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Json Rpc Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

Json Rpc Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

You can start the HTTP JSON-RPC with the --rpc flag change the default port (8545) and listing address (localhost) with: geth --rpc --rpcaddr --rpcport If accessing the RPC from a browser, CORS will need to be enabled with the appropriate domain set. Otherwise, JavaScript calls are limit by the same-origin policy and requests will fail: geth --rpc --rpccorsdomain "The JSON RPC can also be started from the geth console using the admin.startRPC(addr, port) command. You can start it by running eth application with -j option: You can also specify JSON-RPC port (default is 8545): In python the JSONRPC server is currently started by default and listens on 127.0.0.1:4000 You can change the port and listen address by giving a config option. pyethapp -c jsonrpc.listen_port=4002 -c jsonrpc.listen_host=127.0.0.2 run At present there are two key datatypes that are passed over JSON: unformatted byte arrays and quantities. Both are passed with a hex encoding, however with different requirements to formatting: When encoding QUANTITIES (integers, numbers): encode as hex, prefix with "0x", the most compact representation (slight exception: zero should be represented as "0x0"). Examples: WRONG: 0x (should always have at least one digit - zero is "0x0") WRONG: 0x0400 (no leading zeroes allowed) When encoding UNFORMATTED DATA (byte arrays, account addresses, hashes, bytecode arrays): encode as hex, prefix with "0x", two hex digits per byte. Examples: When requests are made that act on the state of ethereum, the last default block parameter determines the height of the block. The following options are possible for the defaultBlock parameter: String "earliest" for the earliest/genesis block String "latest" - for the latest mined block String "pending" - for the pending state/transactio Continue reading >>

What Is Ethereum Casper Protocol? Crash Course

What Is Ethereum Casper Protocol? Crash Course

What is Ethereum Casper Protocol? Crash Course Angel Investors, Startups & Blockchain developers... If you are interested in Ethereum or Cryptocurrency in general, then you must be aware of the terms proof-of-stake and Ethereum Casper. There is no running away from these terms, they are everywhere. Now because there is so much data out there, anyone interested in the topic may go through paralysis via analysis. So, in this guide, we present to you the definitive guide to Casper and how it will change Ethereum forever. What is Ethereum Casper Protocol? Crash Course Most cryptocurrencies including Bitcoin run on proof-of-work. Proof-of-work as a process has the following steps to it: The miners solve cryptographic puzzles to mine a block to add to the blockchain . This process requires an immense amount of energy and computational usage. The puzzles have been designed in a way which makes it hard and taxing on the system. When a miner solves the puzzle, they present their block to the network for verification. Verifying whether the block belongs to the chain or not is an extremely simple process. That, in essence, is what the proof-of-work system is. Solving the puzzle is difficult but checking whether the solution is actually correct or not is easy. This is the system that Bitcoin and Ethereum (till now) have been using. However, there are some fundamental flaws in the system. As it turns out, there are quite a few problems with proof-of-work. First and foremost, proof of work is an extremely inefficient process because of the sheer amount of power and energy that it eats up. People and organizations that can afford faster and more powerful ASICs usually have a better chance of mining than the others. As a result of this, bitcoin isnt as decentralized as it wants to be. Continue reading >>

How To Build A Private Ethereum Blockchain

How To Build A Private Ethereum Blockchain

Step 5: Create an account to use as the coinbase for your blockchain node An Ethereum account is the public key that stores ether that will be used in your private blockchain to pay for gas fees. Before we start the blockchain, we need to create an account that the mining rewards will be deposited too. You will be prompted to set a password for the account, DONT FORGET YOUR PASSWORD, you will not be able to recover it later and wont be able to spend the ether you mine or unlock that account. After entering the password twice, you should expect to get a response back like this: Address: {941f1f0b08757457be0b52d83a1e3e566473ed61} This is the public key of the Ethereum account. Ethereum convention is to prefix accounts with 0x so the account is sometimes seen as 0x941f1fobo8757457be0b52d83a1e3e566473ed61. Step 6: Create JSON File for Genesis Block to Bootstrap Private Blockchain Using a text editor, create a file CustomGenesis.json with the following contents: Step 7: Initialize the blockchain from your CustomGenesis.json file go-ethereum/build/bin/geth init ./CustomGenesis.json You should expect to see output similar to this: INFO[0223|20:20:03] Allotted 128MB cache and 1024 file handles to /home/ubuntu/.ethereum/geth/chaindata INFO[0223|20:20:04] closed db:/home/ubuntu/.ethereum/geth/chaindata INFO[0223|20:20:04] Allotted 128MB cache and 1024 file handles to /home/ubuntu/.ethereum/geth/chaindata INFO[0223|20:20:04] successfully wrote genesis block and/or chain rule set: 5dd3be94dcbf5216aaa3e82700fb51a831257df5d45d984941a0a32ee0f960d8 Congratulations! You have initialized a private Ethereum blockchain!! Before we move on, lets take a break for some optional exploration of the files we have generated. In your home directory you will now see a hidden directory called.ether Continue reading >>

What Is Ethereum? Ethereum Homestead 0.1 Documentation

What Is Ethereum? Ethereum Homestead 0.1 Documentation

Ethereum is an open blockchain platform that lets anyone build and use decentralized applications that run on blockchain technology. Like Bitcoin, no one controls or owns Ethereum it is an open-source project built by many people around the world. But unlike the Bitcoin protocol, Ethereum was designed to be adaptable and flexible. It is easy to create new applications on the Ethereum platform, and with the Homestead release, it is now safe for anyone to use those applications. Blockchain technology is the technological basis of Bitcoin, first described by its mysterious author Satoshi Nakamoto in his white paper Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System, published in 2008. While the use of blockchains for more general uses was already discussed in the original paper, it was not until a few years later that blockchain technology emerged as a generic term. A blockchain is a distributed computing architecture where every network node executes and records the same transactions, which are grouped into blocks. Only one block can be added at a time, and every block contains a mathematical proof that verifies that it follows in sequence from the previous block. In this way, the blockchains distributed database is kept in consensus across the whole network. Individual user interactions with the ledger (transactions) are secured by strong cryptography. Nodes that maintain and verify the network are incentivized by mathematically enforced economic incentives coded into the protocol. In Bitcoins case the distributed database is conceived of as a table of account balances, a ledger, and transactions are transfers of the bitcoin token to facilitate trustless finance between individuals. But as bitcoin began attracting greater attention from developers and technologists, novel p Continue reading >>

What Is The Ethereum Casper Protocol?

What Is The Ethereum Casper Protocol?

written by Jonnie Emsley February 7, 2018 The term Casper has been popping up lately in the Ethereum community like a whack-a-mole. Youll even see it hitting headlines alongside ETHs recent 30% spike in value , with punters explaining the upwards explosion as sheer anticipation of what Casper will do for Ethereum. With the successful launch of the Casper Testnet on the last day of 2017, excitement in the Ethereum community is gathering the momentum of a runaway freight train. Still, while everyone revs up for a Casper-supercharged world computer, its release date is as elusive and mysterious as a poltergeist, with Ethereums developers loosely announcing it will occur some time this year. But before we get ahead of ourselves, lets break it down and have a look at Ethereums ghostly counterpart. Casper is a hard fork of Ethereum that solves many of the underlying issues holding the cryptocurrency back from mass adoption. At its core, Casper aims to enhance Ethereums security and reduce the risk of centralization, while eliminating the financially and environmentally unsustainable practice of mining. Casper marks a shift to the Proof-of-Stake protocol, but it will start out as a hybrid with the current Proof-of-Work . In practice, this means that the PoS will only be used every 100th block. All details are exceedingly vague at this stage, but the eventual outcome of Casper could result in three versions (forks) of Ethereum: PoS, PoW, and Classic. As we count down to the Casper fork, Ethereum miners are starting to bite their nails. Why? It is highly probable that the transition to PoS will mark the end of Ethereum mining, as ETHs developers plan to detonate a difficulty bomb on the PoW fork when they release Casper. The bomb is a piece of Ethereum code that by design makes Continue reading >>

Ethereum Wire Protocol

Ethereum Wire Protocol

Peer-to-peer communications between nodes running Ethereum clients run using the underlying Vp2p Wire Protocol . Two peers connect & say Hello and send their Status message. Status includes the Total Difficulty(TD) & hash of their best block. The client with the worst TD asks peer for full chain of just block hashes. Chain of hashes is stored in space shared by all peer connections, and used as a "work pool". While there are hashes in the chain of hashes that we don't have in our chain: Ask for N blocks from our peer using the hashes. Mark them as on their way so we don't get them from another peer. Status[+0x00: P, protocolVersion: P, networkId: P, td: P, bestHash: B_32, genesisHash: B_32] Inform a peer of its current ethereum state. This message should be sent after the initial handshake and prior to any ethereum related messages. networkId: 0=Olympic (disused), 1=Frontier (mainnet), 2=Morden (disused), 3=Ropsten (testnet), 4= Rinkeby td: Total Difficulty of the best chain. Integer, as found in block header. bestHash: The hash of the best (i.e. highest TD) known block. genesisHash: The hash of the Genesis block. NewBlockHashes[+0x01: P, hash1: B_32, hash2: B_32, ...] Specify one or more new blocks which have appeared on the network. The list may contain 256 hashes at most. To be maximally helpful, nodes should inform peers of all blocks that they may not be aware of. Including hashes that the sending peer could reasonably be considered to know (due to the fact they were previously informed of because that node has itself advertised knowledge of the hashes through NewBlockHashes) is considered Bad Form, and may reduce the reputation of the sending node. Including hashes that the sending node later refuses to honour with a proceeding GetBlocks message is considered Bad Continue reading >>

Where Can I Find Details On Ethereum Network Protocols, Block Formats And So On? : Ethereum

Where Can I Find Details On Ethereum Network Protocols, Block Formats And So On? : Ethereum

Where can i find details on Ethereum network protocols, block formats and so on? I want to understand how Ethereum works, and for me to understand equals to implement. So, i want to write a rudimentary Ethereum node, capable of connecting directly to the live testnet, interacting with it, parsing the data structures and so on. In case of Bitcoin-class coins, there are resources like which describe between-nodes protocol, and many block explorers have a raw hex output modes for everything. In Ethereum, however, i can't find anything more than the list of bootnodes in the code. I'm yet to see a raw hex version of a single block, and the way nodes communicate is not even referenced or mentioned anywhere - only APIs for various web sites are discussed. I'm trying to find something to hook onto and start building from, but find myself just sliding along the skin of this slippery cthulhu without a single orifice in sight. TL;DR: Where can i find details on low-level ethereum stuff, or at least where in the code (preferably cpp-ethereum one) can i find the network stuff and block structure? Continue reading >>

White Paper Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

White Paper Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

Introduction to Bitcoin and Existing Concepts The concept of decentralized digital currency, as well as alternative applications like property registries, has been around for decades. The anonymous e-cash protocols of the 1980s and the 1990s were mostly reliant on a cryptographic primitive known as Chaumian Blinding. [8] Chaumian Blinding provided these new currencies with high degrees of privacy, but their underlying protocols largely failed to gain traction because of their reliance on a centralized intermediary. In 1998, Wei Dai's b-money [9] became the first proposal to introduce the idea of creating money through solving computational puzzles as well as decentralized consensus, but the proposal was scant on details as to how decentralized consensus could actually be implemented. In 2005, Hal Finney introduced a concept of reusable proofs of work, [10] a system which uses ideas from b-money together with Adam Back's computationally difficult Hashcash [11] puzzles to create a concept for a cryptocurrency, but once again fell short of the ideal by relying on trusted computing as a backend. In 2009, a decentralized currency was for the first time implemented in practice by Satoshi Nakamoto, [1c] [1d] combining established primitives for managing ownership through public key cryptography with a consensus algorithm for keeping track of who owns coins, known as "proof of work." The mechanism behind proof of work was a breakthrough because it simultaneously solved two problems. First, it provided a simple and moderately effective consensus algorithm, allowing nodes in the network to collectively agree on a set of updates to the state of the Bitcoin ledger. Second, it provided a mechanism for allowing free entry into the consensus process, solving the political problem of Continue reading >>

P2p - Godoc

P2p - Godoc

Package p2p implements the Ethereum p2p network protocols. var ErrPipeClosed = errors . New ("p2p: read or write on closed message pipe") ErrPipeClosed is returned from pipe operations after thepipe has been closed. func ExpectMsg(r MsgReader , code uint64 , content interface{}) error ExpectMsg reads a message from r and verifies that itscode and encoded RLP content match the provided values.If content is nil, the payload is discarded and not verified. func Send(w MsgWriter , msgcode uint64 , data interface{}) error Send writes an RLP-encoded message with the given code.data should encode as an RLP list. func SendItems(w MsgWriter , msgcode uint64 , elems ...interface{}) error SendItems writes an RLP with the given code and data elements.For a call such as: the message payload will be an RLP list containing the items: type Cap struct { Name string Version uint } Cap is the structure of a peer capability. type Config struct { // This field must be set to a valid secp256k1 private key. PrivateKey * ecdsa . PrivateKey `toml:"-"` // MaxPeers is the maximum number of peers that can be // connected. It must be greater than zero. MaxPeers int // MaxPendingPeers is the maximum number of peers that can be pending in the // handshake phase, counted separately for inbound and outbound connections. // Zero defaults to preset values. MaxPendingPeers int `toml:",omitempty"` // NoDiscovery can be used to disable the peer discovery mechanism. // Disabling is useful for protocol debugging (manual topology). NoDiscovery bool // DiscoveryV5 specifies whether the the new topic-discovery based V5 discovery // protocol should be started or not. DiscoveryV5 bool `toml:",omitempty"` // Listener address for the V5 discovery protocol UDP traffic. DiscoveryV5Addr string `toml:",omitempty"` // Na Continue reading >>

Beginner's Guide To Ethereum Casper Hardfork: What You Need To Know

Beginner's Guide To Ethereum Casper Hardfork: What You Need To Know

The Casper updates mission is straightforward, then: to shift ether from being a PoW coin to a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) coin . As opposed to the PoW consensus protocol, the PoS protocol achieves consensus through stakerssometimes referred to as minters, toowho stake their coins by locking them down in specialized wallets . With these stakers at work, mining will become redundant, meaning the Ethereum network post-Casper will rely on stakers and staking pools instead of miners for its operability. And, like miners, stakers will be rewarded for their service to the network. Minters will receive an annual dividend of ether (collected from network fees), so staking would be a lucrative endeavor for those with enough coins. Naturally, then, the more ETH you stake, the larger your annual dividends will be. For now, Ethereums developers havent arrived at a hard number for the amount of ETH that will be required to stake. What they have confirmed, though, is that the number will likely start out higher before gradually being brought considerably lower. For instance, Ethereum founder Vitalik Buterin has recently thrown around a guesstimate of needing approximately 1,000 ETH to be one of the networks inaugural stakers. He said that number could be dropped down to as low as 10 ETH over time. Whatever the number ends up being, users will still be able to band together and create staking pools, just like there are robust mining pools in the Bitcoin and Ethereum communities today. Youll simply pitch your desired amount of ether in, lock in down with your peers, and rake in the dividends together (to be shared proportionally, of course). Well, the Casper update is certainly a team effort, but its inarguable that top Ethereum researcher Vlad Zamfir has been at the vanguard of the updates Continue reading >>

World Computer? New Protocol Could Supercharge Ethereum Blockchain

World Computer? New Protocol Could Supercharge Ethereum Blockchain

World Computer? New Protocol Could Supercharge Ethereum Blockchain Dec 1, 2017 at 09:00 UTC|UpdatedDec 4, 2017 at 10:01 UTC With scaling the center of attention in the public blockchain sector, an older but lesser known attempt to overcome the restrictions inherent in ethereum is getting a refresh. Revealed in an exclusive interview with CoinDesk, a new TrueBit protocol is being released this December, one that removes the ethereum "gas limit," which today puts an upper-bound on the number of computations the network can achieve, bringing the second largest blockchain by market capitalization closer to its oft-touted goal of becoming a "world computer." While TrueBit is one of many in-progress scaling solutions being engineered for the ethereum platform - working alongside mechanisms such as sharding, state channels and Raiden - it distinguishes itself by focusing on the computational power of the network at large, instead of just transaction speed. Geared specifically towards heavy computations, such as those video broadcasting and machine learning would require, TrueBit could resolve the fact that ethereum is still about as fast as a "smartphone from 1999," as ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin joked last year . "In short, the new scheme would be a vast simplification of the current TrueBit protocol," said Zack Lawrence, the co-founderof 1protocol , who developed the technology. And these gains all came about after speculation that someone could exploit the protocol, after an amendment to its white paper was released last month. JasonTeutsch, a mathematician and co-founder of TrueBit, framed the speculation, and the process for patching the vulnerability, with a silver lining: "When so many people have eyes on the papers, over time, you get more and more confident that Continue reading >>

A Gentle Introduction To Ethereum

A Gentle Introduction To Ethereum

Ethereum builds on blockchain and cryptocurrency concepts, so if you are not familiar with these, its worth reading a gentle introduction to bitcoin and a gentle introduction to blockchain technology first. This article assumes the reader has a basic familiarity with how Bitcoin works. Ethereum is software running on a network of computers that ensures that data and small computer programs called smart contracts are replicated and processed on all the computers on the network, without a central coordinator. The vision is to create an unstoppable censorship-resistant self-sustaining decentralised world computer. The officialwebsite is Itextends the blockchain concepts from Bitcoin which validates, stores, and replicates transaction data on many computers around the world (hence the term distributed ledger). Ethereum takes this one step further, and also runs computer code equivalently on many computers around the world. What Bitcoin does for distributed data storage, Ethereum does for distributed data storage plus computations. The small computer programsbeing run are called smart contracts, and the contractsare run by participants on their machines using asort ofoperating system called a Ethereum Virtual Machine. To run Ethereum, you can download (or write yourself if you have the patience) some software called an Ethereum client. Just like BitTorrent or Bitcoin, the Ethereum client will connect over the internet to other peoples computers running similar client softwareand start downloading the Ethereum blockchain from them to catch up. It will also independently validate that each block conforms to the Ethereum rules. What does the Ethereum client software do? You can use itto: Create new transactions and smart contracts Your computer becomes a node on the network, r Continue reading >>

Ethereum - Wikipedia

Ethereum - Wikipedia

This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . This article relies too much on references to primary sources . Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources . Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable . Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. The Ethereum Project's logo, first used in 2014 Ethereum is an open-source , public, blockchain -based distributed computing platform featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality. [2] It provides a decentralized Turing-complete virtual machine , the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes. Ethereum also provides a cryptocurrency token called "ether", which can be transferred between accounts and used to compensate participant nodes for computations performed. [3] "Gas", an internal transaction pricing mechanism, is used to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network. [2] [4] Ethereum was proposed in late 2013 by Vitalik Buterin , a cryptocurrency researcher and programmer. Development was funded by an online crowdsale between July and August 2014. [5] The system went live on 30 July 2015, with 11.9 million coins "premined" for the crowdsale. [6] This accounts for approximately 13 percent of the total circulating supply. In 2016, as a result of the collapse of The DAO project, Ethereum was forked into two separate blockchains - the new forked version became Ethereum (ETH), and the original continued as Ethereum Classic (ETC). [7] [8] [9] Ethereum was initially described in a white paper by Vitalik Buterin , [10] a programmer involved with Bitcoin Magazine , in late 2013 with a goal of buildin Continue reading >>

Ethereum Project

Ethereum Project

You are responsible for your own computer security. If your machine is compromised you will lose your ether, access to any contracts and possibly more. You are responsible for your own actions. If you mess something up or break any laws while using this software, it's your fault, and your fault only. You are responsible for your own karma. Don't be a jerk and respect the rights of others. What goes around comes around. The user expressly knows and agrees that the user is using the Ethereum platform at the users sole risk. The user acknowledges that the user has an adequate understanding of the risks, usage and intricacies of cryptographic tokens and blockchain-based open source software, eth platform and ethereum The user acknowledges and agrees that, to the fullest extent permitted by any applicable law, the disclaimers of liability contained herein apply to any and all damages or injury whatsoever caused by or related to risks of, use of, or inability to use, ethereum or the Ethereum platform under any cause or action whatsoever of any kind in any jurisdiction, including, without limitation, actions for breach of warranty, breach of contract or tort (including negligence) and that neither Stiftung Ethereum (i.e. Ethereum Foundation) nor Ethereum team shall be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, exemplary or consequential damages, including for loss of profits, goodwill or data that occurs as a result. Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion of certain warranties or the limitation or exclusion of liability for certain types of damages. Therefore, some of the above limitations in this section may not apply to a user. In particular, nothing in these terms shall affect the statutory rights of any user or exclude injury arising from any willful misconduct Continue reading >>

Setup Your Own Private Proof-of-authority Ethereum Network Withgeth

Setup Your Own Private Proof-of-authority Ethereum Network Withgeth

Setup your own private Proof-of-Authority Ethereum network withGeth geth 1.8 was released a few days after this guide was published and fortunately does not break anything. This post is then valid and was tested for both geth 1.7.3 and geth 1.8. Awesome:) Ive learned a posteriori that the gas limit per block is dynamic . Therefore Ive updated the section 2.3 to give more information about this particular case. In my private network where blocks are most of the time empty, I dont what the gas limit to decrease at all! Clique requires int(N/2+1) sealers (where N is the number of sealers defined in the genesis file in extraData field) to be online in order to run. N=2 is the minimum accepted. See Chapter 4 for more details. Goal: step by step guide to help you setup a local private ethereum network using the Proof-of-Authority consensus engine (also named clique). In a nutshell: we will setup two nodes on the same machine, creating a peer-to-peer network on our localhost. In addition to the two nodes, a bootnode (discovery service) will also be setup. It took me quite some time and extensive research and googling to finally have a solid ethereum development environment for testing my smart contracts and my DApps. In this post, Ive decided to share how I am setting a Proof-of-Authority network using the clique consensus engine of Geth. Its my way to thank the community by giving back and hopefully making life easier for anyone willing exploring the Ethereum universe. My OS is Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (this tuto was done in a fresh virtual machine). For the Ethereum client, I am using Geth (the Go implementation of the Ethereum protocole). I believe that Geth is easy to install with plenty of great tutorials out there, so I am not gonna cover any installation here. I am currently r Continue reading >>

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