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Ethereum Source Code Explained

How Does Ethereum Work,anyway?

How Does Ethereum Work,anyway?

Odds are youve heard about the Ethereum blockchain, whether or not you know what it is. Its been in the news a lot lately, including the cover of some major magazines, but reading those articles can be like gibberish if you dont have a foundation for what exactly Ethereum is. So what is it? In essence, a public database that keeps a permanent record of digital transactions. Importantly, this database doesnt require any central authority to maintain and secure it. Instead it operates as a trustless transactional system a framework in which individuals can make peer-to-peer transactions without needing to trust a third party OR one another. Still confused? Thats where this post comes in. My aim is to explain how Ethereum functions at a technical level, without complex math or scary-looking formulas. Even if youre not a programmer, I hope youll walk away with at least better grasp of the tech. If some parts are too technical and difficult to grok, thats totally fine! Theres really no need to understand every little detail. I recommend just focusing on understanding things at a broad level. Many of the topics covered in this post are a breakdown of the concepts discussed in the yellow paper. Ive added my own explanations and diagrams to make understanding Ethereum easier. Those brave enough to take on the technical challenge can also read the Ethereum yellow paper. A blockchain is a cryptographically secure transactional singleton machine with shared-state. [1] Thats a mouthful, isnt it? Lets break it down. Cryptographically secure means that the creation of digital currency is secured by complex mathematical algorithms that are obscenely hard to break. Think of a firewall of sorts. They make it nearly impossible to cheat the system (e.g. create fake transactions, erase tr Continue reading >>

Where Can I Find Some Solidity / Smart Contract Source Code Examples? [closed]

Where Can I Find Some Solidity / Smart Contract Source Code Examples? [closed]

closed as off-topic by 5chdn Jul 23 '16 at 23:03 This question appears to be off-topic. The users who voted to close gave this specific reason: "Questions asking us to recommend or find a book, tool, software library, tutorial or other off-site resource are off-topic for Stack Overflow as they tend to attract opinionated answers and spam. Instead, describe the problem and what has been done so far to solve it." 5chdn If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center , please edit the question . This question exists because it has historical significance, but it is not considered a good, on-topic question for this site, so please do not use it as evidence that you can ask similar questions here. This question and its answers are frozen and cannot be changed. More info: help center . This list question seemed good enough to convert to a community wiki. eth Jun 18 '16 at 1:37 Continue reading >>

Understanding Ethereuma Fullguide

Understanding Ethereuma Fullguide

Interested in the challenges between blockchains and the law founder of www.lawandblockchain.eu Ethereum is the subject of a lot of hype lately. It is praised by some as the new internet or the worlds computer and criticised by others as a platform that enables widespread scams and ponzi schemes to thrive. I see badly informed articles about Ethereum, smart contracts, DApps, DAOs, ICOs and tokens on the daily so it is time to analyse the subject. I will present the argument that Ethereum might form the main protocol enabling the internet of value. It is time to take a closer look at what Ethereum is, what it enables and what role it could play in the future. But first, we have to backtrack a bit. Time for a small reminder about the value of distributed ledger technologies. To put it briefly, a blockchain is a database that is secured and maintained by a large number of nodes worldwide. Data is stored in blocks, which are time-stamped and linked to each other to form a chain. The blockchain makes sure that all data stored in the chain is secure and immutable forever, which is what makes the blockchain so interesting. Through its consensus mechanism, the blockchain is trustless , which means that one does not have to rely on the trustworthiness of a counterparty. For the first time, the blockchain enabled a safe way to send value on the internet without needing a trusted third party. This led to the rise of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. In essence, a Bitcoin transaction is just the execution of a piece of code stating that person A sent X amount of Bitcoin to person B. This transaction is self-enforcing. To execute, it first checks if there is enough Bitcoin in person As digital wallet and then sends the money to Bs wallet. In itself, this transaction is a piece of Continue reading >>

Ethereum Development Tutorial

Ethereum Development Tutorial

The purpose of this page is to serve as an introduction to the basics of Ethereum that you will need to understand from a development standpoint, in order to produce contracts and decentralized applications. For a general introduction to Ethereum, see the white paper , and for a full technical spec see the yellow papers, although those are not prerequisites for this page; that is to say, this page is meant as an alternative introduction to Ethereum specifically targeted towards application developers. Ethereum is a platform that is intended to allow people to easily write decentralized applications (apps) using blockchain technology. A decentralized application is an application which serves some specific purpose to its users, but which has the important property that the application itself does not depend on any specific party existing. Rather than serving as a front-end for selling or providing a specific party's services, a app is a tool for people and organizations on different sides of an interaction used to come together without any centralized intermediary. Even necessary "intermediary" functions that are typically the domain of centralized providers, such as filtering, identity management, escrow and dispute resolution, are either handled directly by the network or left open for anyone to participate, using tools like internal token systems and reputation systems to ensure that users get access to high-quality services. Early examples of apps include BitTorrent for file sharing and Bitcoin for currency. Ethereum takes the primary developments used by BitTorrent and Bitcoin, the peer to peer network and the blockchain, and generalizes them in order to allow developers to use these technologies for any purpose. The Ethereum blockchain can be alternately described Continue reading >>

What Is Ethereum & How It Works The Newbie Guide

What Is Ethereum & How It Works The Newbie Guide

Ethereum is an open-source, decentralized network that allows smart contracts to be deployed on a blockchain with the use of ether. Its a blockchain app (Dapp) platform that uses gas to run in short. The network was created by Vitalik Buterin in 2015 although the white paper was proposed 2 years earlier. Thats a mouthful though! Lets convert that into plain English by dissecting each word at a time: Ethereum blockchain is a distributed database that is constantly growing and therefore adding a new block to the chain every 17 seconds on average. Each new block contain records such as transactions and contracts. The operations and transactions are executed and then calculated on the go thanks to the computing nodes. These are tens of thousands of computers spread around the world (users who opted-in to be part of the blockchain network). All participant computers use a client that performs validating and relaying transactions on the blockchain. Its worth noting that no decentralized technology would exist without them. These computers are incentivized for their work with Ether which is rewarded to them every time a block gets solved (5 ETH = $1,600 at the moment of writing). Thats basically a source code that is freely available to the public and can be modified as long as you have access to a computer where that program is stored. If Amazon was an open-source online retail store, then people with access to the source code computer could implement modifications to the website, for instance: how it looks like, what it sells or how much commission it gets per sale etc. However, before any changes take place, the majority of its users would have to agree on particulars and reach so-called consensus by voting prior to carrying out any adjustments to the source code. Ethereum Continue reading >>

What Is Ethereum? A Step-by-step Beginners Guide

What Is Ethereum? A Step-by-step Beginners Guide

If you want to know what is Ethereum and how it works and what it can be used for, without going deep into the technical abyss, this guide is perfect for you. Important Note: This guide assumes a basic understanding of blockchain technology. If youre unfamiliar with blockchain, check out this step by step introduction for beginners . Beyond Bitcoin & first generation decentralized applications Although commonly associated with Bitcoin , blockchain technology has many other applications that go way beyond digital currencies. In fact, Bitcoin is only one of several hundred applications that use blockchain technology today. [Blockchain] is to Bitcoin, what the internet is to email. A big electronic system, on top of which you can build applications. Currency is just one. Sally Davies, FT Technology Reporter Until relatively recently, building blockchain applications has required a complex background in coding, cryptography, mathematics as well as significant resources. But times have changed. Previously unimagined applications, from electronic voting & digitally recorded property assets to regulatory compliance & trading are now actively being developed and deployed faster than ever before. By providing developers with the tools to build decentralized applications, Ethereum is making all of this possible. At its simplest, Ethereum is an open software platform based on blockchain technology that enables developers to build and deploy decentralized applications. Is Ethereum similar to Bitcoin? Well, sort of, but not really. Like Bitcoin , Ethereum is a distributed public blockchain network. Although there are some significant technical differences between the two, the most important distinction to note is that Bitcoin and Ethereum differ substantially in purpose and capabil Continue reading >>

How Does Ethereum Work? Michele D'aliessi Medium

How Does Ethereum Work? Michele D'aliessi Medium

The logic and mechanics behind Ethereum explained in simple words. Ethereum is a platform on which anyone can build unstoppable, decentralised applications. If you have never heard of Ethereum or if you dont know what it can be used for, I would strongly recommend to read What is Ethereum? before digging deeper and exploring how it works in this article. The ultimate guide to understand Ethereum in simple words.medium.com The purpose of this article is to explain how Ethereum works by providing a general and non-technical overview of its logic and inner mechanics. Please keep in mind that what is described below is a simplified version of what actually happens, but it should be technical enough to give you a general understanding of how it works. Should you have any questions please write them as comments or private notes, it would help me refine this article over time and make it much clearer for future readers. We can see Ethereum as a stack of few layers built on top of each other. The first, basic layer that makes everything else possible is a large network of computers that process transactions and keep a shared database updated over time (the Ethereum blockchain). The second, is the software layer that allows developers to run programs called smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, using a programming language called Solidity . The third layer is made of applications that offer different services (from governance to identity management) to Ethereum users. The remarkable feature of this platform is that by leveraging the Ethereum hardware and software layers these applications are decentralised, lack a central point of failure and are somehow unstoppable. You just cant switch them off. Lets explore each of these layers in detail. Fig. 1 - The different layers Continue reading >>

Go Ethereum - Is There An Api Which Allows To Download Source Code Of Contracts? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Go Ethereum - Is There An Api Which Allows To Download Source Code Of Contracts? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Is there an API which allows to download source code of contracts? I am doing research into the security of smart contracts and was hoping to gather a dataset containing smart contract source codes. I was wondering if there is an API which allows this. At etherscan you can use an API to get the smart contract ABI, but I'd like the source code. I give this as an example because all verified contracts of etherscan would be a great dataset. My goal is to analyse these source codes to for instance categorize them based on a taxonomy or check how many of them contain certain patterns. The web3 JS API has a getCode function that allows you to access the bytecode of the contract - that was deployed to the blockchain at the given address. It should be possible to analyse this to determine common patterns in the code. Since the source code, before it is compiled to bytecode, is not deployed to the blockchain it is not possible to retrieve it directly - which is why etherscan asks for it to be uploaded in order to verify it / show you the source code. It might be possible to decompile / infer roughly the source code from the bytecode, but I am not aware of any tools which provide this functionality. Continue reading >>

What Is Ethereum? The Open-source Crypto Platform Explained

What Is Ethereum? The Open-source Crypto Platform Explained

What is Ethereum? The open-source crypto platform explained Most of us get the principle of cryptocurrency, but even the most tech-savvy may struggle with the specifics. One name that is often used when discussing this increasingly popular trend is Ethereum. Ethereum is an open-source platform that lets you build your own decentralised applications, and earn a tradeable cryptocurrency called Ether. These apps are all built using blockchain technology, and Ether can be used to pay for services on the network. If that summary made no sense to you, fear not. Just keep reading. In order to understand Ethereum, its best to start at a basic understanding of blockchain. You are probably aware of blockchain , since the cryptocurrency Bitcoin has been around for years. Bitcoin is stored and balanced using an encrypted peer-to-peer network, the blockchain. In the most basic terms, a blockchain is a way to record data. It is essentially a digital ledger of transactions, agreements or contracts anything you want to verify has happened. The technology works by distributing the ledger to thousands of computers across the world, the network. The benefit of the blockchain is it can take away the middleman, like banks or financial institutions, in a transaction, while still allowing that transaction, contract or agreement to be secure and trusted. Lets take the example of Bitcoin. When a user wants to send bitcoins to someone else, they broadcast the details of the transaction their public key, the recipients public key, and the bitcoin amount transferred to the network of interlinked nodes. Other computers in the network, similar to witnesses when someone is signing a contract, independently verify this transfer information. These other nodes use a "digital signature" to authenticate Continue reading >>

Everything Youve Ever Wanted To Know About Ethereum, Patiently Explained

Everything Youve Ever Wanted To Know About Ethereum, Patiently Explained

Everything youve ever wanted to know about Ethereum, patiently explained Although Bitcoin and Ethereum are terms that are often paired together, the reality is that they are vastly different.The only thing Ethereum shares with Bitcoin is that its a cryptoasset running on top of blockchain. Instead of being just a cryptocurrency, like Bitcoin, Ethereum also has features which effectively makes it a huge decentralized computer. To understand Ethereum , one must understand how blockchain works. If you already understand it, or have already read my ultimate guide to understand blockchain , feel free to go directly to the next section. A blockchain, simply put, is a database. Its an ever growing database of certain kind of data and has quite remarkable properties: Once data is stored in the database, it can never be modified or deleted. Every record on a blockchain is permanent for eternity. No single individual or organization maintains the database; several thousand individuals do, and everyone has a copy of the database with themselves. To understand how several people are able to keep their copies of the database in sync with everyone else, imagine there are ten individuals in a network. Everyone is sitting with an empty file folder and an empty page in front of them. Whenever anyone does something important in the network, like transferring money, they announce it to everyone in the network. Everyone makes a note of the announcement on their pages until the page is filled. When it does, everyone has to seal the contents of the page by solving a mathematical puzzle. Solving the mathematical puzzle ensures that everyones page had same contents and that they can never be modified. Whoever does it first, gets rewarded with some amount of cryptocurrency. Note: Want to know Continue reading >>

How Ethereum Works - Coindesk

How Ethereum Works - Coindesk

CoinDesk Launches 2017 Year in Review Opinion and Analysis Series Now that we've covered what ethereum is, let's dive deeper into how the platform functions under the hood. Consider the online notebook application described in " What is Ethereum? " Using ethereum, the appdoesn't require one entityto store and control its data. To accomplish this, ethereum borrows heavily from bitcoin's protocol and its blockchain design, but tweaks it to support applications beyond money. Ethereum aims to abstract away bitcoin's design, however, so that developers can create applications or agreements that have additional steps, new rules of ownership, alternative transaction formats or different ways to transfer state. The goal of ethereum's 'Turing-complete' programming language is to allow developers to write more programs in which blockchain transactions could govern and automate specific outcomes. This flexibility is perhaps ethereum's primary innovation, as explained in the guide " How Ethereum Smart Contracts Work ". The structure of the ethereum blockchain is very similar to bitcoin's, in that it is a shared record of the entire transaction history. Every node on the network stores a copy of this history. The big difference withethereum is that its nodes store the most recent state of each smart contract, in addition to all of the ether transactions. (This is much more complicated than described, but the text below should help you get your feet wet.) For each ethereum application, the network needs to keep track of the 'state', or the current information of all of these applications, including each user's balance, all the smart contract code and where it's all stored. Bitcoin uses unspent transaction outputs to track who has how muchbitcoin. While it sounds more complex, the id Continue reading >>

Ethereum - Wikipedia

Ethereum - Wikipedia

This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . This article relies too much on references to primary sources . Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources . Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable . Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. The Ethereum Project's logo, first used in 2014 Ethereum is an open-source , public, blockchain -based distributed computing platform featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality. [2] It provides a decentralized Turing-complete virtual machine , the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes. Ethereum also provides a cryptocurrency token called "ether", which can be transferred between accounts and used to compensate participant nodes for computations performed. [3] "Gas", an internal transaction pricing mechanism, is used to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network. [2] [4] Ethereum was proposed in late 2013 by Vitalik Buterin , a cryptocurrency researcher and programmer. Development was funded by an online crowdsale between July and August 2014. [5] The system went live on 30 July 2015, with 11.9 million coins "premined" for the crowdsale. [6] This accounts for approximately 13 percent of the total circulating supply. In 2016, as a result of the collapse of The DAO project, Ethereum was forked into two separate blockchains - the new forked version became Ethereum (ETH), and the original continued as Ethereum Classic (ETC). [7] [8] [9] Ethereum was initially described in a white paper by Vitalik Buterin , [10] a programmer involved with Bitcoin Magazine , in late 2013 with a goal of buildin Continue reading >>

An Introduction To Ethereum And Smart Contracts: A Programmable Blockchain

An Introduction To Ethereum And Smart Contracts: A Programmable Blockchain

An Introduction to Ethereum and Smart Contracts: a Programmable Blockchain Bitcoin took the world by surprise in the year 2009 and popularized the idea of decentralized secure monetary transactions. The concepts behind it, however, can be extended to much more than just digital currencies. Ethereum attempts to do that, marrying the power of decentralized transactions with a Turing-complete contract system. In this post we will take a closer look at how Ethereum works and what makes it different from Bitcoin and other blockchains. Read on! In our previous post , we took a closer look at what blockchains are and how they help in making distributed, verifiable transactions a possibility. Our main example was Bitcoin: the world's most popular cryptocurrency. Millions of dollars, in the form of bitcoins, are traded each day, making Bitcoin one of the most prominent examples of the viability of the blockchain concept. Have you ever found yourself asking this question: "what would happen if the provider of this service or application disappeared?" If you have, then learning about Ethereum can make a big difference for you. Ethereum is a platform to run decentralized applications: applications that do not rely on any central server. In this post we will explore how Ethereum works and build a simple PoC application related to authentication. A blockchain is a distributed, verifiable datastore. It works by marrying public-key cryptography with the nobel concept of the proof-of-work. Each transaction in the blockchain is signed by the rightful owner of the resource being traded in the transaction. When new coins (resources) are created they are assigned to an owner. This owner, in turn, can prepare new transactions that send those coins to others by simply embedding the new owner Continue reading >>

Build Your First Ethereum Smart Contract With Soliditytutorial

Build Your First Ethereum Smart Contract With Soliditytutorial

Finance & Tech Nerd, Investor, Blockchain & Crypto Enthusiast, Wannabe Polymath, Master of Discipline in Training, Laissez Faire. Talk Is Cheap. Build Your First Ethereum Smart Contract with Solidity Tutorial So you wanna build a smart contract? Perhaps you want to understand how they work, maybe you want to build your own Dapp, maybe you want to launch the very first billion dollar ICO (sarcasm)... Regardless of your intentions, learning how smart contracts work is invaluable. The Ethereum platform possesses enormous potential to create Dapps that could change the way we interact on the web in the decades to come. While Ethereum deploys smart contracts that work much like a standard blockchain transaction, they yield a conditional statement that must be met before a function(s) is executed. Smart contracts can be used for voting, crowdfunding, blind auctions, multi-signature wallets and MUCH more. Bob has his own scrap metal depot business in the United States, Eric is his iron scrap supplier. Eric is based out of China. Bob and Eric have a GREAT business relationship. They trust each other and have been doing business for a long time. Both have booming businesses, and Bob in particular sells out of iron scrap on a routine basis. Bob deploys a contract where once his iron scrap inventory reaches a certain range, he automatically sends an order out to Eric for X lbs of iron scrap at Y ether per ton. Eric agrees to the arrangement and accepts Bobs payment in ether right away. Eric gets to work right away and starts fulfilling Bobs order. Eric can exchange his ether at a local exchange online for Yuan for a tiny fee and itll be processed instantaneously. Whether Eric decides to hold ether or convert to Yuan is his choice, but either way he can now put this capital to wor Continue reading >>

The Hitchhikers Guide To Smart Contracts Inethereum

The Hitchhikers Guide To Smart Contracts Inethereum

The Hitchhikers Guide to Smart Contracts inEthereum Updated Oct 6th 2017, for Truffle v3.4.11 and Solidity v0.4.15. Ive been working with smart contracts for 4 years , mainly in the Bitcoin blockchain. Some projects I participated in are Proof of Existence , bitcore , and Streamium . In the past months, Ive been exploring and working with the Ethereum platform. Ive decided to compile a short guide to ease the way of future programmers learning Ethereum smart contract development. Ive divided the guide in two sections: how to get started building smart contracts in Ethereum, and a quick note on smart contract security. Getting started with Smart Contracts onEthereum This guide assumes you have a basic level of technical understanding on how cryptocurrencies and blockchains work. If you dont, I recommend skimming over Andreas Antonopoulos Mastering Bitcoin book , Consensys Just Enough Bitcoin for Ethereum guide , or at least watching this short video by Scott Driscoll . To continue ahead you should know what a public and private key are, why a blockchain needs miners, how decentralized consensus is reached, what a transaction is, and the concepts of transaction scripting and smart contracts. Two other important and related concepts youll need to understand before working with Ethereum are the Ethereum Virtual Machine and gas. Ethereum was designed as a smart contract platform. Its origin is actually linked to a critique made by Vitalik Buterin on bitcoin as a very limited smart contract platform. The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is where smart contracts run in Ethereum. It provides a more expressive and complete language than bitcoin for scripting. In fact, it is a Turing Complete programming language. A good metaphor is that the EVM is a distributed global computer wh Continue reading >>

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