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How Much Ethereum Per Block

What Are Mining Rewards In Ethereum?

What Are Mining Rewards In Ethereum?

Mining Ether will start with the release of the Frontier platform. The Olympics test beforehand had no value attributed to the Ether which was mined and all balances at the Ether launch were set back to the close of the Fundraising so even if you had transferred our Ether on the testnet after contributing to your fundraise you will keep the Ether on the launch of the Frontier platform. The proof of work in Ethereum is run through Ethash . The successful PoW miner will receive a static block reward that is equal to 5 Ether. The successful miner will also receive all the gas in fees that it generates from the transactions in the block that it verifies. As time goes on and the amount of Ether created grows it is expected that gas rewards will take the lions share of mining rewards. The miner will also receive an award of 1/32 per Uncle block included. Uncles are stale blocks with parents that are a maximum of six blocks back from the present block. Valid Uncle blocks are rewarded to halt network lag (time to propagate a valid block to the whole network). Uncles included in a block receive 7/8 of the static block reward or 4.375 Ether- with a maximum of 2 Uncles allowed per block. After you have mined some ether you will need somewhere to store it and you can choose the best place here with our ethereum wallet comparison page. Continue reading >>

Accounts, Transactions, Gas, And Block Gas Limits In Ethereum

Accounts, Transactions, Gas, And Block Gas Limits In Ethereum

Accounts, Transactions, Gas, and Block Gas Limits in Ethereum This article is meant to help people understand some of the basic mechanics behind accounts, transactions, gas, and the role miners play in setting the block size in Ethereum. Corrections are welcome :) There are two types of accounts in Ethereum can send transactions (ether transfer or trigger contract code), code execution is triggered by transactions or messages (calls) received from other contracts. when executed - perform operations of arbitrary complexity (Turing completeness) - manipulate its own persistent storage, i.e. can have its own permanent state - can call other contracts All action on the Ethereum block chain is set in motion by transactions fired from accounts. Every time a contract account receives a transaction, its code is executed as instructed by the input parameters sent as part of the transaction. The contract code is executed by the Ethereum Virtual Machine on each node participating in the network as part of their verification of new blocks. The term transaction is used in Ethereum to refer to the signed data package that stores a message to be sent from an externally owned account to another account on the blockchain. a signature identifying the sender and proving their intention to send the message via the blockchain to the recipient, VALUE field - The amount of wei to transfer from the sender to the recipient, an optional data field, which can contain the message sent to a contract, a GASLIMIT value, representing the maximum number of computational steps the transaction execution is allowed to take, a GASPRICE value, representing the fee the sender is willing to pay for gas. One unit of gas corresponds to the execution of one atomic instruction, i.e. a computational step. Contrac Continue reading >>

Calculating Costs In Ethereum Contracts

Calculating Costs In Ethereum Contracts

Thinking, coding, and explaining Ethereum and blockchain technologies. GAS PRICE PSA (20170823): The median gas price at the time of writing this article was 28 Gwei, and continues to be in the realm of 20 Gwei. This is far greater than the typical average and safe-low found on EthGasStation (4 and 0.5 Gwei respectively). The median is so high because of bad gas-price defaults found in many wallets. I highly recommend using EthGasStations average gas-price or lower in order to not pay high fees and to help drive down the market rate for gas-price. UPDATE (2017096): I ported the Google Spreadsheet of OPCODES to a github repo . This repo will be maintained and updated as the yellow paper evolves. What are users storing when they hold Ether? In one sense, they are storing the ability to perform computation on the Ethereum network. This computation is done in a decentralized fashion: A miner executes the computation associated with each transaction being included in a block, resulting in an updated state. Upon successfully mining a block, a miner broadcasts the block to the network. Each of the other miners and non-mining nodes verify the validity of the transactional computation and resulting state change before accepting the block as valid, incorporating the block into their copy of the blockchain, and moving on to the next block. You may have noticed that there is incredible amount of redundancy for every bit of computation on the network. Namely, each node verifies the results of each transaction read: every node runs all of the computation. Ive been researching Ethereum and other blockchain application platforms for a long time now, and rarely, if ever, do people outright say this. Once you get into the more technical side of things, it becomes an obvious feature of t Continue reading >>

Ethereum Mining Profitablity Calculator

Ethereum Mining Profitablity Calculator

SwissBorg - Crypto Wealth Management on the Blockchain 10mln$ already raised. Become a Whale on 1 Swiss ICO ! This mining calculator will display your expected earnings in both Ether and Dollars. The calculations are based on the assumption that all conditions (difficulty and prices) remain as they are below. Continue reading >>

A Gentle Introduction To Ethereum

A Gentle Introduction To Ethereum

Ethereum builds on blockchain and cryptocurrency concepts, so if you are not familiar with these, its worth reading a gentle introduction to bitcoin and a gentle introduction to blockchain technology first. This article assumes the reader has a basic familiarity with how Bitcoin works. Ethereum is software running on a network of computers that ensures that data and small computer programs called smart contracts are replicated and processed on all the computers on the network, without a central coordinator. The vision is to create an unstoppable censorship-resistant self-sustaining decentralised world computer. The officialwebsite is Itextends the blockchain concepts from Bitcoin which validates, stores, and replicates transaction data on many computers around the world (hence the term distributed ledger). Ethereum takes this one step further, and also runs computer code equivalently on many computers around the world. What Bitcoin does for distributed data storage, Ethereum does for distributed data storage plus computations. The small computer programsbeing run are called smart contracts, and the contractsare run by participants on their machines using asort ofoperating system called a Ethereum Virtual Machine. To run Ethereum, you can download (or write yourself if you have the patience) some software called an Ethereum client. Just like BitTorrent or Bitcoin, the Ethereum client will connect over the internet to other peoples computers running similar client softwareand start downloading the Ethereum blockchain from them to catch up. It will also independently validate that each block conforms to the Ethereum rules. What does the Ethereum client software do? You can use itto: Create new transactions and smart contracts Your computer becomes a node on the network, r Continue reading >>

For Pool Mining, What Exactly Is A Share?

For Pool Mining, What Exactly Is A Share?

For pool mining, what exactly is a share? Can someone please explain exactly what a share is in the context of pool mining? I have a superficial understanding of testing random nonces to find a hash under the current difficulty. I also understand that mining pools set a custom easier difficulty to target a relatively easy to attain share difficulty (~10 minutes). What I don't understand is how those shares translate to finding real blocks. Say one out of a thousand shares is a valid real new block. Why wouldn't miners just submit that hash themselves, and send the rest of the easier shares to the pool? I'm sure I have a fundamental misunderstanding, but can't figure out what it is. I guess somehow the pool has some secret that it can combine w/ the submitted shares to see if that share matches a block, but that is a guess. You guess right, as a pool client you can't figure if a work package contains something valuable. Only the pool knows and is the real client of the Ethereum network. You only do blind computation. Nicolas Massart Jun 2 '16 at 10:15 THis is not an answer but more on the question, I might have misunderstood the responses but no one layed out what a "share" is exactly. I know its a piece of work submitted but what value does it have and what kind of work is it, for it to be useful to the pool or the block being found. cdc285 Aug 13 '16 at 4:24 Lots of answers here, but none of them has actually answered the question "what is a share?" In almost all mining pools, a share is a block "solution" not quite good enough to be published as an actual block, but still good enough that it's really hard to find them. This means that shares can be used to measure how much work you're doing, but just with much finer and more consistent granularity than actual block s Continue reading >>

The Ethereum Community Demonstrates Its Strength: How Ethereum Solved Its Own Block-size Controversy

The Ethereum Community Demonstrates Its Strength: How Ethereum Solved Its Own Block-size Controversy

The Ethereum Community Demonstrates Its Strength: How Ethereum Solved Its Own Block-Size Controversy Slow transaction times, high transaction fees, and a static gas limit were plaguing the Ethereum network, leading some to wonder if this was the emergence of a rift between miners and developers. But in less than a month, the two factions worked together to raise the gas limit and avoided what could have become Ethereums own block-size stand-off. Note: This article attempts to break down a complicated issue so that readers of every technical ability can understand. However, that makes it very long. Section headers are included to help readers navigate to the parts that meet their interest/technical level. Twenty-nine days ago, Ethereum Foundation (EF) contributor and Oaken Innovations co-founder Hudson Jameson alerted the community that the recent surge in token offering (TO) popularity may lead to severe network congestion and high transaction costs over the coming weeks. In a reddit post , he explained his belief that a temporary fix miners had implemented late last year in response to a Denial of Service (DoS) attack is what was causing blocks to fill up, or reach the limit of acceptable transactions per block, requiring many users to endure long wait times and high fees to send transactions on the network. Recognizing the frustration that users unaccustomed to Ethereums evolutionary rate might have with these long wait times, he suggested that miners raise their gas limit and gas price settings to help alleviate these issues. He called for miners to re-institute a pre-DoS attack adaptive gas limit that would track a moving average of previous block use and organically grow (or shrink) to help prevent blocks from filling up. In a discussion with ETHNews, Jameson expl Continue reading >>

How Do Mining Pools Work? Is It Better Than Solo Mining?

How Do Mining Pools Work? Is It Better Than Solo Mining?

How do Mining Pools Work? Is it Better Than Solo Mining? Admir Tulic October 24, 2017 420 no comments Lets start with the definition of pool mining: A Mining Pool is a protocol for a group of miners to work together, in order to smooth out their mined coins. Pooled mining is a mining approach where multiple generating clients contribute to the generation of a block, and then split the block reward according the contributed processing power. Pooled mining effectively reduces the granularity of the block generation reward, spreading it out more smoothly over time. So, bitcoin mining pools are a way for Bitcoin miners to pool their resources together and share their hashing power while splitting the reward equally according to the amount of shares they contributed to solving a block. The mining pool coordinates the workers. Its just like a lottery pool. Your odds of winning a lottery are very low, so you team up with a bunch of other people and agree to split the winning. This makes your odds of winning much higher, but the amount you win much lower. What a mining pool does is function as a coordinator for all the pool participants doing: Recording how much work all the participants are doing Assigning block rewards proportionally to participants Miners mine differently by running pool software instead of the bitcoin client and just performing hashes for the pool. The pool operator randomly verifies a small portion of the work submitted by each member of the pool. The member miners dont know which of their submissions will get verified so they cant cheat. If they cheat once in a while they might get away with it but not for long enough to matter. Traditionally, pools gave miners work units covering the entire nonce range 0-4,294,967,295. When the miner finishes work, he r Continue reading >>

Mining Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

Mining Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

The word mining originates in the context of the gold analogy for crypto currencies. Gold or precious metals are scarce, so are digital tokens, and the only way to increase the total volume is through mining it. This is appropriate to the extent that in Ethereum too, the only mode of issuance post launch is via the mining. Unlike these examples however, mining is also the way to secure the network by creating, verifying, publishing and propagating blocks in the blockchain. Mining Ether = Securing the network = verify computation Ethereum Frontier like all blockchain technologies uses an incentive-driven model of security. Consensus is based on choosing the block with the highest total difficulty.Miners produce blocks which the others check for validity. Among other well-formedness criteria, a block is only valid if it contains proof of work (PoW) of a given difficulty.Note that in Ethereum 1.1, this is likely going to be replaced by a proof of stake model. The proof of work algorithm used is called Ethash (a modified version of Dagger-Hashimoto ) involves finding a nonce input to the algorithm so that the result is below a certain threshold depending on the difficulty. The point in PoW algorithms is that there is no better strategy to find such a nonce than enumerating the possibilities while verification of a solution is trivial and cheap. If outputs have a uniform distribution, then we can guarantee that on average the time needed to find a nonce depends on the difficulty threshold, making it possible to control the time of finding a new block just by manipulating difficulty. The difficulty dynamically adjusts so that on average one block is produced by the entire network every 12 seconds (ie., 12 s block time). This heartbeat basically punctuates the synchronisation Continue reading >>

Ethereum May Reduce Mining Reward And Inflation By 40%

Ethereum May Reduce Mining Reward And Inflation By 40%

Ethereum May Reduce Mining Reward and Inflation by 40% Ethereum developers are considering splitting the next big upgrade, Metropolis, into two hardforks, with the first hardfork expected sometime in September. That hardfork may reduce mining reward, and thus inflation, by around 40%, from 5 eth per block to 3 eth per block, while at the same time delaying what is called a difficulty bomb as Casper is not yet quite ready. The difficulty bomb is an automatic increase of ethereums mining difficult which has the effect of increasing block times withHudson Jameson, an ethereum developer, estimating they would rise to 45 second per block by November from what used to be around 15 seconds. That difficulty/time bomb was place in there to give miners no choice during the Proof of Stake upgrade known as Casper, but that has apparently been delayed. As such, the developers are proposing that the difficult bomb is delayed too, but to keep mining reward somewhat in line with what it would have been had the difficulty bomb proceeded, they are proposing to reduce block rewards from 5 to 3. The proposal appears popular, not least because if demand remains the same then a reduced supply may lead to a price increase, but some are concerned about the interference with fundamental parameters. Moreover, miners will need to upgrade and if they fail to do so it may lead to another chain-split. But if the proposal is indeed popular, then most eth users will probably value the reduced block reward chain higher. In any event, as a price rise to compensate for the reduced supply should be expected, it may be the case that miners are not actually affected by the change. Which raises the question of why do it at all, with the main reason appearing to be concerns over an increased miners power due Continue reading >>

It Is No Longer Worth It To Build An Ethereum Mining Rig

It Is No Longer Worth It To Build An Ethereum Mining Rig

It Is No Longer Worth It To Build An Ethereum Mining Rig Building an Ethereum mining rig hasnt been worth it for months, and soon they will be completely obsolete. Goodnight, sweet prince. Image: Daniel Oberhaus/Motherboard Back in May I wrote a guide explaining how to build an Ethereum mining rig , a special type of computer that forms the backbone of the Ethereum network and earns ether, the digital currency native to the network, for its owner. Shortly thereafter, Motherboard also made a video documenting this process . Since then, Ive received countless emails from readers inquiring about my mining rig. Ive received three such emails this week. The most common question voiced by these readers is whether or not it is still worth it to build a mining rig. The answer to this question is no. Building an Ethereum mining rig hasnt been worth it for months and a few months from now, mining ether will be completely obsolete. Read More: An Idiot's Guide to Building an Ethereum Mining Rig Arguably, building an Ethereum mining rig wasnt even worth it when I built my machine in May, and many readers let me know this when the article and video first came out. This is somewhat true, but there is a necessary caveat here. Mining ether also wasnt worth it for about the first year and a half of the cryptocurrencys existence. The price of ether hovered around $10 from 2015 until early 2017, when it saw a spike to $25. This was important because it meant the value of the ether being mined was higher than the cost of the electricity that was needed to mine it. In other words, until that point small scale mines were operating at a loss in the belief that the tokens they were mining would someday be worth a lot more money. In hindsight, these early miners were rightthe price of ether has Continue reading >>

2 Answers - How Much Is 1 Share Of Ethereum Worth? - Quora

2 Answers - How Much Is 1 Share Of Ethereum Worth? - Quora

If you are asking how much one Ethereum coin is worth then look at Stephen John s answer. However, using my understanding, it appears that you are asking what a share is worth in pool mining. In pool mining, shares are actually not worth anything to the pool, they are just random hashes spread throughout the block. The hash that solves the block is the one that earns the pool the reward, which is then evenly distributed over the amount of shares. The most basic mining reward method, Pay Per Share(PPS) gives you a certain reward for every share you submit. However, the chance of getting a share is set by the pools own difficulty so the reward for a single share will vary from pool to pool. It is kind of hard to explain so here are some answers from other forums (note some are for Bitcoin so the numbers are different but the concept is the same): Today it is worth $350 USD. In January it was worth $8 USD. There is a lot of upside left in the cryptocurrencies although I favor Bitcoin, Ethereum and ZCash at the present. They each allow a different requirement of money to be achieved as there is some difficulty in a single one being all things necessary in the financial world. Bitcoin is good for value retention (think gold-intrinsic value but hard to scale and use effectively for day to day transactions of millions per day-like Visa etc) Ethereum has the potential to be scaled so many transactions can be done on a daily basis with small amounts in the transactionsStarbucks coffee purchase. ZCash provides anonymity in all transactions. All these bugs are the subject of intense research and development and it is difficult to predict the ultimate winner. But these, IMHO, are the front runners now. Continue reading >>

Ethereum's Block Reward Might Be Reduced From 5 Eth To 1.5 Eth

Ethereum's Block Reward Might Be Reduced From 5 Eth To 1.5 Eth

Ethereum's Block Reward might be reduced from 5 ETH to 1.5 ETH EIP186 proposes to decrease ETH mining rewards. FREE 1,000 mBTC daily for LuckyJack winners 12+ exclusive games The Bitcoin Casino by Primedice Advertised sites are not endorsed by the Bitcoin Forum. They may be unsafe, untrustworthy, or illegal in your jurisdiction. Advertise here. Seems to me this would be an incentive to buy ETH now, and hoard them. If there is a coin vote, one could use the coins to vote for the reduction in block reward, thereby increasing the chance of supply constraint and an increase in the price. So developers and speculators will like this idea, but miners will get shafted. FREE 1,000 mBTC daily for LuckyJack winners Yeah basically the eth foundation is probably pissed off their ETH is worth less from the Summer and they are blaming it on the miners since probably 50% of all the eth mined daily is dumped daily. 1 Bitcoin$15,487,372,567$963.3816,076,162---- BTC$76,229,3001.02% 2Ethereum$720,712,570---$8.2487,474,566---- ETH$10,170,0003.68% 18 Zcash$16,729,309----$48.42345,506-------- ZEC$503,671-0.08% 87 million eth coins that = common 345 thousand Zcash coins that = rare so a block size reduction will not make eth rare Please support sidehack with his new miner project Send to : 1BURGERAXHH6Yi6LRybRJK7ybEm5m5HwTr I mine alt coins with I see BTC as the super highway and alt coins as taxis and trucks needed to move transactions. Looks like they changed EIP 186 again and made the Block reward 2 ETH instead of 5 ETH. Now it all boils down to a vote whether it gets accepted or not. Majority of ETH holders are NOT miners so there is a good chance this might pass since it will at least temporarily create a price pump. FREE 1,000 mBTC daily for LuckyJack winners Quote from: adaseb on Janu Continue reading >>

What Is Ethereum? A Comprehensive Explanation - Coin Bureau

What Is Ethereum? A Comprehensive Explanation - Coin Bureau

Ethereum is currently the second most valuable crypto currency by market capitalisation. It has become the staple crypto currency for investors to hold in their portfolio. It has been said by a number of people that Ethereum can greatly change the way we think about the client server model . Many claim that is has the potential to revolutionise the way we think about all business. Ethereum has also become the de-facto crypto currency for people to take advantage of ICOs. People use the Ethereum network and tokens in order to offer their own tokens to the general public. Yet, what is Ethereum and how is it different from Bitcoin? Put simply, Ethereum is software that is running on a distributed network of computers which ensures that smaller programs (called smart contracts) are replicated and executed across the network. Given the decentralised nature of Ethereum, there is no central server or co-ordinating system. The long term goal of the Ethereum network is to create one large decentralised virtual machine. Similar to Bitcoin, Ethereum makes use of blockchain concepts to validate, store and replicate transaction data across all of the network nodes. It extends beyond this simple concept by including the computation of the smart contract codes on the network. Therefore, while Bitcoin looks to store data about the recorded transactions on the network, Ethereum takes it one step further by including the computation of the smart contract programs on the network. Before we can delve into the underlying technology that makes Ether unique, it helps to take a step back and look at what Bitcoin and Ethereum share in common. Like Bitcoin, Ethereum has a blockchain made up of all transaction blocks prior. Inside these blocks, we have information on the transactions that took p Continue reading >>

The Mystery Behind Blocktime

The Mystery Behind Blocktime

Identity Evangelist, Author, Blogger, Developer, Blockchain Enthusiast, Senior Director of Security Architecture at WSO2, Apache WS Committer, Axis PMC Member Block time defines the time it takes to mine a block. Both in bitcoin blockchain and ethereum blockchain, there is an expected block time, and an average block time. In bitcoin, the expected block time is 10 minutes, while in ethereum it is between 10 to 19 seconds. Both bitcoin and ethereum, at the time of this writing use a proof of work based distributed consensus algorithm (ethereum is planned to move to a proof of stake based algorithm with its serenity release). The expected block time is set at a constant value to make sure, miners cannot impact the security of the network by adding more computational power. The average block time of the network is evaluated after n number of blocks, and if it is great than the expected block time, then the difficulty level of the proof of work algorithm will be reduced, and if it is less than the expected block time then the difficulty level will be increased. Thats the core design principle behind block time, but you will see as we proceed, how bitcoin and ethereum differentiate themselves from each other. The level of difficulty varies with the time, as per the following formula. It tries to evaluate the speed of the mining network and find out how much it deviates from the expected level. The expectation is to mine a block in 10 minutes. For example, if the average speed of mining the last 2016 blocks is 8 minutes then the new difficulty factor will be greater than one, so the current difficulty level will be increased. In case the average is above 10 minutes, then the factor will be less than 1 and the difficulty level will be decreased for the next 2016 blocks. The d Continue reading >>

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