Proof-of-stake - Wikipedia
This article may rely excessively on sources too closely associated with the subject, potentially preventing the article from being verifiable and neutral . Please help improve it by replacing them with more appropriate citations to reliable, independent, third-party sources . ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Proof-of-stake (PoS) is a type of algorithm by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus . In PoS-based cryptocurrencies the creator of the next block is chosen via various combinations of random selection and wealth or age (i.e. the stake). In contrast, the algorithm of proof-of-work (PoW) based cryptocurrencies (such as bitcoin ) rewards participants who solve complicated cryptographical puzzles in order to validate transactions and create new blocks (i.e. mining ). Proof-of-stake must have a way of defining the next valid block in any blockchain. Selection by account balance would result in (undesirable) centralization, as the single richest member would have a permanent advantage. Instead, several different methods of selection have been devised. Nxt and BlackCoin use randomization to predict the following generator, by using a formula that looks for the lowest hash value in combination with the size of the stake.    Since the stakes are public, each node can predict - with reasonable accuracy - which account will next win the right to forge a block. Peercoin 's proof-of-stake system combines randomization with the concept of "coin age," a number derived from the product of the number of coins times the number of days the coins have been held. Coins that have been unspent for at least 30 days begin competing for the next block. Older and larger sets of coins have a greater probability of sign Continue reading >>
Proof Of Work Vs Proof Of Stake: Basic Mining Guide
Proof of Work vs Proof of Stake: Basic Mining Guide Angel Investors, Startups & Blockchain developers... Recently you might have heard about the idea to move from an Ethereum consensus based on the Proof of Work (PoW) system to one based on the so-called Proof of Stake. In this article, I will explain to you the main differences between Proof of Work vs Proof of Stake and I will provide you a definition of mining, or the process new digital currencies are released through the network. Also, what will change regarding mining techniques if the Ethereum community decides to do the transition from work to stake? This article wants to be a basic guide to understanding the problem above. First of all, lets start with basic definitions. Proof of work is a protocol that has the main goal of deterring cyber-attacks such as a distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS) which has the purpose of exhausting the resources of a computer system by sending multiple fake requests. The Proof of work concept existed even before bitcoin , but Satoshi Nakamoto applied this technique to his/her we still dont know who Nakamoto really is digital currency revolutionizing the way traditional transactions are set. In fact, PoW idea was originally published by Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor back in 1993, but the term proof of work was coined by Markus Jakobsson and Ari Juels in a document published in 1999. But, returning to date, Proof of work is maybe the biggest idea behind the Nakamotos Bitcoin white paper published back in 2008 because it allows trustless and distributed consensus. Whats trustless and distributed consensus? A trustless and distributed consensus system means that if you want to send and/or receive money from someone you dont need to trust in third-party services. When you use tra Continue reading >>
Ethereums Proof-of-stake May Be A Profitable Venture For Currentholders
Co-founder & CEO of Apteo: Researching machine learning techniques to improve investing, especially in stocks, options, and soon, crypto. Come join us! Ethereums Proof-of-Stake May Be A Profitable Venture For CurrentHolders In a recent post , I outlined how the use of real-world resources tie cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ether back to real world monetary value. Today, Im going to flip the script and talk about Ethereums plan to eliminate the need for heavy duty computing power, and why that may not be such a bad thing from a financial perspective. If youre familiar with the idea of cryptocurrency mining, you know that in order to keep a blockchain running smoothly, it takes a lot of computing power to verify new transactions. This process, known as mining, is currently used by both Bitcoin and Ethereum to maintain their blockchains. One of the main issues with mining is the vast amount of electricity that it uses. Vitalik Buterin, the creator of Ethereum, has estimated that the amount of electricity needed to mine Bitcoin and Ethereum runs up a $1M daily bill ( ). Another study recently showed that the amount of electricity consumed by the Bitcoin mining network is comparable to the energy used by all of Ireland ( ). If things continue as-is, cryptos are going to be a big problem for the environment. Mining fills a big need providing consensus among network participants regarding the state of the world of historical and current transactions. Because miners solve complicated problems using transaction information and cryptography, what they do is referred to as proof-of-work. There are, however, other methods for getting a group of disparate participants to agree on transactions. The most popular of which is referred to as proof-of-stake. Instead of miners competin Continue reading >>
What Does Proof Of Stake Mean For Ethereum?
What does Proof of Stake mean for Ethereum? One major issue with Ethereum mining is the high consumption of power. Processing transactions costs an ever-increasing amount of electricity which is not only bad from a financial perspective but also bad for the environment. The main concept used in cryptocurrency mining is proof of work (PoW) which means miners get rewarded when they solve puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks. Though it works and is used by the majority of cryptocurrencies, there is a need for a lot of computing power for new transactions to be verified. According to an approximation done by Vitalik Buterin who is the founder of Ethereum, it uses electricity costing up to $1M daily in order to process daily transactions. Since mining is becoming less financially feasible over time the founder proposed switching to a different concept as an alternative to proof of work called proof of stake. As opposed to proof of work where miners have to solve complicated algorithms to validate a transaction, in proof of stake miners are those that are willing to stake part of their cryptocurrency on the blocks they think should be added to the blockchain. Proof of stake depends on validators economic stake in the network. In a PoS based blockchain, miners who are the validators have their own turn in voting and proposing the next block. The weight of the vote of the validator will depend on their stake in the network which is basically the deposit of cryptocurrency they have. The blockchain will keep a record of validators and those who hold the blockchains base cryptocurrency. If one holds the blockchains base cryptocurrency they can easily become a miner or a validator as all they need to do is to give up their ether into a locked deposit through a sp Continue reading >>
Proof Of Stake Faq Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github
See A Proof of Stake Design Philosophy for a more long-form argument. No need to consume large quantities of electricity in order to secure a blockchain (eg. it's estimated that both Bitcoin and Ethereum burn over $1 million worth of electricity and hardware costs per day as part of their consensus mechanism). Because of the lack of high electricity consumption, there is not as much need to issue as many new coins in order to motivate participants to keep participating in the network. It may theoretically even be possible to have negative net issuance, where a portion of transaction fees is "burned" and so the supply goes down over time. Proof of stake opens the door to a wider array of techniques that use game-theoretic mechanism design in order to better discourage centralized cartels from forming and, if they do form, from acting in ways that are harmful to the network (eg. like selfish mining in proof of work). Reduced centralization risks, as economies of scale are much less of an issue. $10 million of coins will get you exactly 10 times higher returns than $1 million of coins, without any additional disproportionate gains because at the higher level you can afford better mass-production equipment. Ability to use economic penalties to make various forms of 51% attacks vastly more expensive to carry out than proof of work - to paraphrase Vlad Zamfir, "it's as though your ASIC farm burned down if you participated in a 51% attack". How does proof of stake fit into traditional Byzantine fault tolerance research? There are several fundamental results from Byzantine fault tolerance research that apply to all consensus algorithms, including traditional consensus algorithms like PBFT but also any proof of stake algorithm and, with the appropriate mathematical modeling, pr Continue reading >>
First Impressions Of Ethereums Casperproof Of Stake(pos)
Vitalik Buterin and Virgil Griffith have introduced a proof of stake-based finality system capable of overlaying an existing proof of work (PoW) blockchain. In their paper , entitled Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget, Buterin and Griffith explain that the first version of Casper (within Ethereum) could take on the form of a hybrid PoW/PoS system. The first available release of the alpha Casper Friendly Finality Gadget (FFG) testnet, built on pyethereum, achieves this. This hybrid PoW/PoS vision, albeit with only 14 listed nodes at the time of writing, can be observed on the following Ethereum Network Status Site . Installing Casper FFG on Ubuntu 16.04LTS Thankfully, the process of installing Casper FFG on Ubuntu as documented here  is relatively straight forward. This succinct installation process is thanks to the docker approach provided by Karl Floersch . Participating in the validation PoSprocess At present, my most significant hurdle to running a validating Casper FFG testnet node is not brought about by the installation process or commands. It is brought about by the fact that a validating Casper FFG node, on the testnet, must provide a minimum deposit of 1, 500 Casper FFG testnet ETH in order to participate in the validation process. As we mentioned previously, Casper FFG is a hybrid PoW/PoS system and therefore the Casper FFG node is able to be run in mining mode. The following gist contains a list of commands for mining Casper FFG testnet ETH using Ubuntu 16.04LTS. The following gist contains a list of commands for checking Casper FFG testnet ETH account balance (during/after mining). Of course, whilst mining is an option, it would be ideal if participants willing to try out the alpha Casper FFG testnet could have immediate access to the required Continue reading >>
Will Ethereum Be Worth Staking?
By Ethereum ( ) [CC BY 3.0 ( )], via Wikimedia Commons Ethereum is switching to Proof of Stake as soon as early 2018. The Casper protocol has been formalized, the specification is complete, and now the implementation phase can begin. Depending on how long it takes to implement and test may determine how it all plays out. The question is will it actually be worth it to stake Ether in the first place? Will people be able to do it securely? I have my doubts that individuals will be able to securely stake if we are talking large amounts of Ether (1000+) because the price of 1000 Ether could reach into the millions of dollars. There may be attempts to decentralize this with staking pools but again the question remains whether or not people will think it's worth it to stake? What amount of interest from staking would it take to be deemed worth it? In my opinion it has to be over 6%. The federal reserve gives 6% dividends to all banks who are a member so if the federal reserve operates in this fashion then it's a very similar structure to the federal reserve. At the same time inflation exists so if the interest from staking isn't high enough people would be foolish to bother and this is where things are most concerning. In stocks a person can get around 8% yearly growth in value along with 4-5% annual dividends. So why would someone choose Ether over stocks? A company might choose Ether for political reasons but why would an individual investor choose a naturally high risk investor to park their wealth? Finally a website is available which tracks all our trades for tax purposes. Cointracking.info has the most features of any similar service. I recommend it for people who want to earn their money and keep it without having to look over their shoulder. Sign up with my link to g Continue reading >>
Ethereum Proof Of Stake Implementation Launched By Applicature
Ethereum proof of stake implementation launched by Applicature Applicature is working on projects implying the development of smart contracts; research, deployment, and customization of blockchain solutions; technical advisory to blockchain resources; technical consultancy on token sales, initial coin offerings. Applicature , a boutique blockchain agency with a presence in the U.S and Europe has launched its Proof of Stake Consensus protocol on Ethereum in order to secure, stabilize, improve transactions in multiple industries: banking, supply chain, marketing including loyalty systems. It was developed in the fall-winter period of 2017-2018 and is ready to roll out for testing. Due to high demand from the clients, and due to already existing PoW, which wasnt always suitable to use for certain tasks, Applicature has made a decision to develop its own AEPoS (Applicature Ethereun Proof of Stake Consensus Protocol). Proof of Stake (PoS) is the blockchain consensus and reward algorithm that distributes rewards respectively to the declared economical interest in the game for example by holding of the digital assets. Such declared interest is known as stake. Proof of Work (PoW) is all about mining. To get a reward you have to solve a hard block algorithm (puzzle). The process of solving the block is called mining. All blocks must be verified by mining. It means that to validate transactions miners have to use a lot of computational power to solve the puzzle. The amount of reward you get depends on how fast you calculate. To solve the puzzle faster miners have to invest in new hardware and it burns out tons of energy. When the block is solved its added to the public blockchain. More miners mean more security. 1) Process of mining to validate transactions 2) Miners get rewarde Continue reading >>
Ethereum Launches Casper Testnet, Paving The Way For Proof-of-stake
Ethereum Launches Casper Testnet, Paving the Way for Proof-of-Stake Ethereum developers have launched an alpha test network (testnet) for Casper, paving the way for the cryptocurrency to eventually transition to a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus algorithm. Like bitcoin, ethereum currently operates on a proof-of-work (PoW) consensus algorithm, meaning that the network is secured and new currency units are issued through mining, whereby participants solve cryptographic puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks. However, PoW has attracted criticism over the years, both for its tendency to centralize mining hardware into a few pools and for the amount of electricity it consumes. Ethereum aims to address these problems by transitioning to Casper , a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus algorithm. Under Casper, participants can become validators by locking up or staking ether. Validators will take turns proposing and voting on blocks, and both the weight of their votes and the size of their rewards will hinge on the size of their stakes. According to developers, moving to Casper will greatly reduce the amount of electricity wasted through PoW mining. In addition to limiting its environmental impact, PoS will allow ethereum to dramatically reduce its rate of currency inflation since validators will have much lower overhead and will thus require smaller rewards to incentivize them to continue to serve as validators. Moreover, PoS will also reduce the incentive that validators have to centralize their influence. With decreased centralization comes increased security and, importantly, resistance to dreaded 51 percent attacks. Ethereum is not the first project to attempt to integrate a PoS consensus algorithm. However, most previous PoS implementations have been criticized Continue reading >>
How Ethereum's Casper Protocol Will Address Problems With Proof Of Stake
How Ethereum's Casper Protocol Will Address Problems With Proof Of Stake Bitcoin and Ethereum both currently operate under a Proof of Work protocol. Ethereum is moving from Proof of Work towards Proof of Stake under its new Casper protocol. Despite its many benefits, the drawbacks of Proof of Stake have prevented its widespread adoption. Casper aims to solve Proof of Stake's drawbacks, resulting in an improvement over existing Proof of Work and Proof of Stake protocols. The updated protocol improves the long term outlook of Ethereum's valuation. An overarching problem that cryptocurrencies must address is called the Byzantine General's Problem . The Byzantine General's Problem essentially simplifies down to: How do you prevent data from being corrupted or falsified in a network where there are nodes that have economic incentive to lie about the data? In application to cryptocurrency, the problem boils down to preventing attackers from lying about a coin's ledger, given the economic incentive of doing so. We need a way to form consensus on the ledger because anyone can create a block, while we only want a unique chain, so we want a way to decide which block to trust. The two main schools of thought to solving the Byzantine General's Problem are Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS). Explicitly, a "proof of work" is a piece of data which is difficult (costly, time-consuming) to produce but easy for others to verify and which satisfies certain requirements. Producing a proof of work can be a random process with low probability so that a lot of trial and error is required on average before a valid proof of work is generated. Currently Bitcoin, Ethereum, and the vast majority of other cryptocurrencies utilize some form of proof of work. PoW (referring to the protocol Continue reading >>
Beginner's Guide To Ethereum Casper Hardfork: What You Need To Know
The Casper updates mission is straightforward, then: to shift ether from being a PoW coin to a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) coin . As opposed to the PoW consensus protocol, the PoS protocol achieves consensus through stakerssometimes referred to as minters, toowho stake their coins by locking them down in specialized wallets . With these stakers at work, mining will become redundant, meaning the Ethereum network post-Casper will rely on stakers and staking pools instead of miners for its operability. And, like miners, stakers will be rewarded for their service to the network. Minters will receive an annual dividend of ether (collected from network fees), so staking would be a lucrative endeavor for those with enough coins. Naturally, then, the more ETH you stake, the larger your annual dividends will be. For now, Ethereums developers havent arrived at a hard number for the amount of ETH that will be required to stake. What they have confirmed, though, is that the number will likely start out higher before gradually being brought considerably lower. For instance, Ethereum founder Vitalik Buterin has recently thrown around a guesstimate of needing approximately 1,000 ETH to be one of the networks inaugural stakers. He said that number could be dropped down to as low as 10 ETH over time. Whatever the number ends up being, users will still be able to band together and create staking pools, just like there are robust mining pools in the Bitcoin and Ethereum communities today. Youll simply pitch your desired amount of ether in, lock in down with your peers, and rake in the dividends together (to be shared proportionally, of course). Well, the Casper update is certainly a team effort, but its inarguable that top Ethereum researcher Vlad Zamfir has been at the vanguard of the updates Continue reading >>
Rocket Pool - Your Friendly Decentralised Ethereum Proof Of Stake (pos) Pool
ConsenSys picks Rocket Pool to pitch to them in Sydney! ConsenSys is launching a $50 million venture capital fund to be managed by social impact expert Kavita Gupta and they have hand picked 4 Australian projects from all over to pitch to them at the Sydney Ethereum Meetup on the 14th November and you guessed it, Rocket Pool got picked! It was Sydney Ethereums biggest meetup ever with over 300 people attending and some major industry players. After the very successful presale in September, Rocket Pool is now aiming to launch its next and final token sale starting on November 25th and running through to December 23rd. This new public crowdsale will feature a new type of token distribution system which will allow anyone to claim some RPL tokens from the sale, regardless of the amount they contribute or the time they contribute. Like the original presale, it's built using our own token distribution platform, the Sale Agent. With the RPL presale in the rear view mirror, efforts over the last few weeks have been concentrated on working on some core elements of Rocket Pool that will be required for its beta release hopefully on the Kovan testnet in the first quarter of 2018. Some of these core elements are the smart node service scripts and the design / functionality of the Rocket Pool beta UI. Ethereum Brisbane - Rocket Pool, Anatomy of a Dapp Rocket Pool got a special invitation to give a talk on our Dapp + Network to the Brisbane Ethereum Meetup group on the 4th October. Had a great turn out of 60-80 people and spent a good hour going over all Rocket Pools tech, how it was made and what it was made using. Slides from the event are linked above. Our primary protocol token RPL has been quickly listed at EtherDelta after the initial token presale. EtherDelta is a decentralis Continue reading >>
Ethereums Switch To Proof Of Stake Better Than Proof Of Work?
By UseTheBitcoin in Cryptocurrency News Guides Home If youre at least interested in the cryptocurrency space, youve probably heard of Ethereum. Its currently the second largest coin by market cap, primarily because so many other tokens run on Ethereum, and partly because the development team is very talented. Either way, this post is about the switch from POW to POS. Well, POW is currently used by most cryptocurrencies including Bitcoin, Ethereum (for now) and Litecoin. If a coin is minable, that means its utilizing a POW system. Miners use their GPUs or ASICs to solve cryptographic hash functions which verify the blockchain. GPUs primarily designed for gaming like the RX 580 are now being employed by miners. Their GPUs are rapidly guessing and checking different solutions to a next to impossible math problem. When they successfully solve the equation, the ledger (blockchain) is updated and the miner receives a block reward in the form of a token and/or transaction fees. This is called Proof-of-Work because miners are doing lots of work in the form of processing mathematical equations with their mining hardware. Without miners, many networks wouldnt exist. Miners pay for electricity in exchange for tokens. What is Proof of Stake and How its different Proof-of-Stake is a bit different. Previously miners proved how fast they could verify the network; now, ETH holders will show how much they own by running something called a master node . When you create a master node, you have to lock up a certain amount of ETH to prove you own it. Rewards are distributed based on how much you have locked away and how long its locked away for. Instead of 1,000 miners verifying the network for example, there might be around 10,000 wallets holding Ethereum through Proof-of-Stake. With POS, Continue reading >>
Ethereum Proof Of Stake Implementation Launched By Applicature
Ethereum Proof of Stake Implementation Launched by Applicature Home > Company News >Ethereum Proof of Stake Implementation Launched by Applicature January 22nd, 2018, San Francisco, California. Applicature has launched the Proof of Stake Consensus Protocol on Ethereum in order to secure and stabilize transactions in multiple industries like banking, supply chain, and marketing, including loyalty systems. Proof of Stakewas developed during the fall-winter period of 2017-2018, and is ready to roll out for testing. Due to high demand from clients and preexisting PoW that wasnt always suitable for use in certain tasks, Applicature has made the decision to develop its own AEPoS (Applicature Ethereum Proof of Stake Consensus Protocol). Applicature: a Blockchain Development Agency Applicature is a boutique blockchain agency with a presence in the U.S. and Europe. Applicature works on projects implementing the development of smart contracts: the research, deployment, and customization of blockchain solutions; a technical advisory for blockchain resources; and a technical consultancy for token sales and initial coin offerings. Proof of Stake is a blockchain consensus and reward algorithm that distributes rewards to declared economic interests in the gamefor example, through the holding of digital assets. Declared interest, in this case, is known as stake. Proof of Work is all about mining. To get a reward, you have to solve a hard block algorithm (puzzle). The process of solving the block is called mining. All blocks must be verified by mining. This means that in order to validate transactions, miners must use a great deal of computational power to solve a puzzle. The amount of reward you get depends upon how fast you calculate, so to solve puzzles faster, miners have to invest Continue reading >>
When Will Ethereum Mining End?
In August of this year (2017), Vitalik Buterin, creator of Ethereum , released the implementation guide for the first version of Casper. As a hybrid proof-of-stake (PoS)/proof-of-work (PoW) algorithm, Casper v1 is going to decrease (and eventually end) the profitability for Ethereum miners . The release date is estimated to be sometime in 2018 as part of the Constantinople hard fork and theres a lot to learn before this happens: Casper is a PoS algorithm thats projected to be released on the Ethereum network sometime in 2018. Beginning as a hybrid with the current PoW algorithm, the first version of Casper will only use a PoS consensus to validate every 100th block, called checkpoints. Once a checkpoint is validated, theres no way to go back and use a chain without it. Even if 99% of miners support a chain that doesnt include a checkpoint block, all clients in the network will still continue to use the one with the checkpoints. This removes a lot of the power that miners currently have. The Ethereum community hypothesizes that the switch to PoS will help with the scaling issues that the network is currently facing. The algorithm should enable new blocks to be created more quickly while allowing the network to scale more efficiently through sharding. Sharding is a horizontal partitioning of a large database into smaller and more easily managed parts. Beyond that, PoS algorithms also use less energy to run the network, reduce centralization, and make 51% attacks more difficult. With the upcoming hard fork, there could potentially be three forks of Ethereum: And, if youre a miner, you may be thinking, No big deal, Ill just continue to mine and give support to the Ethereum PoW fork. The Ethereum developers have stated that theyll be releasing what they call the difficulty Continue reading >>