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Ethereum Storage

Storj - Decentralized Cloud Storage

Storj - Decentralized Cloud Storage

"Storj is like an Internet filesystem. Data blocks are encrypted and distributed across a globally distributed set of storage nodes using block-chain algorithm. It is quite impressive and much needed innovation in the storage space." "Decentralized file storage systems like Storj have the potential to eliminate high markup costs and market inefficiencies and provide a much higher level of privacy, reliability and quality of service than we see today." "The power of the Storj platform is its unique ability indiscriminately utilize the free capacity of a storage node, whether a single end-user PC or a massive data center. Storj is bringing an unprecedented degree of efficiency to globally distributed data storage." "Storj is a unique market phenomena. It sets new standards of unit economics for distributed data storage." "As a seed investor, we were more than happy to join the next round for Storj with a great line up of co-investors. We want storing files to be cheaper, faster and more secure and the progress the team has made towards that mission has been phenomenal to watch. We are looking forward to putting more and more of our documents on the Blockchain thanks to Storj." Continue reading >>

Off-chain Data Storage: Ethereum &ipfs

Off-chain Data Storage: Ethereum &ipfs

function read() public view returns (bytes) { Ive deployed this contract on Rinkeby test net and generated 1024 of random bytes using then stored 1kB of data using the write function. The resulting transaction can be seen here: The Gas used amounted to 754,365 @ 20Gwei Gas price = 0.0150873 Ether. At the time of writing this post (Oct 17, 2017) the Ether price is currently 328.79 USD/ETH. So storing 1kB of data would have cost $4.96 to run on the Ethereum Main Net. That means ~ 5 Million USD / GB! Saving a few bytes to the EVM is ok but for larger chunks of data the costs are probably too high for most projects. One solution is to modify our data storage strategy and save the data off-chain (as opposed to the on-chain approach we took above). There are multiple off-chain storage options: IPFS and Swarm are 2 popular ones. Ill use IPFS in this post but Swarm works equally well. Looking at the wikipedia article on IPFS: InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is a protocol designed to create a permanent and decentralized method of storing and sharing files IPFS allows p2p storage and we can use it as a distributed file system to store data. Saving data on IPFS provides a unique hash. Instead of storing the data on the contract, well only store the hash on the contract and then we can use the hash to retrieve the data. In production wed need to create our own IPFS node, but INFURA provides a node for developers which we can use for free. Here is a js snippet you can try out on to save data to IPFS: const ipfs = new IPFS({host: ipfs.infura.io, port: 5001, protocol: https}); const randomData = 8803cf48b8805198dbf85b2e0d514320; // random bytes for testing and this should return our data: 8803cf48b8805198dbf85b2e0d514320 One remark is that the hash string size is independent of the Continue reading >>

Ethereum Solidity: Memory Vs Storage & How To Initialize An Array Inside Astruct

Ethereum Solidity: Memory Vs Storage & How To Initialize An Array Inside Astruct

ECE Major. Blockchain, infosec, IoT, autonomous vehicles. ex{@Honda}, Research/Writing {@LoomNetwork} Ethereum Solidity: Memory vs Storage & How to initialize an array inside astruct In Loom Networks Telegram (which has ~8,000 members!) people ask questions on various topics such as Looms roadmap, theoretical blockchain and Ethereum questions, and Solidity troubleshooting. There was a specific question that was asked, which involved initializing an array inside a struct. The person who asked it then provided their code, wondering why it does not work. I could not think of an answer of the top of my head so I decided to talk about this topic briefly in a post. The not-working code can be found below. I encourage you try finding a solution by yourself (youve been practicing on CryptoZombies all this time, havent you?). It should be noted that in the above fiddle, the keyword memory is needed when declaring the variable room. If it was declared as Room room, the compiler would return the following error: TypeError: Type struct StructArrayInitWrong.Room memory is not implicitly convertible to expected type struct StructArrayInitWrong.Room storage pointer. A contracts storage variables are the ones which define your contracts state and are only changed by sendTransaction calls [1] . memory variables are temporary variables that exist only inside the calling function (they cannot be declared outside of one). They get wiped after the function exits and they are generally cheaper to use than storage variables more details on gas costs here . Lets go through an example in order to understand how a storage variable can be used in a function in order to affect a contracts state. In the below fiddle, a copy of x gets passed in g() as and thus the state variable x will remain unmod Continue reading >>

Where And How Application Data Is Stored In Ethereum?

Where And How Application Data Is Stored In Ethereum?

Where and how application data is stored in Ethereum? Ethereum can host decentralized applications, DAPPs. These applications exist through small programs that live on the Blockchain: Smart Contracts. But when I write a Smart Contract, where is my application data Stored? We want to understand how data storage works before working on this platform. Code execution, servers and programming language are rarely critical to the design of an application. But the Data, its structure, and its security will constrain most of our design. Lets imagine we are porting apps to Ethereum: For a Facebook-like, where are the publications and comments data? For a Dropbox-like, where are my private files? Or for a Slack-like chat app, where do we store discussion channels? What about Private Messages? Were going to forget about the Blockchain for a minute: we already know its a machine that generates Consensus . We can forget the Blockchain and assume that Ethereum is a big, slow, reliable, computer. Were looking at the Ethereum System from a higher level of abstraction: the Software part. Ethereum holds a set of accounts. Every account has an owner and a balance (some Ether). If I prove my identity, I can transfer Ether from my account to another. The money will flow from one account to the other. Its an atomic operation called a Transaction. The Ethereum Software is a Transaction Processing System: 1. We have a state: the set of all accounts and their balance, 3. We get a new state: an updated set of accounts and their balances. Today we look into the ability to execute code and programs within a transaction. Thats where Smart Contracts come into play. Every account has an owner and a balance. But some of these accounts are special; they own themselves. At creation time, we give them a Continue reading >>

Introduction Swarm 0.2rc5 Documentation

Introduction Swarm 0.2rc5 Documentation

immutable, unforgeable, verifiable yet plausibly deniable storage no single point of failure, fault and attack resilience censorship resistance, universally accessible permanent public record efficient market driven pricing. tradeable trade off of memory, persistent storage, bandwidth efficient use of the blockchain by the swarm accounting protocol deposit-challenge based guaranteed storage [planned for POC 0.4 by Q2 2018] Swarm client is part of the Ethereum stack, the reference implementation is written in golang and found under the go-ethereum repository. Currently at POC (proof of concept) version 0.2 is running on all nodes. Swarm defines the bzz subprotocol running on the ethereum devp2p network. The bzz subprotocol is in flux, thespecification of the wire protocol is considered stable only with POC 0.4 expected in Q2 2018. The swarm of Swarm is the collection of nodes of the devp2p network each of which run the bzz protocol on the same network id. Swarm nodes are also connected to an ethereum blockchain.Nodes running the same network id are supposed to connect to the same blockchain.Such a swarm network is identified by its network id which is an arbitrary integer. Swarm allows for upload and disappear which means that any node can just upload content to the swarm andthen is allowed to go offline. As long as nodes do not drop out or become unavailable, the content will stillbe accessible due to the synchronization procedure in which nodes continuously pass along available data between each other. Uploaded content is not guaranteed to persist until storage insurance is implemented (expected in POC 0.4 by Q2 2018). All participating nodes should consider voluntary service with no formal obligation whatsoever and should be expected to delete content at their will. Continue reading >>

How To Buy & Store Ethereum The Newbie Guide

How To Buy & Store Ethereum The Newbie Guide

If youre new to the crypto-currency space, you may find the idea of how to buy and store Ethereum is quite disconcerting. Youre not wrong, it might be confusing. The good news is, youre in the right place! First, you need to understand Ethereum you can start over here . Now that you are sure you want to buy some Ethereum, lets explore your options. WHERE AND HOW TO BUY ETHEREUM WITH FIAT CURRENCY There are several ways you can purchase Ethereum directly with fiat currency such as USD, EUR or GBP. All you need is a debit or credit card or just a bank account that facilitates international transfers. You simply register an account on one of the recommended exchange platforms below, verify your identity, add a method of payment and youre good to go to buy some Ether. I will discuss how to store your Ether safely below. The verification process that you have to go through in order to buy Ethereum takes now much quicker that it used to and the purchasing process is slowly becoming hassle-free. Just two years ago, you had to take extreme measures to buy Ether. For example, you had to purchase Bitcoin first; then create an ETH wallet; then convert your BTC to ETH seems like its not too complicated, but then you would have to reverse this process if you wanted to convert your Ether into fiat currency. All these conversions would have costed you dearly in transaction and exchange fees (and of course time!) Now, all you have to do is just open an account on one of these recommended exchange platforms to purchase your ETH: The most popular choice is Coinbase as it allows to use your credit card to buy Ethereum directly on the website. Coinbase is a major crypto-currency exchange that offers other services as well. Apart from Ether, you can purchase Bitcoin and Litecoin you can al Continue reading >>

Storing Medical Records On The Ethereum Blockchain Healthcare In America

Storing Medical Records On The Ethereum Blockchain Healthcare In America

Building a Foundation for the Decentralized Web Storing Medical Records On The Ethereum Blockchain Heres an uncontroversial take: medicine in the United States is fucked. Not so much regarding the actual treatment of patients, but more the bureaucracy surrounding (and often impeding) treatment of those patients. Whether you believe in medical deregulation or single-payer nationalized health insurance, the current system blows, as 54% of Americans are dissatisfied with a healthcare industry that often puts the onus on individuals to coordinate their own care. Unsurprisingly, much of the conversation about healthcare in the United States revolves around health insurance and cost. Insurance and procedure/drug costs are enormous enormous factors in the quality and availability of the care people receive. However, in looking to improve the efficiency and equity of flawed systemssomething toward which I imagine the blockchain community is particularly inclinedit is important to examine smaller, less obvious routes toward managing and improving the system as a whole. TL; DR: We should all put medical records on the blockchain (eventually). But how would storing medical records on the blockchain work? What purpose would it serve? And, is it even possible? Right now, the truth is we dont really know what Ethereum can do. A lot of very impressive people believe the network and its underlying blockchain technology will revolutionize the way we lead our livesperhaps even save the world. Of course, that will take time. As of right now, storing information on the Ethereum blockchain is very expensive. Just in case youre new, or need a quick review, heres why: Most people think of ether as a currency, like dollars or even Bitcoin, but it is also possible to think of ether as the fuel Continue reading >>

Using Myetherwallet For Cold Storage

Using Myetherwallet For Cold Storage

Unzip it and double-click index.html. This should open MyEtherWallet in your browser. Note: do not move files around in this folder. You need the entire folder for it to work correctly. Enter a strong but easy to remember password. Do not forget it. This encrypts (protects) your private key. It does not generate your private key. This password alone will not be enough to access your Ether. Download your Keystore / UTC file & save this file to a USB drive. This is the encrypted version of your private key. You need the password to access it. It is safer than your unencrypted private key but you must have your password to access it in the future. Read the warning. If you understand it, click the "I understand. Continue" button. Print your paper wallet backup and/or carefully hand-write the private key on a piece of paper. If you are writing it, it is recommend you write it 2 or 3 times. This decreases the chance your messy handwriting will prevent you from accessing your wallet later. Copy & paste your address into a text document somewhere. Get it to your primary, online computer. Use the QR code or a different USB drive. It is best if you do not hand-write it Search your address on . Bookmark this page. This is how you will view your balance at any time Send a small amount of Ether (0.0001 ETH) from an exchange or another wallet to your new offline wallet. On your offline device, unlock your wallet from the Keystore / UTC file on your USB drive or via the private key that you printed out. Ensure it unlocks the wallet you are sent to and matches the bookmark you have. Do not simply leave your new wallet open. Pretend you are coming back a year later to access your riches. Can you do it? Send a small amount of Ether (0.00001 ETH) from this new wallet to another address. Continue reading >>

Eli5: Storage In The Ethereum Blockchain : Ethereum

Eli5: Storage In The Ethereum Blockchain : Ethereum

As I brainstorm about Ethereum contracts I might want to build, I keep getting mentally stuck when it comes to storage. How many bytes can one realistically store in the blockchain? A few kb? A few Mb? What are the limiting factors? Gas? Contract size? Does the storage need to be "accessed" or is it always visible for everyone to see with a blockchain explorer? EDIT: Thanks for the responses. However, no one has answered "Does the storage need to be "accessed" or is it always visible for everyone to see with a blockchain explorer?" yet. Continue reading >>

Github - Howardwu/ipfs-ethereum-storage: A Simple Datastore Solution Using Ipfs And Ethereum

Github - Howardwu/ipfs-ethereum-storage: A Simple Datastore Solution Using Ipfs And Ethereum

A simple datastore solution using IPFS and Ethereum We will create a simple datastore solution using IPFS and Ethereum. IPFS provides a convenient interface for distributed data storage, with a hash-based content address for reference to our file. This address will be stored in our smart contract on a private Ethereum blockchain. To retrieve the latest data, we will fetch the address from our blockchain and query IPFS for the associated file. Continue reading >>

Marriage Smart Contract On Ethereum

Marriage Smart Contract On Ethereum

I got the inspiration to make this page because of a tweet from Joseph Lubin after I posted about my 1 year wedding anniversary. I am storing data immutably to the Ethereum blockchain. This is an example of a proof-of-existence application of blockchains that is very important. Blockchains, when properly designed, provide a way to permanently store data with an un-hackable audit trail. On the Ethereum blockchain, users create smart contracts to store and manipulate data. Smart contracts are permanently on the Ethereum blockchain and contain their own storage. Whenever the internal contract storage is changed, the blockchain updates the smart contract data, while still maintaining a history of the previous data. Cool, huh? View smart contract on the Ethereum blockchain Continue reading >>

Ethereum [eth]'s Creator To Charge A Fee For Data Storage - Developers In Trouble? - Ambcrypto

Ethereum [eth]'s Creator To Charge A Fee For Data Storage - Developers In Trouble? - Ambcrypto

Ethereum [ETH], which is ranked at number 2 spot in the rankings is gearing up to charge rent fees for the people who use their network to store data. This decision was taken by the creator of Ethereum, Vitalik Buterin who gave a detailed description of the ways and principles of computing such rent fees. Ethereum has dropped from an intraday high of $494.61 almost crossing the $500 mark to $455 swing low. This trend seemed to have set in about 12 hours ago when it started declining. As per Buterins plans, he looks forward to coming up with an estimate of the annual rewards given out by the Casper and Sharding mechanisms. Casper serves as an alternative to Satoshi Nakamotos consensus based on proof-of-work and is based on a security deposit. Sharded blockchain architectures seek to measure the capacity of the platform. This estimate amounts up to 10 million ETH staking at 5% interest, which is 500,000 ETH per year and approximately 0.22 ETH per block. His next step is to come up with a 500 GB state size to be stored in a node of computers RAM which he says will be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the actual state size. This is the maximum acceptable state size allotted by him. Storing 500 GB would cost around 500,000 ETH per year, hence he will charge a fee of 0.000001 ETH per year to store 1 byte of data on the network. A 24000-byte contract would cost 0.024 ETH which amounts to approximately $15 per year and a 250-byte account would cost 0.00025 ETH which is $0.15 per year. He also stated that the maximum acceptable state size would be per-shard and would decrease the above-mentioned fees by a factor of 100. This decision is to avoid the network from taking costs for storage by itself if too many people use the resource for free. However, Ethereum Project research Continue reading >>

Introduction To Smart Contracts

Introduction To Smart Contracts

Let us begin with the most basic example. It is fine if you do not understand everythingright now, we will go into more detail later. pragma solidity ^0.4.0;contract SimpleStorage { uint storedData; function set(uint x) public { storedData = x; } function get() public constant returns (uint) { return storedData; }} The first line simply tells that the source code is written forSolidity version 0.4.0 or anything newer that does not break functionality(up to, but not including, version 0.5.0). This is to ensure that thecontract does not suddenly behave differently with a new compiler version. The keyword pragma is called that way because, in general,pragmas are instructions for the compiler about how to treat thesource code (e.g. pragma once ). A contract in the sense of Solidity is a collection of code (its functions) anddata (its state) that resides at a specific address on the Ethereumblockchain. The line uint storedData; declares a state variable called storedData oftype uint (unsigned integer of 256 bits). You can think of it as a single slotin a database that can be queried and altered by calling functions of thecode that manages the database. In the case of Ethereum, this is always the owningcontract. And in this case, the functions set and get can be used to modifyor retrieve the value of the variable. To access a state variable, you do not need the prefix this. as is common inother languages. This contract does not do much yet (due to the infrastructurebuilt by Ethereum) apart from allowing anyone to store a single number that is accessible byanyone in the world without a (feasible) way to prevent you from publishingthis number. Of course, anyone could just call set again with a different valueand overwrite your number, but the number will still be stored in the Continue reading >>

Contract Design - Is There Anything Stopping Me From Using The Ethereum Blockchain As Data Storage? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Contract Design - Is There Anything Stopping Me From Using The Ethereum Blockchain As Data Storage? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Is there anything stopping me from using the ethereum blockchain as data storage? As I understand it, smart contracts are currently immortal by default. Does this mean that I could create a contract that happened to contain an encoded form of baby photos and have it stored forever? If not, what prevents it? Nothing prevents it. 5 months ago, I demonstrated storing audio (a very highly compressed mp3 file) in the blockchain. And it's still there and being replicated by every full node today! Only 3.5kB and I had to pay quite a bit of ether, but still cool! To make this answer last the test of time (if something happens to the above link), here is the relevant command to run in your terminal: geth --exec "eth.getTransaction('0xbb8ee9866ee67277986b6f40775469c7a674810ce99dce3caff0d1117c8dcdac').input" console | xxd -p -r | mpg321 - A smarter way uses the storage only as a hash as other answers have said, use StorJ, IPFS, etc., because then you can store more off the blockchain and link to it. That is awesome! It took me awhile to actually get the data and play it, geth didn't seem to think the address existed, xxd wasn't installed, mpg321 wasn't in the official repos, so I had to find it on a blockchain explorer site, install xxd, and then use ffplay, and it was all worth it XD. Shelvacu Jan 23 '16 at 7:44 shelvacu: Great to hear! Glad you had a bit of fun with it, I know I did. :) I had the first functional contract on the Ethereum blockchain. linagee Jan 23 '16 at 7:48 Nothing prevents it....except the extraordinarily high costs compared to any other solution. Please mention in your answer that people shouldn't actually do this--as mentioned IPFS is a much better way to have some data stored forever without bloating the Ethereum blockchain. And in fact, if people wait fo Continue reading >>

Blockchain Bloat: How Ethereum Is Tackling Storage Issues

Blockchain Bloat: How Ethereum Is Tackling Storage Issues

Blockchain Bloat: How Ethereum Is Tackling Storage Issues Jan 18, 2018 at 05:22 UTC|UpdatedJan 24, 2018 at 02:53 UTC 24,270 tokens. 27,358 pending transactions. 463,713 digital kittens . Ethereum has hosted a lot of activity recently, and while many crypto enthusiasts see that as a positive sign, as the network's usage soars, its history gets longer and its blockchain more unruly. And although network congestion leading to transaction backlogs and rising fees has taken the spotlight, there's another issue this scale causes - a growing database that puts significant storage costs on users wanting to run a full node. That database, called the ethereum state, hold all the computations that need to be memorized by the computers supporting the platform and the ethereum blockchain itself. And with the costs (both in time and money) of storing the state increasing, fewer and fewer people are choosing to run full nodes, which many worry will centralize the network into the hands of only a few arbitrators. For one thing, ethereum developers are well underway engineering protocol-level changes such as sharding , aimed at minimizing the database. But since these technologies are still in development, other stakeholders, namely those running ethereum clients - the software needed for users to communicate with the blockchain - have been under fresh pressure to cope with the growth of the state database. "The fact that improving this stuff is critical has been known since late 2016, the ideas have been floating around for half a year to over a year. Where are the implementations?" said ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin on a developer channel recently. The frustration is palpable with both Buterin and Afri Schoedon, who manages technical communications at ethereum software client prov Continue reading >>

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