement from Proof-of-Work mining to Proof-of-Stake. Ethereum has been working on a hybrid between the two solutions that has aptly been named the Casper POS protocol . This has been on the Testnet and has been running for a few weeks already. According to Vitalik Buterin who is the founder of Ethereum: The Casper aspect of Casper, where two conflicting blocks should not be able to be finalized, seems to actually happen running and the network agrees all along what the final chain is Although the Casper Hybrid has been running in the testing environment, it has not been without a few problems. Apparently the nodes losing their connection and get floods of new connections so the developers have had to institute clever hacks to get around this. This means that the Ethereum developers will have to complete quite a bit more testing before there can be any sort of live implementation of the protocol. However, according to Buterin it seems as if the most important part of the upgrade is indeed effective. This is the manner in which conflicting nodes are able to reach a network consensus. With the minor reconnection issues corrected, it is entirely possible that we could see Casper hitting the Mainnet by the middle of the year. There has also been quite a lot of work that has been done on the sharding side. This is arguably one of the most important updates to blockchain technology ever as it aims to markedly decrease transaction times. Blockchain sharding uses parallelisation of blockchains. This will eliminate the ineffici Continue reading >>

Ethereum Will Soon Test Sharding Tech To Fix Scaling Issues, Vitalik Buterin Hints

Ethereum Will Soon Test Sharding Tech To Fix Scaling Issues, Vitalik Buterin Hints

Vitalik Buterin has made it clear that designing more efficient scaling solutions is one of the biggest challenges for the Ethereum blockchain and it seems the company is gearing up take on this hurdle head-on. Buterin has indicated the company will soon begin testing its new scaling tech better known as sharding . Talking about the cryptocurrency scam epidemic on Twitter, the young co-founder strongly hinted that Ethereum is close to launching its sharding testnet. While Buterin did not offer a clear timeline, he said that Leeroy a decentralized Twitter rival will be a suitable candidate for the experiment. I hope they can participate in the sharding testnet soon when its ready, the founder responded to a comment asking about a verified Twitter on the blockchain. Buterin has since purged the tweet, but you can still see the full response here: Buterin and lead developer Nick Johnson have often stressed the central role sharding could play in Ethereums plan to move from proof-of-work to proof-of-stake system for verifying transactions on its network. During a talk in Taipei in November last year, Buterin laid out the companys intention to reach Visa levels of scalability within the next three to five years, as reported by Trustnodes. Sharding was painted as a crucial part towards accomplishing this goal. For context, Visa processes upward of 1,500 transactions per second, while Ethereum roughly handles between 10 and 30. The way Ethereum is currently setup requires that a transaction is verified by every single validator on the blockchain, which makes the network inherently more secure but also significantly slower. Sharding basically splits the network into small partitions known as shards, with each piece containing its own independent state and transaction history. Continue reading >>

What Are Ethereum Nodes And Sharding?

What Are Ethereum Nodes And Sharding?

Angel Investors, Startups & Blockchain developers... In this guide, you will learnWhat are Ethereum Nodes And Sharding? If you have been active in one form or another in cryptocurrency for the last 1 year then you would know that there has been one issue which has plagued both bitcoin and Ethereum: Scalability. Bitcoin has somewhat addressed this issue by activating Segwit and by hard forking into Bitcoin Cash . Ethereum, however, is trying to solve this issue in a different way. One of the many protocols that they are looking to activate, as they go into the next phase of their growth, is sharding. Before we understand what that means, we need to have a thorough understanding of networks and nodes. What are nodes, networks, and parameters? Lets understand what the concept means by using simple day-to-day activities. (Before we begin, credit to 3dBuzz for the wonderful explanation.) This box takes in inputs, performs some sort of operations on them, and then gives an output. This box is a node. Keep in mind, nodes are not exactly boxes, we are just using a hypothetical case here. A network is a collection of these nodes which are interlinked to one another. Parameters are the rules that the nodes are bound by. That, in essence, is what nodes and networks are. Now lets check out some simple day-to-day activities explained via nodes and networks. Lets see how a simple paper shredder works. You are using three nodes: The paper the shredder and the.well shredded stuff. These three nodes make up the Shredding network. Lets have some more fun with this. Till now, we have assumed that nodes take in only one input. What if they take more than that? Lets take the example of a toaster. A toaster takes in two inputs: Remember one thing, a toaster cant work if even one of its inpu Continue reading >>

Sharding Faq Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

Sharding Faq Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

Currently, in all blockchain protocols each node stores all states (account balances, contract code and storage, etc.) and processes all transactions. This provides a large amount of security, but greatly limits scalability: a blockchain cannot process more transactions than a single node can. In large part because of this, Bitcoin is limited to ~3-7 transactions per second, Ethereum to 7-15, etc. However, this poses a question: are there ways to create a new mechanism, where only small subset of nodes verifies each transaction? As long as there are sufficiently many nodes verifying each transaction that the system is still highly secure, but sufficiently few that the system can process many transactions in parallel, could we not use such a technique to greatly increase a blockchain's throughput? What are some trivial but flawed ways of solving the problem? There are three main categories of easy solutions. The first is to simply give up on scaling individual blockchains, and instead assume that users will be using many different altcoins. This greatly increases throughput, but comes at a cost of security: an N-factor increase in throughput using this method necessarily comes with an N-factor decrease in security. Hence, it is arguably non-viable for more than small values of N. The second is to simply increase the block size limit. This can work and in some situations may well be the correct prescription, as block sizes may well be constrained more by politics than by realistic technical considerations. But regardless of ones beliefs about any individual case such an approach inevitably has its limits: if one goes too far, then nodes running on consumer hardware will drop out, the network will start to rely exclusively on a very small number of supercomputers running Continue reading >>

Understanding Ethereum Sharding - A Simple Explanation : Ethtrader

Understanding Ethereum Sharding - A Simple Explanation : Ethtrader

Several of my IRL friends have been getting into crpyto recently mainly into Ethereum. Many of them have been struggling to understand certain concepts - like Sharding (and even PoS). So I thought I'd write a quick post using a simple analogy to explain Sharding. Hopefully this will help the newer folk ease into the community! The demand for scalability is becoming increasingly urgent. The Cryptokitties incident demonstrated how quickly the Ethereum network can clog-up. While many in the community are excited for Ethereums Sharding, there are just as many who struggle to understand how sharding will help Ethereum scale. In this post, I will attempt to explain Ethereums sharding using a simple analogy. One of the major problems of a blockchain is that an increase in the number of nodes reduces its scalability. This may seem counterintuitive to some people. More nodes = more power. So more speed, right? Not exactly. One of the reasons a blockchain has its level of security is because every single node must process every single transaction. This is like having your homework assignment checked by every single professor in the university. While this may ensure that your assignment is marked correctly, it will also take a really long time before you get your assignment back. Ethereum faces a similar problem. The nodes are your professors. Each transaction is your assignment. Sure, we can reduce the number of professors (nodes) until we are satisfied with the speed. But as the assignment (transaction) backlog increases, we will need to further decrease the number of professors. This will eventually lead us to rely on a few trusted group of professors. A centralized group. This defeats the ideology of blockchain decentralization. Its much easier to compromise/corrupt a smaller Continue reading >>

Ethereum Sharding: Overview Andfinality

Ethereum Sharding: Overview Andfinality

Ice Bear has committed no crime.today. In Ethereum Casper 101 [1], Jon Choi gave a great clear overview of Casper and why explicit finality can be beneficial to scalability. The aim of this article is to give an overview of Ethereum sharding design and explain how explicit finality helps for blockchain sharding. To fully understand the specification of Ethereum sharding mechanism proposal, I highly recommend digging in sharding doc [2] by Vitalik. Growth of transactions. We love unicorns and kittens. Limitation of scalability with current block creation process. Block gas limit restricts the computational capacity of the block. Increasing block gas limit or decreasing block time too much would lead to high stale rate and weaken the ability of the network against attacks. Lack of parallelizability. First, current EVM operates transactions in sequence. Second, every full node executes each transaction and store the whole (or pruned) state trie for security and decentralization. Further reading: EIP 648 Easy parallelizability for executing transactions in parallel. To solve scalability problems, sharding is a solution that introduces to on-chain state partition and gains higher throughput. source: (CC0 CreativeCommons) At first, lets take a look at terms for differentiating the objects on main chain (you can take as the current Mainnet chain) or shard chain in different levels: You can simply imagine that the transactions would be wrapped in a collation; similar to block, a collation also points to its parent collation in chains thats the shard chains were going to talk about. Being a collator means having the eligibility to propose a new collation on the proof-of-stake shard chain. Figure 1. A glimpse of basic collation data structure. The Consensus of Shard Chain Depend Continue reading >>

Vitalik Buterin Lays Roadmap For Ethereum Visa Levels Quadratic Sharding

Vitalik Buterin Lays Roadmap For Ethereum Visa Levels Quadratic Sharding

Vitalik Buterin Lays Roadmap for Ethereum Visa Levels Quadratic Sharding The ethereum killer is ethereum, the ethereum of China is ethereum, the ethereum of Taiwan is ethereum 2.0. That was the opening statement of Vitalik Buterin, Ethereums inventor, at BeyondBlock in Taipei where he laid out a plan to reach Visa levels scalability within the next 3-5 years. The main problems facing ethereum are privacy, safety and scalability, he said. With privacy being 3/4th solved, according to Buterin who was wearing a Byzantium t-shirt, referring to the latest ethereum hardfork. That upgrade introduced some fairly fancy new cryptographic algorithms, Buterin says, including zero-knowledge proofs and ring signatures which dont solve the privacy problem on their own but can give coders tools to build solutions. From a base layer perspective, the privacy problem is three quarters of the way to being solved, he said. The one quarter that isnt solved theres still leaks at the protocol level. If you use a mixer and pay for gas there may be privacy leaks, but most of the work from here is at layer 2 he says. Suggesting base layer privacy has been solved, at least conceptually, by zk-Snarks which give you the ability to hide a transaction from all at the same time as allowing you to choose who you wish to show that transaction. Safety, of course, isnt a problem you solve, only minimize or maximize as may be the case. But one problem that could be solved is scalability. However its a hard problem due to the trilema of decentralization, security, and scalability. Having two out of three is easy he says, providing examples of current solutions that have made that two out of three trade-off: Existing blockchains, like Ethereum and Bitcoin in their current state, sacrifice scalability, he say Continue reading >>

Zilliqa Sharding Vs Ethereum Proposed Sharding? : Zilliqa

Zilliqa Sharding Vs Ethereum Proposed Sharding? : Zilliqa

Zilliqa is the world's first high-throughput public blockchain platform designed to scale to thousands of transactions per second. It brings the theory of sharding to practice with its novel protocol that increases transaction rates as its network expands. The platform is tailored towards enabling secure data-driven decentralized apps, designed to meet the scaling requirements of machine learning and financial algorithms. Zilliqa has been under research and development for two years. It has powered several ground-breaking deployments commercially to date. No inappropriate behavior. This includes, but is not limited to: personal attacks, threats of violence, gossip, slurs of any kind, posting people's private information. Keep price discussion and market talk and exchanges to the unofficial subreddit /r/ziltrader . Keep the discussion around Zilliqa's technology. No creating multiple accounts to get around Reddit rules. English language only. Please provide accurate translations where appropriate. Continue reading >>

How Will Ethereum Scale?

How Will Ethereum Scale?

Like other public blockchains, ethereumintends to support as many users as it can. The problem is that, today, we don't really know the limits of theplatform. Because of a hard-coded limit on computation per block, the ethereum blockchain currently supports roughly 15 transactions per second compared to, say, the 45,000 processed by Visa. This limitation of ethereum and other blockchain systems has long been the subject of discussion by developers and academics. While ethereum developers might like to highlight how the flexible smart contract platform differs from bitcoin, for example, it isn't unique in regards to scalability. As disappointing as that might sound, there's hope in proposed solutions that havent made it into the official software yet. Ethereum and bitcoin use a combination of technical tricks and incentives to ensure that they accurately record who owns what without a central authority. The problem is, its tricky to preserve this balance while also growing the number of users (especially to the point where average people can use the system to purchase coffee or run applications). That's because ethereum depends on a network of 'nodes', each of which stores the entire ethereum transaction history and the current 'state'of account balances, contracts and storage. This is obviously a cumbersome task, especially since the total number of transactions is increasing approximately every 1012 seconds with each new block. The worry is that, if developers raise the size of each block to fit more transactions, the data that a node will need to store will grow larger effectively kicking people off the network. If each node grows large enough, only a few large companies will have the resources to run them. Despite the inconvenience, running a full node is the best w Continue reading >>

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