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Ethereum Proof Of Stake

Ethereum's Proof Of Stake Casper Testnet Nears Launch

Ethereum's Proof Of Stake Casper Testnet Nears Launch

One of the biggest upgrade in ethereum, and perhaps in the entire ecosystem, might be closer to implementation than previously thought, withLane Rettig, a researcher at the Ethereum Foundation, stating : Casper FFG testnet is coming. Weve got a three-node network working with two validators. Still a few bugs to work out. Whitepapers are cool and all but seeing this come to life is amazing. Casper Friendly Finality Gadget (FFG) is a hybrid Proof of Stake (PoS) and Proof of Work (PoW) implementation developed by Vitalik Buterin, ethereums inventor, and others. This implementation is apparently sufficiently advanced to the extent it could even be incorporated in the next ethereum upgrade, Constantinople Metropolis. According to Ethnews, Buterin said : Theoretically, Casper may well be at the stage where we may actually just try doing it for the next fork, even if that sounds ambitious. There is no estimated date for the second Metropolis fork as far as we are aware. Initially, the intention was to have just one Metropolis upgrade, but some aspects were taking far too long, while much else had been finalized. Developers therefore split it into Byzantium and Constantinople, with Byzantium going through just a few weeks ago. Constantinople is now expected next and might potentially incorporate Casper. The Casper testnet is, as the name says, an environment where they can test the first version of PoS. That means the code is not finalized, but has taken form rather than being at the theoretical design stage. The purpose of the testnet is to firstly ensure security and secondly to refine it fully as coders see how it works in a virtual lab environment. It is the last stage of any upgrade, before it goes to main-net, and indicates a live launch might be just months away. When e Continue reading >>

Proof Of Work Vs Proof Of Stake: Basic Mining Guide

Proof Of Work Vs Proof Of Stake: Basic Mining Guide

Proof of Work vs Proof of Stake: Basic Mining Guide Angel Investors, Startups & Blockchain developers... Recently you might have heard about the idea to move from an Ethereum consensus based on the Proof of Work (PoW) system to one based on the so-called Proof of Stake. In this article, I will explain to you the main differences between Proof of Work vs Proof of Stake and I will provide you a definition of mining, or the process new digital currencies are released through the network. Also, what will change regarding mining techniques if the Ethereum community decides to do the transition from work to stake? This article wants to be a basic guide to understanding the problem above. First of all, lets start with basic definitions. Proof of work is a protocol that has the main goal of deterring cyber-attacks such as a distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS) which has the purpose of exhausting the resources of a computer system by sending multiple fake requests. The Proof of work concept existed even before bitcoin , but Satoshi Nakamoto applied this technique to his/her we still dont know who Nakamoto really is digital currency revolutionizing the way traditional transactions are set. In fact, PoW idea was originally published by Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor back in 1993, but the term proof of work was coined by Markus Jakobsson and Ari Juels in a document published in 1999. But, returning to date, Proof of work is maybe the biggest idea behind the Nakamotos Bitcoin white paper published back in 2008 because it allows trustless and distributed consensus. Whats trustless and distributed consensus? A trustless and distributed consensus system means that if you want to send and/or receive money from someone you dont need to trust in third-party services. When you use tra Continue reading >>

Ethereum Foundation Releases Alpha Casper Proof Of Stake Testnet | Hacker News

Ethereum Foundation Releases Alpha Casper Proof Of Stake Testnet | Hacker News

For people who don't know what this is (like me), they have a good FAQ explaining "Proof of Stake" vs "Proof of Work": > In proof of work (PoW) based public blockchains (e.g. Bitcoin and the current implementation of Ethereum), the algorithm rewards participants who solve cryptographic puzzles in order to validate transactions and create new blocks (i.e. mining). In PoS-based public blockchains (e.g. Ethereum's upcoming Casper implementation), a set of validators take turns proposing and voting on the next block, and the weight of each validator's vote depends on the size of its deposit (i.e. stake). Significant advantages of PoS include security, reduced risk of centralization, and energy efficiency. Yes, but the simplistic version of the argument is that any entity with such a large stake would be inherently incentivized to preserve the value of the currency and act in good faith. My intuition is that this is a risky proposition. If an entity can benefit themselves $x by making a bad-faith transaction, but it only costs them $y such that $y < $x, its rational to do it even if the costs to others are orders of magnitude greater. As a concrete example, if Coinbase double-spent a transaction for $10m and had enough stake to make the network accept this, would it necessarily devalue the currency through loss of trust by enough to make this unprofitable? Is this true for all possible actions by a 51% stakeholder? >Yes, but the simplistic version of the argument is that any entity with such a large stake would be inherently incentivized to preserve the value of the currency and act in good faith. This logic is, as you say, simplistic. Anyone with such a large stake can cash out, and then use their former large stake to fabricate an alternative chain in which they did not c Continue reading >>

What Does Proof Of Stake Mean For Ethereum?

What Does Proof Of Stake Mean For Ethereum?

What does Proof of Stake mean for Ethereum? One major issue with Ethereum mining is the high consumption of power. Processing transactions costs an ever-increasing amount of electricity which is not only bad from a financial perspective but also bad for the environment. The main concept used in cryptocurrency mining is proof of work (PoW) which means miners get rewarded when they solve puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks. Though it works and is used by the majority of cryptocurrencies, there is a need for a lot of computing power for new transactions to be verified. According to an approximation done by Vitalik Buterin who is the founder of Ethereum, it uses electricity costing up to $1M daily in order to process daily transactions. Since mining is becoming less financially feasible over time the founder proposed switching to a different concept as an alternative to proof of work called proof of stake. As opposed to proof of work where miners have to solve complicated algorithms to validate a transaction, in proof of stake miners are those that are willing to stake part of their cryptocurrency on the blocks they think should be added to the blockchain. Proof of stake depends on validators economic stake in the network. In a PoS based blockchain, miners who are the validators have their own turn in voting and proposing the next block. The weight of the vote of the validator will depend on their stake in the network which is basically the deposit of cryptocurrency they have. The blockchain will keep a record of validators and those who hold the blockchains base cryptocurrency. If one holds the blockchains base cryptocurrency they can easily become a miner or a validator as all they need to do is to give up their ether into a locked deposit through a sp Continue reading >>

When Will Ethereum Mining End?

When Will Ethereum Mining End?

In August of this year (2017), Vitalik Buterin, creator of Ethereum , released the implementation guide for the first version of Casper. As a hybrid proof-of-stake (PoS)/proof-of-work (PoW) algorithm, Casper v1 is going to decrease (and eventually end) the profitability for Ethereum miners . The release date is estimated to be sometime in 2018 as part of the Constantinople hard fork and theres a lot to learn before this happens: Casper is a PoS algorithm thats projected to be released on the Ethereum network sometime in 2018. Beginning as a hybrid with the current PoW algorithm, the first version of Casper will only use a PoS consensus to validate every 100th block, called checkpoints. Once a checkpoint is validated, theres no way to go back and use a chain without it. Even if 99% of miners support a chain that doesnt include a checkpoint block, all clients in the network will still continue to use the one with the checkpoints. This removes a lot of the power that miners currently have. The Ethereum community hypothesizes that the switch to PoS will help with the scaling issues that the network is currently facing. The algorithm should enable new blocks to be created more quickly while allowing the network to scale more efficiently through sharding. Sharding is a horizontal partitioning of a large database into smaller and more easily managed parts. Beyond that, PoS algorithms also use less energy to run the network, reduce centralization, and make 51% attacks more difficult. With the upcoming hard fork, there could potentially be three forks of Ethereum: And, if youre a miner, you may be thinking, No big deal, Ill just continue to mine and give support to the Ethereum PoW fork. The Ethereum developers have stated that theyll be releasing what they call the difficulty Continue reading >>

Proof Of Stake Is Coming, And Will Be A Game Changer

Proof Of Stake Is Coming, And Will Be A Game Changer

Proof of Stake Is Coming, and Will Be a Game Changer Join our community of 10 000 traders on Hacked.com for just $39 per month. Proof of Work mining (the protocol underpinning Bitcoin and many others) uses as much energy as the nation Denmark. Its a costly and lengthy process, and with the user base growing traditional blockchains are struggling. This is because every single transaction needs to be mined by powerful computers solving complex mathematical problems. Its a process that ensures the security of the network, preventing double spends and other malicious actions. Whilst effective, the energy inefficiency of this process is truly staggering. And thats not all. With each transaction needing a lengthy confirmation process, the blockchain cannot scale easily as more and more users join the network. Bitcoin transactions are now unbearably slow and expensive, with long backlogs of transactions waiting their turn. Ethereum too is suffering from the same issue. Although the network can currently handle around fifteen transactions per second, significantly more than Bitcoin, we need only look at the recent Cryptokitties mania to see the crippling effect of high network load. Backlogs of transactions quickly built up and transaction prices skyrocketed as users fought to get included in the next block.With the severe limitations proof of work seen, it seems impossible for real-world use cases to succeed. VISA and other non-blockchains handle thousands of transactions per second, and if the many projects emerging in the crypto space are to compete, something needs to change. Vitalik Buterin, mastermind of the Ethereum system, aims to introduce what is known as a Proof of Stake this year. The upgrade to the network is known as Casper, and it promises to be a game changer. Continue reading >>

Ethereum's Big Switch: The New Roadmap To Proof-of-stake - Coindesk

Ethereum's Big Switch: The New Roadmap To Proof-of-stake - Coindesk

Ethereum's Big Switch: The New Roadmap to Proof-of-Stake After years of development, ethereum has a new planto update the algorithm that keeps its entire network in sync. Vitalik Buterin, ethereum's creator , recently released a rough implementation guide that reveals the network's developers will first start with a 'hybrid' system that merges bitcoin-style proof-of-work mining with itsmuch-anticipated and still-experimental proof-of-stake system called Casper, created by Buterin. The planeffectively meansethereum will begin alternating between the two systems, so that some transaction blocks (one out of 100) are secured viaproof-of-stake and the rest remain on proof-of-work. Buterin has notably been working on his implementationin parallel with ethereum developer Vlad Zamfir, "cross-pollinating" their ideas. According toKarl Floersch, blockchain engineer for ethereum startup ConsenSysand a coder working with Buterin on Casper's development, the result is that the network is choosing the more conservative of two potential paths forward. "What Vitalik has come up with is a get-it-out-the-door, working version, that works, but might be less theoretically revolutionary than Vlad's." Because Buterin's implementation of Casper can, he thinks, get to production faster, it will be used in the first stage of ethereum's evolution. If implemented, this would be the first time proof-of-stake would be employed on the live ethereum platform, albeit playing a minor role. It also would a largereal-world test of proof-of-stake, enabling the cryptocurrency community to determine whether the proof algorithm is asuperior one, as proponents have argued. To advocates, the goal of this potentially revolutionary change to proof-of-stake is to reduce the electricityethereum requires to reacha Continue reading >>

Ethereum Proof Of Stake Implementation Launched By Applicature

Ethereum Proof Of Stake Implementation Launched By Applicature

Ethereum proof of stake implementation launched by Applicature Applicature is working on projects implying the development of smart contracts; research, deployment, and customization of blockchain solutions; technical advisory to blockchain resources; technical consultancy on token sales, initial coin offerings. Applicature , a boutique blockchain agency with a presence in the U.S and Europe has launched its Proof of Stake Consensus protocol on Ethereum in order to secure, stabilize, improve transactions in multiple industries: banking, supply chain, marketing including loyalty systems. It was developed in the fall-winter period of 2017-2018 and is ready to roll out for testing. Due to high demand from the clients, and due to already existing PoW, which wasnt always suitable to use for certain tasks, Applicature has made a decision to develop its own AEPoS (Applicature Ethereun Proof of Stake Consensus Protocol). Proof of Stake (PoS) is the blockchain consensus and reward algorithm that distributes rewards respectively to the declared economical interest in the game for example by holding of the digital assets. Such declared interest is known as stake. Proof of Work (PoW) is all about mining. To get a reward you have to solve a hard block algorithm (puzzle). The process of solving the block is called mining. All blocks must be verified by mining. It means that to validate transactions miners have to use a lot of computational power to solve the puzzle. The amount of reward you get depends on how fast you calculate. To solve the puzzle faster miners have to invest in new hardware and it burns out tons of energy. When the block is solved its added to the public blockchain. More miners mean more security. 1) Process of mining to validate transactions 2) Miners get rewarde Continue reading >>

Ethereum A Step Closer To Proof Of Stake

Ethereum A Step Closer To Proof Of Stake

Ethereum has a deadline coming up to achieve a proof-of-stake approach, and it seems to be serious, getting closer to launching the Casper update as testnet. The most important change to Ethereum, the moving to Proof-of-Stake securing of the blockchain, is coming closer as a test net for the Casper update is in the works. Previously delayed, the Casper update has been brought forward, presumably due to the better hiring power of the Ethereum foundation. And with Ethereum breaking the $500 barrier in line with the record-breaking streak of the cryptocurrency market , the funding may continue to attract developer talent. With proof of stake, any owner of ETH coins could secure the network and receive rewards. The move toward PoS will mean Ethereum is at first a mixed coin with some mining and staking, until it moves to the more energy-efficient PoS mechanism. The locking up of ETH in nodes will create additional scarcity. The system will become more centralized, resembling DASH and its Master Nodes. But this is also a scaling solution which would help proliferate verified transactions through the network faster. With the Casper update, the next step after the Byzantium hard fork, Ethereum will aim to achieve the speeds of VISA, or at least reasonably expand the capacity of its network. At the moment, Ethereum is faster than Bitcoin, but still handles around 13 transactions per second and has seen serious traffic jams. The rise of Ethereum first happened around the hype for ICOs, but as BTC has crossed the $11,000 barrier, cryptocurrencies are going into the mainstream and market prices are moving up, inviting new buyers. ETH coins seem to be appreciating by the hour, trading at $513 as the leading coins are making rapid gains. The projections for Ethereum include a marke Continue reading >>

Beginner's Guide To Ethereum Casper Hardfork: What You Need To Know

Beginner's Guide To Ethereum Casper Hardfork: What You Need To Know

The Casper updates mission is straightforward, then: to shift ether from being a PoW coin to a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) coin . As opposed to the PoW consensus protocol, the PoS protocol achieves consensus through stakerssometimes referred to as minters, toowho stake their coins by locking them down in specialized wallets . With these stakers at work, mining will become redundant, meaning the Ethereum network post-Casper will rely on stakers and staking pools instead of miners for its operability. And, like miners, stakers will be rewarded for their service to the network. Minters will receive an annual dividend of ether (collected from network fees), so staking would be a lucrative endeavor for those with enough coins. Naturally, then, the more ETH you stake, the larger your annual dividends will be. For now, Ethereums developers havent arrived at a hard number for the amount of ETH that will be required to stake. What they have confirmed, though, is that the number will likely start out higher before gradually being brought considerably lower. For instance, Ethereum founder Vitalik Buterin has recently thrown around a guesstimate of needing approximately 1,000 ETH to be one of the networks inaugural stakers. He said that number could be dropped down to as low as 10 ETH over time. Whatever the number ends up being, users will still be able to band together and create staking pools, just like there are robust mining pools in the Bitcoin and Ethereum communities today. Youll simply pitch your desired amount of ether in, lock in down with your peers, and rake in the dividends together (to be shared proportionally, of course). Well, the Casper update is certainly a team effort, but its inarguable that top Ethereum researcher Vlad Zamfir has been at the vanguard of the updates Continue reading >>

Will Proof Of Stake Turn Eth Into The Best Store Of Value Coin? : Ethtrader

Will Proof Of Stake Turn Eth Into The Best Store Of Value Coin? : Ethtrader

In 2018, I expect much of the conversation around Ethereum to center upon Proof of Stake. For those of you who want to learn more about Proof of Stake, this is a decent write-up. A core feature of Proof of Stake will be that miners are replaced by validators. These validators will provide security for the network, by staking their ETH, and will be compensated by receiving a portion of the transaction fees expended on the Ethereum network. If they behave badly, they will be penalized and have their stake slashed. Proof of Stake is anticipated to bring many benefits to the Ethereum network and to ETH token holders, including: Dramatically reducing energy consumption (in contrast to proof of work, which is incredibly energy intensive) Eliminating the miner centralization problem Providing some scaling improvements and supporting the cheaper implementation of private transactions Paving the way for even more advanced scaling solutions Locking-up massive amounts of ETH supply (thus creating relative scarcity in circulating token supply) Allowing ETH to pay what essentially amounts to a dividend (for those with stake who also serve as validators) Imbuing ETH with financial value that is not purely based upon speculation, but also upon income (allowing for discounted cashflow analysis by professional investors) Catching Wall Street's attention (and possibly skyrocketing the price) Here's the rub, in order for Proof of Stake to work, I believe the market must consider ETH to be a store of value token, in addition to being a smart contract utility coin. And I believe that the Foundation and many of the smart people in the Ethereum community already realize this. This "store of value" label is one that the Foundation and many others in the community either avoid, or eschew in so Continue reading >>

Ethereums Switch To Proof Of Stake Better Than Proof Of Work?

Ethereums Switch To Proof Of Stake Better Than Proof Of Work?

By UseTheBitcoin in Cryptocurrency News Guides Home If youre at least interested in the cryptocurrency space, youve probably heard of Ethereum. Its currently the second largest coin by market cap, primarily because so many other tokens run on Ethereum, and partly because the development team is very talented. Either way, this post is about the switch from POW to POS. Well, POW is currently used by most cryptocurrencies including Bitcoin, Ethereum (for now) and Litecoin. If a coin is minable, that means its utilizing a POW system. Miners use their GPUs or ASICs to solve cryptographic hash functions which verify the blockchain. GPUs primarily designed for gaming like the RX 580 are now being employed by miners. Their GPUs are rapidly guessing and checking different solutions to a next to impossible math problem. When they successfully solve the equation, the ledger (blockchain) is updated and the miner receives a block reward in the form of a token and/or transaction fees. This is called Proof-of-Work because miners are doing lots of work in the form of processing mathematical equations with their mining hardware. Without miners, many networks wouldnt exist. Miners pay for electricity in exchange for tokens. What is Proof of Stake and How its different Proof-of-Stake is a bit different. Previously miners proved how fast they could verify the network; now, ETH holders will show how much they own by running something called a master node . When you create a master node, you have to lock up a certain amount of ETH to prove you own it. Rewards are distributed based on how much you have locked away and how long its locked away for. Instead of 1,000 miners verifying the network for example, there might be around 10,000 wallets holding Ethereum through Proof-of-Stake. With POS, Continue reading >>

How Ethereum's Casper Protocol Will Address Problems With Proof Of Stake

How Ethereum's Casper Protocol Will Address Problems With Proof Of Stake

How Ethereum's Casper Protocol Will Address Problems With Proof Of Stake Bitcoin and Ethereum both currently operate under a Proof of Work protocol. Ethereum is moving from Proof of Work towards Proof of Stake under its new Casper protocol. Despite its many benefits, the drawbacks of Proof of Stake have prevented its widespread adoption. Casper aims to solve Proof of Stake's drawbacks, resulting in an improvement over existing Proof of Work and Proof of Stake protocols. The updated protocol improves the long term outlook of Ethereum's valuation. An overarching problem that cryptocurrencies must address is called the Byzantine General's Problem . The Byzantine General's Problem essentially simplifies down to: How do you prevent data from being corrupted or falsified in a network where there are nodes that have economic incentive to lie about the data? In application to cryptocurrency, the problem boils down to preventing attackers from lying about a coin's ledger, given the economic incentive of doing so. We need a way to form consensus on the ledger because anyone can create a block, while we only want a unique chain, so we want a way to decide which block to trust. The two main schools of thought to solving the Byzantine General's Problem are Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS). Explicitly, a "proof of work" is a piece of data which is difficult (costly, time-consuming) to produce but easy for others to verify and which satisfies certain requirements. Producing a proof of work can be a random process with low probability so that a lot of trial and error is required on average before a valid proof of work is generated. Currently Bitcoin, Ethereum, and the vast majority of other cryptocurrencies utilize some form of proof of work. PoW (referring to the protocol Continue reading >>

Proof-of-stake - Wikipedia

Proof-of-stake - Wikipedia

This article may rely excessively on sources too closely associated with the subject, potentially preventing the article from being verifiable and neutral . Please help improve it by replacing them with more appropriate citations to reliable, independent, third-party sources . ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Proof-of-stake (PoS) is a type of algorithm by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus . In PoS-based cryptocurrencies the creator of the next block is chosen via various combinations of random selection and wealth or age (i.e. the stake). In contrast, the algorithm of proof-of-work (PoW) based cryptocurrencies (such as bitcoin ) rewards participants who solve complicated cryptographical puzzles in order to validate transactions and create new blocks (i.e. mining ). Proof-of-stake must have a way of defining the next valid block in any blockchain. Selection by account balance would result in (undesirable) centralization, as the single richest member would have a permanent advantage. Instead, several different methods of selection have been devised. Nxt and BlackCoin use randomization to predict the following generator, by using a formula that looks for the lowest hash value in combination with the size of the stake. [1] [2] [3] Since the stakes are public, each node can predict - with reasonable accuracy - which account will next win the right to forge a block. Peercoin 's proof-of-stake system combines randomization with the concept of "coin age," a number derived from the product of the number of coins times the number of days the coins have been held. Coins that have been unspent for at least 30 days begin competing for the next block. Older and larger sets of coins have a greater probability of sign Continue reading >>

First Impressions Of Ethereums Casperproof Of Stake(pos)

First Impressions Of Ethereums Casperproof Of Stake(pos)

Vitalik Buterin and Virgil Griffith have introduced a proof of stake-based finality system capable of overlaying an existing proof of work (PoW) blockchain. In their paper [1], entitled Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget, Buterin and Griffith explain that the first version of Casper (within Ethereum) could take on the form of a hybrid PoW/PoS system. The first available release of the alpha Casper Friendly Finality Gadget (FFG) testnet, built on pyethereum, achieves this. This hybrid PoW/PoS vision, albeit with only 14 listed nodes at the time of writing, can be observed on the following Ethereum Network Status Site [2]. Installing Casper FFG on Ubuntu 16.04LTS Thankfully, the process of installing Casper FFG on Ubuntu as documented here [3] is relatively straight forward. This succinct installation process is thanks to the docker approach provided by Karl Floersch [4]. Participating in the validation PoSprocess At present, my most significant hurdle to running a validating Casper FFG testnet node is not brought about by the installation process or commands. It is brought about by the fact that a validating Casper FFG node, on the testnet, must provide a minimum deposit of 1, 500 Casper FFG testnet ETH in order to participate in the validation process. As we mentioned previously, Casper FFG is a hybrid PoW/PoS system and therefore the Casper FFG node is able to be run in mining mode. The following gist contains a list of commands for mining Casper FFG testnet ETH using Ubuntu 16.04LTS. The following gist contains a list of commands for checking Casper FFG testnet ETH account balance (during/after mining). Of course, whilst mining is an option, it would be ideal if participants willing to try out the alpha Casper FFG testnet could have immediate access to the required Continue reading >>

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