Where Do Decentralized Applications Store Their Data?
Where do decentralized applications store their data? Now there is a boom in blockchain projects. Some blockchains are so powerful that they claim to be a platform for building applications on top of them. Applications automatically turn out to be decentralized, resistant to censorship and blocking. But is everything so good and simple? In this article, we will try to look at the blockchain as a platform for applications, taking off the rose-colored glasses. Blockchain (chain of blocks) is an immutable data structure consisting of a list of blocks where each next block contains a hash of the previous block. As a result of this hashing, the chain of blocks becomes unchanged: you can not change or delete a block from the middle of the chain without rebuilding all the blocks above, because the slightest change will require a rebuild (recalculating hashes) of all blocks above the changed one. If the calculation of the hash of each block is computationally or economically complex operation, then the data change in the middle of the chain becomes practically impossible at all. The combination of the new block hash calculation complexity, as well as the ease of checking the correctness of the hash, provides blockchain with a serious resistance to unsanctioned changes. This is what holds the safety of bitcoin and other blockchains. Thanks to this, blockchain projects can be publicly decentralized. That is, anyone can put the working node of the blockchain and generate new blocks. In most implementations of the blockchain for the generation of a block a reward is given - this process is called mining. And since it is difficult to mine, and your results can be easily verified, it is profitable to act only honestly. Otherwise, you will spend resources on mining, and other miners Continue reading >>
Blockchain And Data Storage: The Future Is Decentralized
Blockchain and Data Storage: The Future is Decentralized 2017 was the year when blockchain technology burst into the public consciousness. Even beyond the truly startling rise of cryptocurrencies, we became aware of how a range of markets could be transformed by applications built on the technology. But as with any emerging technology that suddenly gains fame and begins to be applied across real-world use cases, issues have emerged around the underlying characteristics of blockchain many of which should be a primary focus of the coming year. Chief among these concerns is scalability. That being said, the existence of these issues serves as a marker of just how far blockchain has come. Tech leaders now posit that it could underpin the next phase of the internet, creating the decentralized world wide web. As we look ahead to this new, decentralized internet, it is important to consider one of its most important elements: decentralized storage. While blockchain is on the rise, its hardly the only technology thats straining existing storage systems. Artificial Intelligence (AI), and particularly the Internet of Things (IoT), are also challenging the current boundaries of storage. Its estimated that there will be over 20 billion connected devices by 2020 , all of which will generate and then require management, storage, and retrieval of enormous amounts of data. Connected devices, combined with consumer personalization apps and the increasing need to share data across business lines, are all playing their part in increasing demand for storage. Businesses wanting to launch new, data-driven applications face a mountain of time, effort and coordination to provision new databases today. This drive towards a richer, more data-centric (and data-heavy) way of working is taking pla Continue reading >>
How Can Blockchain Be Used As A Database To Store Data?
How can blockchain be used as a database to store data? Currently decentralized blockchain applications have few options to store data. Decentralized storage options are: Decentralized cloud file storages, such as Storj, Sia, Ethereum Swarm, etc. Distributed Databases, such as Apache Cassandra, Rethink DB, etc. Storing everything in blockchain itself: Storing everything in blockchain is the simplest solution. Currently most of the simple decentralized applications work exactly this way. However, this approach has significant drawbacks. First of all transactions to blockchain are slow to confirm. It may seem to be fast for money transfer (anyone can wait a minute), but it is extremely slow for a rich application data flow. Rich application may require many thousands transactions per second. Secondly, it is immutable. The immutability is the strength of blockchain that gives it high robustness but it is a weakness for a data storage. User may change their profile or replace their photo, still all the previous data will sit in blockchain forever and can be seen by anyone. The immutability results in one more drawback - the capacity. If all the applications would keep their data in blockchain, the blockchain size will grow rapidly, exceeding publicly available hard drive capacity. Full nodes can require special hardware. It may result in dangerous centralization of blockchain. Thats why storing data in blockchain only is not a good option for a rich decentralized application. Peer to peer file system, such as InterPlanetary File System. IPFS allows to share files on client computers and unites them in the global file system. The technology is based on BitTorrent protocol and Distributed Hash Table. There are several good moments. It is really peer to peer - to share anythi Continue reading >>
Storing Medical Records On The Ethereum Blockchain Healthcare In America
Building a Foundation for the Decentralized Web Storing Medical Records On The Ethereum Blockchain Heres an uncontroversial take: medicine in the United States is fucked. Not so much regarding the actual treatment of patients, but more the bureaucracy surrounding (and often impeding) treatment of those patients. Whether you believe in medical deregulation or single-payer nationalized health insurance, the current system blows, as 54% of Americans are dissatisfied with a healthcare industry that often puts the onus on individuals to coordinate their own care. Unsurprisingly, much of the conversation about healthcare in the United States revolves around health insurance and cost. Insurance and procedure/drug costs are enormous enormous factors in the quality and availability of the care people receive. However, in looking to improve the efficiency and equity of flawed systemssomething toward which I imagine the blockchain community is particularly inclinedit is important to examine smaller, less obvious routes toward managing and improving the system as a whole. TL; DR: We should all put medical records on the blockchain (eventually). But how would storing medical records on the blockchain work? What purpose would it serve? And, is it even possible? Right now, the truth is we dont really know what Ethereum can do. A lot of very impressive people believe the network and its underlying blockchain technology will revolutionize the way we lead our livesperhaps even save the world. Of course, that will take time. As of right now, storing information on the Ethereum blockchain is very expensive. Just in case youre new, or need a quick review, heres why: Most people think of ether as a currency, like dollars or even Bitcoin, but it is also possible to think of ether as the fuel Continue reading >>
Storage - How Can I Store Data In Ethereum Blockchain - Ethereum Stack Exchange
How can I store data in ethereum blockchain I want to store pdf hash in blockchainI already read this post What are some proposed ways of storing data in Ethereum? But I'm beginner in this domain and I don't understand... Is it possible to store data (hash in my case) in Ethereum? How many cost to store data in Ethereum? And how can I do this with python or an other language? In a special place on the blockchain reserved for contract data In a special place on the blockchain reserved for transaction input data To store your data in a special place 1 you'll need to create a contract and deploy it on the blockchain. To store your data in a special place 2 you'll need to send someone a transaction and include your data in it. Before you you can interact with the blockchain you will need to get access to the web3 object. There are multiple ways of doing so. I'd suggest you installing MetaMask plugin for Chrome browser. After you install it, you will have access to web3 object. The ways of interacting with web3 object can be found here (web3 api documentation) Now that you've installed MetaMask plugin. Choose Morden testnet in the configs. Now you can use solidity browser compiler . Try to compile and deploy a simple contract there: You will need some ether in your account(MetaMask provided account) to deploy contracts. Go to and get 5 testnet ether for free. And after I install web3, could I store data in a special place 1? wxcvbn Aug 9 '16 at 12:15 @wxcvbn, I updated my response, check it out, feel free to ask Eugene Epifanov Aug 9 '16 at 12:26 Thank a lot for your answer! Can I insert several hash in one contract? Or is it possible to open an existing contract and add a hash? I need some ether for each contract created or for each data insert in contract? wxcvbn Aug 9 '1 Continue reading >>
Blockchain: Is It The Future Of Data Storage?
Blockchain: Is it the future of data storage? Blockchain is the number-one trend worldwide. Still, there is a lack of understanding of this technology among regular people, as they are used to considering it from the perspective of cryptocurrency. However, the Blockchain concept goes well beyond the digital currency marketplace and bitcoin exchange . Most of us have heard key phrasessuch as: decentralisation, no third party, autonomous, peer-to-peer. Although, many people do not have a keen insight on how in fact everything actually works. Lets learn the ropes and figure out, whether blockchain is a far-reaching and ambitious concept or a hyped falsehood. Like the Internet, Blockchain technology deals with information, but it takes it to a whole new level. So, from now on, you have to understand that everything can be perceived as information, even money. (For example: Bitcoin, the first of its kind cryptocurrency , in terms of which blockchain was implemented for the first time, is no more than a piece of digital information that has a certain value that you own.) Now, lets try to piece things together and go through the key phrases again. Blockchain is: A technology, on the basis of which a certain network can be designed. This network differs markedly from any other networks we recently had, because... It is decentralized. (For example: any website is hosted on a server, that means it is centralized.) Blockchain network, on the contrary, is allocated among tens or hundreds of thousands devices worldwide that process the network. In this regard... It doesnt require a third party. When it comes to valuable information, a third-party service is, commonly, required to be the guarantor of the security of this information. Due to the fact that blockchain is allocated and Continue reading >>
Blockchain And The Promise Of Cooperative Cloud Storage
How Blockchain Can Be Used To Secure Sensitive Data Storage
How Blockchain Can be Used to Secure Sensitive Data Storage Click to learn more about author Mary Ann Callahan. Data Security is no longer a luxury or an afterthought. With so much of our private, personal, and sensitive information being stored and transmitted online, tight security and privacy are now necessities for everyone. But, just as more of our lives are going online, we are hearing about more data breaches and hacks than ever. Here were going to take a look at how Blockchain technology can improve on current, centralized data security solutions, and help keep us safe and in control. Data is quickly becoming one of the most valuable resources in the world. The list of the top 10 companies by market capitalization is now dominated by data-centric companies like Facebook, Alphabet, Microsoft, Apple, and Amazon. That value means your data, especially your sensitive data, is now a prime target for cyber criminals, and you probably arent as protected as you think. Even giant companies like Anthem , Target Corp, and Home Depot have had major data breaches over the last few years affecting hundreds of millions of people. Clearly, current solutions arent good enough to keep us safe. Cloud services often arent the solution either. As hugely centralized systems, they are more valuable targets still. You also need to trust a 3rd party to store your sensitive data for you, which for many companies often isnt desirable or even legal. A new solution is needed. Blockchain technology has been one of the major technological breakthroughs of this century. Bitcoin, the first Blockchain application, allows a network of users to perform transactions without requiring the trust of anyone on the network, or a third party. Everything is encrypted, and nobody can tamper with the Block Continue reading >>
Is Blockchain Technology Really The Answer To Decentralized Storage?
Is Blockchain Technology Really the Answer to Decentralized Storage? Blockchain is extraordinary technology, but may not be appropriate for storing large files, other data. The Blockchain has become much more than a simple piece of technology. It has become a symbol for freedom, transparency and fairness. With this being said, its no wonder we see projects leveraging Blockchain tech as a one-size-fits-all tool to solve all sorts of problems, many of which could not be further from the original purpose of the Blockchain. Nowadays, the words Blockchain technology are thrown around alot and sometimes the use of the technology itself is unnecessary. Tim Swanson, Director of Market Research at R3CEV has even coined the term " chain washing "to describe companies/startups that are using or trying to use Blockchain technology in certain areas when in fact, they could be using more advanced technology for the purpose at hand. This becomes especially evident when it comes to file and data storage. Although the Bitcoin Blockchain is basically a decentralized database for transactions, accounts and balances, keeping that information on a decentralized ledger is already proving to be a challenge due to capacity issues. Nevertheless, several projects and companies insist on looking at Blockchain-based solutions for storage and, while there are clear cases of misguided enthusiasm when it comes to the use of Blockchain technology, there are some projects out there that are worth taking a look at. Blockchain Technology as an Incentive Layer When it comes to a mutualistic relation between Decentralized Ledger Technology (DLT) and data storage, the most common use case for the Blockchain is as an incentive layer. This means that data isnt stored on the Blockchain itself, but the network Continue reading >>
Forever Isnt Free: The Cost Of Storage On A Blockchain Database
Internet Policy Intern at IPDB Foundation. Forever Isnt Free: The Cost of Storage on a Blockchain Database Cloud storage services work as follows: You pay a monthly fee up front for a fixed amount of storage space. During the paid time, you can use any amount of storage space up to that limit. When your paid time expires, you have two choices: pay for another month or your files get deleted. Your cloud provider only keeps your files for as long as you keep paying. Blockchain databases cant work on this model. A blockchain database must store data indefinitely, so the recurring payment model doesnt work. Data storage costs must be paid up front, and must cover not just that month but all the months and years to come. IPDB has developed a sustainable model for the long term storage of data: a one time, up-front payment that covers the cost of indefinite data storage. The payment must be enough to cover the cost of storage and the IPDB Foundations operating expenses. This blog post is a deep dive into the numbers that led to a single per-GB price point the cost of storing data indefinitely in a blockchain database. This kind of analysis has been lacking in the hype around blockchain technology. There are many problems that could be addressed with blockchain technology, but without an understanding of what a blockchain solution will cost, it is impossible to say whether economic efficiencies can be achieved. This post is a first step toward understanding which use cases could truly benefit from the application of blockchains. Before we dive into the model, lets outline some of our underlying assumptions: Conservative predictions: As a general rule, we have tried to keep estimates and assumptions very conservative. We would rather have happy surprises than unhappy surprises Continue reading >>
How Blockchain Will Disrupt Data Storage
Among many other industries and sectors, Blockchain technology is poised to majorly disrupt data storage and cloud computing in the next few years. Instead of storing files and information on centralized servers such as Google Drive, Dropbox or Amazon S3, platforms like Sia or Storj use Blockchain technology to decentralize data storage by breaking up files into multiple pieces, encrypting and sending them to hard drives located all around the world. Individuals and private businesses can participate by renting out their unused hard drive space and make money. Sia and Storj have launched their own cryptocurrencies (Siacoin, Storjcoin) in order to incentivize usage and to create a market for buying and selling decentralized storage. So what are the main advantages of decentralized cloud service vs. private centralized cloud services offered by Amazon, IBM, Dropbox, etc.? More security & privacy. Decentralized data is also more difficult to attack than centralized data. On a decentralized network, files are broken apart and spread across multiple nodes (with sharding). The files are encrypted with a private key which makes it impossible for the node (participant in the network) to look at your file. Moreover, due to sharding, the files are just a fraction of their original self which render the reading of their content impossible. File loss prevention through redundancy in data (extra copies stored in case of error in storing or transmission of data). Cost reduction due to more efficiency. Blockchain storage costs can reduce the price of cloud computing between 50% -100%. (Storj VS Amazon S3 vs Microsoft Azure, via Storj Website) Increased speed due to servers proximity, scaling effects and fragmentation of data (smaller fragments can be saved and retrieved concurrently) Continue reading >>
Storj - Decentralized Cloud Storage
"Storj is like an Internet filesystem. Data blocks are encrypted and distributed across a globally distributed set of storage nodes using block-chain algorithm. It is quite impressive and much needed innovation in the storage space." "Decentralized file storage systems like Storj have the potential to eliminate high markup costs and market inefficiencies and provide a much higher level of privacy, reliability and quality of service than we see today." "The power of the Storj platform is its unique ability indiscriminately utilize the free capacity of a storage node, whether a single end-user PC or a massive data center. Storj is bringing an unprecedented degree of efficiency to globally distributed data storage." "Storj is a unique market phenomena. It sets new standards of unit economics for distributed data storage." "As a seed investor, we were more than happy to join the next round for Storj with a great line up of co-investors. We want storing files to be cheaper, faster and more secure and the progress the team has made towards that mission has been phenomenal to watch. We are looking forward to putting more and more of our documents on the Blockchain thanks to Storj." Continue reading >>
Blockchain And The Cloud: How Data Storage Could Change In The Coming Years
Blockchain And The Cloud: How Data Storage Could Change In The Coming Years February 28, 2018, 08:52:20 AM EDT By David Floyd Realizing what "the cloud" really means can be a letdown. Sure, sloughing all that data off was liberating. Companies no longer have to maintain their own finicky servers; individuals no longer have to devote so much cash to hardware or care to keeping everything backed up. The cloud untethers us from expensive circuitry and not a little stress. Except, as the line goes, there is no cloud. It's just someone else's computer. Rather than ascending to the heavens, vast quantities of individual and enterprise data were dumped into server farms run by the likes of Google, Amazon and Microsoft. These companies are good at running server farms, and the user experience is for the most part above reproach. (I'm writing in Google Docs right now.) But if you cringe at such deep, far-reaching centralizationif the Equifax breach makes you shudder at the headlines the coming years could bringthis situation won't do. Blockchain-based applications, which are trying to decentralize a range of digital services, are particularly reluctant to use Microsoft Azure or Amazon Web Services. That leaves local storage on user devices that are no longer designed for it. Unless, that is, we can decentralize storage the way bitcoin has decentralized financial transactions. A number of projects are working to make that happen. Their solutions employ various combinations of blockchain-based tokens, which storage renters use to compensate storage providers; smart contracts, which govern these transactions; encryption, which keeps the data secure; sharding, which keeps it manageable; and secure multiparty computation, which keeps it hidden even when it's being run through algori Continue reading >>
How To Use Blockchain To Build A Database Solution
How to use blockchain to build a database solution Why would you want to use blockchain to build a database solution? And how would you actually do that? BigchainDB has answers. First Wall Street , then the database world. While most people are still trying to wrap their heads around blockchain and its difference from Bitcoin, others are using it in a wide range of domains. Is it hype, a case of having a hammer and seeing problems as nails, or could blockchain actually have a purpose in the database world? BigchainDB 's creators argue there is a reason, and a way, for blockchain and databases to live happily ever after. Blockchain technology, put simply, is a type of digital ledger which records transactions, agreements, contracts and sales. The technology is decentralized, which means that information is stored in computers around the world, and is constantly updated in real-time to reflect changes in stock, sales and accounts by bringing records together into blocks before algorithms 'chain' these data stores together chronologically. Blockchain was introduced by Bitcoin, which despite its oft discussed issues has illustrated a novel set of benefits: decentralized control, where "no one" owns or controls the network; immutability, where written data is "forever" tamper-resistant; and the ability to create and transfer assets on the network, without reliance on a central entity. The initial excitement surrounding Bitcoin stemmed from its use as a token of value, for example as an alternative to government-issued currencies. Now the separation between Bitcoin and the underlying blockchain technology is getting better understood, the scope of the technology itself and its applications are being extended. With this increase in scope, single monolithic blockchain technolo Continue reading >>
Faq - Recordskeeper, Blockchain-based Record Keeping Solution
RecordsKeeper is a Open Public Mineable Blockchain for RecordKeeping & Data Security. It can also be seen as an open source platform for private Blockchains, which offers a rich set of features including extensive configurability, rapid deployment, permissions management, native assets and data streams. You can publish your data in key-value pair format onto the RecordsKeeper Blockchain. Is RecordsKeeper a Storage, Database or Blockchain? RecordsKeeper is a key-value pair based database running on Blockchain. It stores every record as a key-value pair as a part of XRK transaction. In another way you can consider it an amalgamation of all the three (Storage, Database & Blockchain) as it offers storage as a Database over the public Blockchain. How RecordsKeeper is different from traditional storage? Since RecordsKeeper is Public Blockchain it consist of several decentralized nodes (aka Servers) which verify each and every transaction while adding a new Block into the Blockchain. Each node participates in administration: all nodes verify new additions to the blockchain, and are capable of entering new data into the RecordsKeeper. Traditional Database allows the modification of data but with RecordsKeeper Blockchain the data is secured and cannot be tampered, altered or modified once published & confirmed in the RecordsKeeper Blockchain Ledger. How RecordsKeeper is different from Storj, Filecoin and Siacoin? RecordsKeeper is based on simple mechanism to utilize the transaction size to store your data as compared to other 3rd parties which uses rental of Hard Drives of other users to create a network of storage. RecordsKeeper Blockchain is based on Key-Value pairs and reduce the overhead to get space from other parties. RecordsKeeper allows the user to upload data (in key-v Continue reading >>