Ethereum - Wikipedia
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . This article relies too much on references to primary sources . Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources . Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable . Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. The Ethereum Project's logo, first used in 2014 Ethereum is an open-source , public, blockchain -based distributed computing platform featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality.  It provides a decentralized Turing-complete virtual machine , the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes. Ethereum also provides a cryptocurrency token called "ether", which can be transferred between accounts and used to compensate participant nodes for computations performed.  "Gas", an internal transaction pricing mechanism, is used to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network.   Ethereum was proposed in late 2013 by Vitalik Buterin , a cryptocurrency researcher and programmer. Development was funded by an online crowdsale between July and August 2014.  The system went live on 30 July 2015, with 11.9 million coins "premined" for the crowdsale.  This accounts for approximately 13 percent of the total circulating supply. In 2016, as a result of the collapse of The DAO project, Ethereum was forked into two separate blockchains - the new forked version became Ethereum (ETH), and the original continued as Ethereum Classic (ETC).    Ethereum was initially described in a white paper by Vitalik Buterin ,  a programmer involved with Bitcoin Magazine , in late 2013 with a goal of buildin Continue reading >>
Ethereum Address Has Uppercase And Lowercase Letters
Home Addresses Ethereum Address Has Uppercase And Lowercase Letters Ethereum Address Has Uppercase And Lowercase Letters "What does it mean if my address has uppercase and lowercase letters?"There are two versions of Ethereum addresses: one that contains uppercase letters and one that does not: 0x7cb57b5a97eabe94205c07890be4c1ad31e486a8 0x7cB57B5A97eAbe94205C07890BE4c1aD31E486A8 The one that is all lowercase is "not checksummed" meaning that you could mis-type a letter/number and it send it off and it would be lost forever. If you use the checksum'd version and mis-type it, it will tell you that it's an invalid address. For this reason, we warn you when you address is not checksummed. You can still send to it without issue but if you should double-check the address before doing so, especially if you hand-typed it. If you are sending to one of your own wallets, you can save the checksummed address via the "View Wallet Info" page and copy the address displayed there. Both addresses are exactly the same, except for the uppercase vs lowercase letters. Capitalization simply means the address has a checksum. Both will work exactly the same and have your funds. Continue reading >>
Pc Malware Steals Funds By Modifying Ethereum Addresses
PC Malware Steals Funds by Modifying Ethereum Addresses Earlier this week, a user posting on the Ethereum subreddit (/r/Ethereum), the largest Ethereum community with over 131,000 members, revealed that malware installed on Windows computers is capable of altering Ethereum addresses when copying and pasting. Bitcoin Address Modifying Malware First Discovered in February of 2016 Major antivirus development firm Symantec first discovered a trojan named Trojan.Coinbitclip in February of 2016, which automatically detects Bitcoin wallet addresses and changes them as Windows users copy and paste the data onto online platforms. By spreading the trojan through phishing attacks and conventional malware distribution methods, hackers behind the malware were able to steal funds from Bitcoin users on Windows computers by reallocating Bitcoin payments to other wallet addresses. Trojan.Coinbitclip is a Trojan horse that replaces Bitcoin addresses saved to the clipboard with ones supplied by the Trojan, said Symantec. According to Bitcoin journalist Luke Parker, malware such as Trojan.Coinbitclip stored around 10,000 Bitcoin wallet addresses in the code and used an algorithm to match the victims Bitcoin wallet addresses to similar addresses in its pool. The sophistication of the method made it difficult for Bitcoin users to spot the malware. This clever little invader carries with it a large list of bitcoin addresses and chooses the closest match when making the switch, making it harder to spot the switch. In the sample Symantec observed, there were 10,000 Bitcoin addresses stored in the code. The end result is that copying and pasting a payment address can easily trick you into sending your coins to the malwares creator, wrote Parker. Similar Malware Targeting Ethereum Wallet Address Continue reading >>
These are Token distributions going into your Ethereum address. Token transfers are transmitted inside an Ethereum transaction, even if no ETH was actually ... Sometimes, for a variety of reasons, there will be a spike in the number of BTC transactions that are waiting to be confirmed. That will cause a delay in con... Confirmed transactions are irreversible. This is the nature of all blockchains. If your transaction is unconfirmed, we cannot cancel it. It will eventua... A new address is created automatically every time you transact for security and privacy reasons. However, all your previous addresses still work fine. ... Ethereum and Ethereum-based coins and tokens are account based. That means that you are only given one address, which is constantly reused. When you receive... This is the Broadcast Error message that is displayed on Android. On iOS, the error message will display 'Generic Error' and prevent the transacti... You have the choice of 3 dynamic fees (Low / Normal / Priority) that automatically adjust according to the state of the Bitcoin network. When sending, you c... Yes it does. Some exchanges process withdrawals via smart contracts, and these kinds of transactions are not compatible with all wallets. However you ar... Continue reading >>
How To Manage Ethereum Multiple Addresses / Multiple Accounts ?
How to manage Ethereum multiple addresses / multiple accounts ? Ledger Wallet Ethereum doesn't manage multiple addresses and multiple accounts. If you want to manage several accounts you need to useMyEtherWalletwith your Nano S or your Blue instead of the Ledger Wallet Ethereum Chrome application following this tutorial . Your private data will still be hold and secured inside the Secure element of your device, but the interface to manage your account will be MyEtherWallet. If you ever use the Ledger Wallet Ethereum Chrome application to manage the wallet where you set multiple accounts, the application will only display the operations and the balance or your first address, even if the other addresses and accounts are still visible on MyEtherWallet. To use your Ledger device with the Ledger Wallet Chrome application, make sure that the "browser support" setting is disabled (NO). To use your Ledger device with MyEtherWallet, make sure that the "browser support" setting is enabled (YES). Continue reading >>
Bittrex Stops Creating New Ethereum Deposit Addresses Due To Network Congestion
Bittrex Stops Creating New Ethereum Deposit Addresses Due to Network Congestion Bittrex, the third largest cryptocurrency exchange in the global market behind Binance and Bithumb, has temporarily paused Ethereum deposits due to the current congestion on the Ethereum blockchain network. According to Etherscan, the Ethereum network is processing more than 1.2 million transactions on a daily basis, settling more payments than all of the cryptocurrencies and blockchain networks in the market combined, including bitcoin. The Ethereum network has to process more transactions than other blockchain networks because it operates as the base protocol for large-scale decentralized applications. Applications like CryptoKitties and EtherDelta, that have many active users requesting multiple transactions per day, are placing a heavy burden on the Ethereum network. While innocuous at a glance, the project has become a problem for the Ethereum ecosystem. The cryptokitties multiply, are bought, sold, rented for breeding, in other words, involved in myriads of transactions, taking up the largest volume of Ethereum traffic (20%). This causes many transactions that had previously taken seconds to currently be either delayed to 10 minutes, or fail entirely, explained the developers of Bankex that recently introduced the first practical implementation of Buterins second-layer solution Plasma. The congestion of the Ethereum network caused by the rising popularity and activity of decentralized applications can be resolved through second-layer scaling and solutions such as Plasma, Sharding, and Casper. But, as Augur co-founder Joey Krug noted, there are not enough developers working on the core protocol of Ethereum and consequently, Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin stated that fully scaling Continue reading >>
How To Create Your Ethereum Address And Deposit Your Eth For The Coinfisale
How To Create Your Ethereum Address And Deposit Your ETH for the CoinFiSale To participate in the CoinFi token sale youll need to give us your Ethereum address (A public wallet address). This will be the address you send Ethereum to us through and receive your CoinFi tokenswith. We track your contribution amount by linking this Ethereum address with your account on CoinFi this process is called whitelisting. That sounds simple enough, but there are a few things we need to specify first: Only a whitelisted Ethereum address can participate in the token sale. You cant contribute by sending Ethereum directly from an exchange such as Coinbase, Kraken, or anywhere else. Youll need to create your own Ethereum wallet and use that address to send in your contribution. In this article, well show you exactly how to create your own wallet, how to send your Ethereum from somewhere like Coinbase to your wallet, and how to send your Ethereum to us when the token sale begins. There are many different Ethereum wallets out there, and most of them are fine to use. We recommend MyEtherWallet for those of you who are unfamiliar with different wallets. Its the most user-friendly. Go to and follow the instructions to create your wallet. Make sure to save the website in your favorites so you dont click on a phishing link the next time you try to visit. 2.) Create your wallet with a strong password. Make sure you save the password somewhere there is no recover password functionality! We recommend saving it on a piece of paper in addition to anywhere digital you plan to save it. 3.) Download your Keystore File and save it. This file combined with your password unlocks your wallet. 4.) Save your private key somewhere safe. Do not lose it and do not send us your private key. If you own one, use a Continue reading >>
Max Number Of Ethereum Addresses?
Hello everyone. I have been thinking about a solution for crypto tipping on a mass scale and my solution needs the ability to create ethereum addresses that will hold very small amounts of ethereum and the addresses have a high probability of being disposable. Think a homeless person having tips in multiple ethereum addresses but never accessing/using the addresses except to cash out. IPV4 ultimately will/or has run out of addresses. Does Ethereum has a max supply of addresses? Is there a better way using some sort of ethereum technology to create burnable addresses? Ie addresses that hold funds once and once the funds are used/transferred out of the account the private and public key association gets burned/distroyed allowing for a new private key to be used? On the topic of tipping, the problem with using Ethereum for that is that even though ethereum transaction fees are low, they are still there. So until some new feature comes out, its not going to make much sense to do it with eth. On the other hand there are things like IOTA that have no transaction cost, but probably less useful. If you talk about the max number of addresses, that number is huge and practically infinite given that the values are alpha numeric. @Jepb100 With IOTA you can send micro payments as there are no transaction fees, its fast, scalable, gets faster with more network use (unlike blockchain) Ive set up a meet up group to discuss how to help a local a charity and local business with IOTA DLT, feel free to sign up and join in the conversation even if you cant make a local meeting, we need people like yourself who want to help humanity with DSL (as opposed to just making money with awesome business ideas) we need both but Im focusing on helping mankind first Continue reading >>
What Are Addresses On Blockchains? Blockchain Address 101
Blockchain Address 101. Blockchain Addresses are an important concept in cryptocurrencies and blockchains . In our guide, we explain. What addresses are, how they are created and what the differences between different kind of addresses on different blockchains are. What Are Addresses on Blockchains? Blockchain Address 101 In the early days of Bitcoin , it was possible to send payments to an IP-address like 18.104.22.168 (which is blockgeeks.com). This was planned to be a convenient method to use Bitcoins without dealing with unhandy public keys and addresses. However, after the Bitcoin developers realized that this way of sending coins could be subject to serious man- in-the-middle-attacks, the option was disabled and did never come back. This anecdote of Bitcoins early days seems to have mostly historic values. But it demonstrates what an address is: It is not something special or something set in stone. It is just a placeholder to accept and send blockchain transactions. Like an IBAN or SWIFT address. The address itself doesnt matter, nor does its format. The only thing matters are that the address serves its purpose to enable payments to an entity which has a unique information. Usually, a private key, to exclusively access the funds. The address is nothing but a secure identifier. However, while SWIFT or IBAN numbers are assigned by central authorities like banks, blockchain addresses exist. Every blockchain address possible already existed, long before a wallet found it. The reason is that blockchain addresses are the result of a mathematical operation. The Public Key: Where the Blockchain Address Generation begins After Pay to IP had been abandoned in Bitcoin , P2PKH became the new standard format for Bitcoin addresses. You might know it; it looks like this: A st Continue reading >>
How To Generate Many Ethereum Addresses From A Single Ethereum Wallet ??
How to generate many ethereum addresses from a single ethereum wallet ?? As in bitcoins...wallets like electrum or even online wallets like blockchain...we can generate thousands of addresses which belong to a single wallet... But in ethereum in myetherwallet i see only one address belong to my wallet and no option to generate another address.. Wow what a good advice you have given ..... I know that man...see what i am asking...if you dont know then ignore it It is impossible, only one account in ethereum address can generate only one address, if you want another wallet, then just simply make another one. There are exchangers though that could generate many addresses in just one account, for example is in HITBTC, if you wanted many ethereum addresses then go there and make an account, problem solved. Quote from: Lordshiva on October 20, 2017, 05:04:15 AM As in bitcoins...wallets like electrum or even online wallets like blockchain...we can generate thousands of addresses which belong to a single wallet... But in ethereum in myetherwallet i see only one address belong to my wallet and no option to generate another address.. First of all this question should be asked in the Altcoin's discussion board since ETH is an altcoin. Upto how much I know, it is not possible to create multiple address pointing to the same account in Ethereum but it is possible to create multiple accounts. People actually prefer to create multiple accounts for security reasons. I have found another thread of same question which is quite old which you may refer at : Continue reading >>
New Record: Over 100k Ethereum Addresses Registered On November 9
New Record: Over 100K Ethereum Addresses Registered On November 9 A record-breaking 105,935 Ethereum addresses were registered on November 9, a day after prominent Segwit2x backers announced their intention to abandon the proposed changes to the bitcoin blockchain. Ethereum users set an all-time record by registering a total of 105,935 new addresses on November 9, according to Etherscan.io , a website that tracks and analyzes data related to the Ethereum blockchain. This brought the total number of distinct Ethereum addresses to 10,737,345. The development came a day after the apparent cancellation of Segwit2x, a proposed hard fork of the bitcoin blockchain that sought to introduce several changes to the platforms constituent code including doubling the block size, currently capped at 1MB. Before its abandonment, the plan had become a significant source of conflict in the bitcoin community. Additionally, over a 24 hour period beginning midday on November 8, the Ethereum blockchain processed about 44% more transactions than the Bitcoin blockchain. Its currently unclear whether the scrapping of Segwit2x will precipitate a shift in market preferences from bitcoin to Ethereum. Ethers price rose somewhat dramatically in the wake of the announcement, but it seemed to have returned to roughly pre-cancellation levels by November 10. Bitcoin users may be enticed to remain loyal to their platform by the lure of future second-layer solutions, which could speed up transaction processing by allowing certain operations to be performed off the primary chain. Continue reading >>
What Is Ether?
Ether is a necessary element a fuel for operating the distributed application platform Ethereum. It is a form of payment made by the clients of the platform to the machines executing the requested operations. To put it another way, ether is the incentive ensuring that developers write quality applications (wasteful code costs more), and that the network remains healthy (people are compensated for their contributed resources). If you just want to test the technology, you probably don't need real ether. Download the latest Wallet app and switch to the Test Network Check your ether presale balance safely here: The total supply of ether and its rate of issuance was decided by the donations gathered on the 2014 presale. The results were roughly: 60 million ether created to contributors of the presale 12 Million (20% of the above) were created to the development fund, most of it going to early contributors and developers and the remaining to the Ethereum Foundation 5 ethers are created every block (roughly 15 seconds) to the miner of the block 2-3 ethers are sometimes sent to another miner if they were also able to find a solution but his block wasn't included (called uncle/aunt reward) Note that after the Byzantium update is implemented, the mining and uncle reward is reduced to 3 ethers and 0.625-2.625 ethers, respectively. No. According to the terms agreed by all parties on the 2014 presale, issuance of ether is capped at 18 million ether per year (this number equals 25% of the initial supply). This means that while the absolute issuance is fixed, the relative inflation is decreased every year. In theory if this issuance was kept indefinitely then at some point the rate of new tokens created every year would reach the average amount lost yearly (by misuse, accidental key Continue reading >>
Can I Send To Ethereum Contract Addresses?
Can I send to Ethereum contract addresses? No. At this time sending to Ethereum contract addresses is disabled. If you need to send ethereum to a contract address then you will need to export the private key associated with your ethereum address. You canthen import your private keyinto a different ethereum wallet that supports this feature. You can read more about exporting your private key in this article . Continue reading >>
How Are Ethereum Addresses Generated?
What criteria does a valid ethereum address need to fulfil? Is it just a random number in hexadecimal? Or does it need to be derived in a specific way, according to some cryptographic algorithm? What algorithms and standards are used to generate the keypair? I don't agree about the duplicate. Question is not about verifying if the address is valid but rather how the address is built and if it follows a format or is just random. Indeed it's not random but the result of some processes. The fact that the word "valid" is in the question is not a criteria, you won't mark all questions with the "valid" word as duplicates ! Nicolas Massart May 3 '16 at 15:38 @tayvano I'm not the one who asked this question Nicolas Massart May 4 '16 at 5:55 It's totally fine that questions get edited/improved and voted for reopening. Here we go. 5chdn May 4 '16 at 11:51 There are three main steps to get from private -> address: Create a random private key (64 (hex) characters / 256 bits / 32 bytes) Derive the public key from this private key (128 (hex) characters / 512 bits / 64 bytes) Derive the address from this public key. (40 (hex) characters / 160 bits / 20 bytes) Even though a lot of people call the address the public key, it's actually not the case in Ethereum. There is a separate public key that acts as a middleman that you won't ever see, unless you go poking around a pre-sale wallet JSON file. The private key is 64 hexadecimal characters. Every single string of 64 hex are, hypothetically, an Ethereum private key (see link at top for why this isn't totally accurate) that will access an account. If you plan on generating a new account, you should be sure these are seeded with a proper RNG. Once you have that string.. This is hard and beyond me. There is something with Elliptic Curve Di Continue reading >>
What Is An Erc20 Token And Does Exodus Support It?
What is an ERC20 Token and does Exodus support it? If youre reading this page, youve probably heard the term ERC20 Token thrown around, especially in the wake of the recent boom in ICO funded blockchain start-ups. ERC stands for Ethereum Request for Comments. This is an official protocol for proposing improvements to the Ethereum network. '20 is the unique proposal ID number. ERC20 defines a set of rules which need to be met in order for a token to be accepted and called as 'ERC20 Token'. The standard rules apply to all ERC20 Tokens since these rules are required to interact with each other on the Ethereum network. These tokens are blockchain assets that have value and can be sent and received, like Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, or any other cryptocurrency. The difference between these tokens and a standalone currency like Litecoin is that ERC20 tokens piggyback on the Ethereum network, hosted by Ethereum addresses and sent by Ethereum transactions. Take this transaction for example At first glance, this transaction may look like an empty Ether transaction - Note the Value of Ether transacted is zero - but look at the text in the red box: That is a record of the amount of OmiseGo tokens that were sent (2.77 OMG) and the Ethereum networkaddresses involved.The address directly above the red box "Contract 0x....." is the OmiseGo Smart Contract - an application that handles the distribution and transfers of OMG tokens on the Ethereum network.This is why, to execute a 'token transfer' transaction, you must pay a fee in Ethereum to the network. See here for more details on how ERC20 token fees work, see this article Sometimes, token contracts do not handle token transfers correctly, sometimes because the fee was too low, or the contract was incorrectly programmed. In these ca Continue reading >>