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Ethereum Private Network Node

How To Set Up A Private Ethereum Blockchain In 20 Minutes

How To Set Up A Private Ethereum Blockchain In 20 Minutes

How to Set Up a Private Ethereum Blockchain in 20 Minutes Every year, ArcTouch brings together its employees for a three-day hackathon, where groups set out to prototype an idea using new and emerging technologies. This year, we had many blockchain hackathon projects and we think this speaks to both the growing interest in blockchain by our staff and the potential for companies to benefit from it. My group chose to implement an identity verification system built on the blockchain. The idea was to store someones proof of age, which a bartender or sales clerk could reference in lieu of a physical ID such as a drivers license. Since we planned to leverage smart contracts, we opted for an Ethereum blockchain. However, for first-round development, using the public blockchain or even the testnet is not always ideal due to long transaction confirmation times. Instead, we looked at a several options for quickly spinning up a private blockchain. By far, the easiest approach is to use a cloud service such as Azure to host a private blockchain network. Azure makes the setup particularly easy by providing an Ethereum Blockchain Consortium template, which features a configurable number of both mining and transaction nodes. In three steps, and about 10 minutes, you can set up a fully functioning private blockchain in the cloud ( heres a great Medium post that details this setup). This particular Azure template however, provides a proof-of-work (PoW) blockchain which, depending on your requirements, may not be the best option for a private blockchain. For example, we opted for a proof-of-authority (PoA) blockchain using Ethereums Clique consensus engine that was released last year. This consensus setup works well in a private setting because nodes do not need to compete against each Continue reading >>

Private Network - Mantis

Private Network - Mantis

For tests we set up 10 EC2 instances on a private network, we used genesis as bellow: { "difficulty": "0x400", "extraData": "0x00", "gasLimit": "0x2fefd8", "nonce": "0x0000000000000042", "ommersHash": "0x1dcc4de8dec75d7aab85b567b6ccd41ad312451b948a7413f0a142fd40d49347", "timestamp": "0x00", "coinbase": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000", "mixHash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000", "alloc": { "d7a681378321f472adffb9fdded2712f677e0ba9": {"balance": "1606938044258990275541962092341162602522202993782792835301376"} }} for mining we used ethminer from from branch 108 which supports CPU mining we were testing on ubuntu 16.04, to compile ethminer you need to instal some packages: sudo apt-get -y install software-properties-commonsudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:ethereum/ethereumsudo apt-get updatesudo apt-get install git cmake libcryptopp-dev libleveldb-dev libjsoncpp-dev libboost-all-dev libgmp-dev libreadline-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev ocl-icd-libopencl1 opencl-headers mesa-common-dev libmicrohttpd-dev build-essential -ysudo apt-get install libjsonrpccpp-dev -y We started ethminer with ethminer -C -F 127.0.0.1:8546 and ours client with sbt -Dconfig.file=/home/ubuntu/node.conf run Firstly we run nodes not connected to each other, this way nodes got their own versions of blockchain after chains were ~60 blocks long we connected them together and let them mine and resolve conflicting branches at the same time. We let them run for 3 days and after checking did not notice any error in logs, nodes are roughly on the same block and they are mining without any issue. We also checked that we produced blocks with correct ommer. After that we connected geth classic node and it was able to join network and sync chain from genesis to current bloc Continue reading >>

How To Start An Ethereum Private Network Blockchain

How To Start An Ethereum Private Network Blockchain

How to Start an Ethereum Private Network Blockchain This page contains description on how to start an own private network blockchain with Go Ethereum . One local machine node and one cloud based node are used to start and are connected on the private blockchain network. Similar additional nodes can be added to join. An Ethereum network is a private network if the nodes are not connected to the main network nodes. Also an interesting read from 2015: Vitalik on public and private blockchains This is done on macOS Sierra 10.12.6, however it should work in a similar way on other OS or maybe using docker and linux. First thing first:Install Go Ethereum, geth which is the CLI Ethereum client, details are here: go-ethereum/wiki/Building-Ethereum For Mac, you can install using Homebrew, the brew installed version could be behind the actively developed Go Ethereum, but it should work or you can also use brew to install from develop branch. go-ethereum/wiki/Installation-Instructions-for-Mac $ brew tap ethereum/ethereum$ brew install ethereum Check geth is installed and ready to go from the terminal: Create a new directory somewhere on the local machine (e.g. Documents) for all the the private blockchain data: $ cd ~/Documents$ mkdir private-blockchain$ cd private-blockchain$ mkdir chain-data Next you will need a configuration file called genesis block, which is the start of every blockchain. Here is an example of a genesis.json: { "config": { "chainId" : 555, "homesteadBlock" : 0, "eip155Block" : 0, "eip158Block" : 0 }, "coinbase" : "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000001", "nonce" : "0x0042", "mixhash" : "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000", "parentHash" : "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000", "difficulty" : "0 Continue reading >>

Solving The Problem With Ethereum Cross-client Private Networks

Solving The Problem With Ethereum Cross-client Private Networks

Solving the problem with Ethereum cross-client private networks This post was initially an answer on Ethereum Stack Exchange , but it was worth more exposure as I keep talking to people running into this problem again and again. And, it's a very time-consuming issue to get a Geth node talking to a custom Parity network, and often also vice-versa. Cross-client private networks: The problem Geth is a client written for Ethereum . It was one of the first official reference implementations and was never meant to run anything else but Ethereum. If you want to configure Geth for any other chain configuration, you would have to fork the source-code and create your own client implementation based on your desired rule-set. This happened for instance for Expanse ( Gexp ) and Ethereum Classic ( Getc ). Parity, however, was created much later than Ethereum itself, by a team that was initially involved with the C++ Ethereum client ( Eth ). After they (Gavin Wood, et al.) founded Ethcore (now Parity Technologies ), they created a client with a much broader vision; a client that is not supposed to only run Ethereum. Parity allows more abstraction in the core and therefore, all you need to start a new chain is a so called Chain Specification file which describes the whole chain parameters, including consensus rules, validator engines, and so on. The most visible consequence is that Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Expanse (just to pick up the examples form above) do not need to maintain their own copy of the Parity source-code in order to support their project and their consensus rules. Parity just works out of the box with the --chain parameters foundation, classic, or expanse. In addition, the --chain parameter allows configuring an entirely custom chain with pluggable consenus, cust Continue reading >>

Two-node Setup Of A Private Ethereum On Aws With Contract Deployment (part 1)

Two-node Setup Of A Private Ethereum On Aws With Contract Deployment (part 1)

From time to time I plan to emulate an Ethereum environment. The idea behind is to observe how Ethereum nodes work to each other, and how different accounts interact in transaction and contract deployment. For testing, most contract deployment example nowadays is mainly on testrpc or testnet, but how the contract works among nodes is still new to me. I deploy this two-node setup on AWS. As I do not use any special features on AWS, it should be applicable to another cloud environment. My setup is inspired by the work from JJs World ( link ), and after testing this for several times with modification, I document the whole process I have done, and share some experience here about the whole process. I also use the Voting contract developed by Mahesh Murthy ( link ). This is a simple contract that best illustrates how a contract works in the chain. This by no means is a detailed step-by-step guide. I omit certain steps and make reference to some work done by others. For example, the detailed operation of AWS EC2, including launching a new instance with a setup like access key, security group, etc. can be found here ( link ). Part 1: Create a 2-node Ethereum network with private blockchain, and accounts on the two nodes can send ether to each other. Part 2: Deploy a contract from one node, and both accounts can access and execute functions on this contract. Use t2.medium (2 vCPU, 4 GB RAM) with default 8G SSD. Pick Ubuntu OS. Make sure that the two nodes are with the same security group, which allows TCP 30303 (or 30000-30999 as I may use more ports on this range). Port 30303 by default is for peering among nodes. I first tried t2.micro as it is the free-tier offer. However, mining was not successful (DAG loop without ether reward). I next tried t2.small and mining worked. H Continue reading >>

Connecting To The Network

Connecting To The Network

Distribution of client implementations on the current live network - Realtime stats on EtherChain. Public, private, and consortium blockchains Most Ethereum projects today rely on Ethereum as a public blockchain, which grants access to a larger audience of users, network nodes, currency, and markets. However, there are often reasons to prefer a private blockchain or consortium blockchain (among a group of trusted participants). For example, a number of companies in verticals, like banking, are looking to Ethereum as a platform for their own private blockchains. Below is an excerpt from the blog post On Public and Private Blockchains that explains the difference between the three types of blockchains based on permissioning: Public blockchains: a public blockchain is a blockchain that anyone in the world can read, anyone in the world can send transactions to and expect to see them included if they are valid, and anyone in the world can participate in the consensus process the process for determining what blocks get added to the chain and what the current state is. As a substitute for centralized or quasi-centralized trust, public blockchains are secured by cryptoeconomics the combination of economic incentives and cryptographic verification using mechanisms such as proof of work or proof of stake, following a general principle that the degree to which someone can have an influence in the consensus process is proportional to the quantity of economic resources that they can bring to bear. These blockchains are generally considered to be fully decentralized. Consortium blockchains: a consortium blockchain is a blockchain where the consensus process is controlled by a pre-selected set of nodes; for example, one might imagine a consortium of 15 financial institutions, each of Continue reading >>

How To Build A Private Ethereum Blockchain

How To Build A Private Ethereum Blockchain

Step 5: Create an account to use as the coinbase for your blockchain node An Ethereum account is the public key that stores ether that will be used in your private blockchain to pay for gas fees. Before we start the blockchain, we need to create an account that the mining rewards will be deposited too. You will be prompted to set a password for the account, DONT FORGET YOUR PASSWORD, you will not be able to recover it later and wont be able to spend the ether you mine or unlock that account. After entering the password twice, you should expect to get a response back like this: Address: {941f1f0b08757457be0b52d83a1e3e566473ed61} This is the public key of the Ethereum account. Ethereum convention is to prefix accounts with 0x so the account is sometimes seen as 0x941f1fobo8757457be0b52d83a1e3e566473ed61. Step 6: Create JSON File for Genesis Block to Bootstrap Private Blockchain Using a text editor, create a file CustomGenesis.json with the following contents: Step 7: Initialize the blockchain from your CustomGenesis.json file go-ethereum/build/bin/geth init ./CustomGenesis.json You should expect to see output similar to this: INFO[0223|20:20:03] Allotted 128MB cache and 1024 file handles to /home/ubuntu/.ethereum/geth/chaindata INFO[0223|20:20:04] closed db:/home/ubuntu/.ethereum/geth/chaindata INFO[0223|20:20:04] Allotted 128MB cache and 1024 file handles to /home/ubuntu/.ethereum/geth/chaindata INFO[0223|20:20:04] successfully wrote genesis block and/or chain rule set: 5dd3be94dcbf5216aaa3e82700fb51a831257df5d45d984941a0a32ee0f960d8 Congratulations! You have initialized a private Ethereum blockchain!! Before we move on, lets take a break for some optional exploration of the files we have generated. In your home directory you will now see a hidden directory called.ether Continue reading >>

How To Create A Private Ethereum Network | Hacker News

How To Create A Private Ethereum Network | Hacker News

A blockchain is secure because in order to "hack" into the database you need to have 51% of the computational power on the network to create the longest chain. In a large network like Bitcoin or Ethereum the massive computational power of the network ensures generating 51% of the compute power of the network is near impossibly expensive. How secure is a private blockchain? If there are only a few servers the network could be destroyed by just unplugging a few machines, or plugging in a few more. I recommend reading this: . In a private blockchain the reading and writing permissions are controlled, therefore only selected nodes can write to it. "The validators are known, so any risk of a 51% attack arising from some miner collusion in China does not apply." I guess you could still have attack from authorized nodes in your own organization? Well, if you only need to maintain transactions within your own organization and there is full trust, why not just use a simple SQL database to record transactions instead of a much more expensive and complex blockchain? If there are multiple parties, what's to stop one of the nodes from, say, buying 1000 GPU instances on EC2 and massively increasing their hashing power. Even if you have some type of network control settings that only allow certain nodes access to the network, the proof of work could be distributed and you could just proxy the answer back to the machine that has access to the network. The case for private ledgers is coordination among a moderate number of non-anonymous mostly-untrusted entities. (Whether this case ever exists is left as an exercise for the reader.) They can't use a central database but they don't need mining either; variants of BFT can be used that work as long as (n/2)+1 entities are honest. If thing Continue reading >>

Rolling Your Own Proof-of-authority Ethereum Consortium

Rolling Your Own Proof-of-authority Ethereum Consortium

Rolling your own Proof-of-Authority Ethereum consortium How do you set up a private Ethereum chain and what considerations are there when doing so?A private chain can potentially have huge advantages over public ones, transactions are cheaper, latencies are lower and the level of control you have is higher.Why would you pick Proof-of-Authority over the other consensus methods out there? One of the largest flaws in the Ethereum protocol (and other Proof-of-Work based cryptocurrencies) is that any attacker with 51% or more of the mining resources (mining hashrate) will be in control of the network.While the blockchain is immutable and recorded blocks cannot be changed this attacker could potentially do other things such as making sure no legitimate traffic comes through (a denial of service attack).Considering anyone with the same genesis block could join your network this type of attack is very feasible and likely to hit you sooner or later. There is also the issue of power usage (Bitcoin now uses the same amount of electricity as a small country ).Ethereum has been working on alternatives to Proof-of-Work such as Proof-of-Stake which also solves the power issue but its more aimed at public networks. For a private network Proof-of-Work simply does not make sense. Ethereum will soon transition to a Proof-of-Stake consensus algorithm which resolves some of the issues with Proof-of-Work for public networks.Someone who wants to be a validator (miner) will deposit a number of ether into a smart contract and if a validator is deemed to be malicious the network simply locks this ether away. Because there is no race to solve hard mathematical problems there is less incentive to issue new coins all the time, a validator will instead get their ether from transaction fees.It does Continue reading >>

How To Connect 3+ Ethereum Nodes In A Private Ethereum Network.

How To Connect 3+ Ethereum Nodes In A Private Ethereum Network.

Background and Prerequisites: This tutorial picks up where part one ( How to create a private Ethereum network ) left off. Numerous people have asked me how to connect 3+ nodes in a private network after reading my previous tutorial. There are scripts out there that will pseudo-automate the process, but I believe in understanding the fundamentals and building it yourself from the ground-up without obfuscating layers between you and your network. Many people got hung up on obtaining a machines enode address (basically your Ethereum clients public key) using the bootnode application. Depending on which machine youre running and how you installed geth (the Go Ethereum client), chances are you dont have bootnode installed. I realized that most people out there are not running Linux machines like me and therefore are getting stuck here. The good news is that creating a network with any number of peers is possible without having to install bootnode. A crucially important difference between private Ethereum networks and the main Ethereum network is that, unlike the main Ethereum network (where real money is used to power the Ethereum supercomputer, create contracts, and move money around the network), private Ethereum networks do not automatically let anyone join the network. In a private network, each peer must identify all other peers to which it wants to connect. In networking parlance, anode becomes apeerwhen it connects to a fellow node. Nodes are identified viaenodeaddresses, which are basically public keys. To illustrate how to create a private network with 3+ nodes, Ill use the private blackswan network I created to run one of our projects, called DDASH (Distributed Data Sharing Hyperledger). Youre welcome to follow along and join the blackswan network or take notes a Continue reading >>

Setting Up Private Network Or Local Cluster

Setting Up Private Network Or Local Cluster

In order to run multiple ethereum nodes locally, you have to make sure: each instance has a separate data directory (--datadir) each instance runs on a different port (both eth and rpc) (--port and --rpcport) in case of a cluster the instances must know about each other the ipc endpoint is unique or the ipc interface is disabled (--ipcpath or --ipcdisable) You start the first node (let's make port explicit and disable ipc interface) geth --datadir="/tmp/eth/60/01" -verbosity 6 --ipcdisable --port 30301 --rpcport 8101 console 2>> /tmp/eth/60/01.log We started the node with the console, so that we can grab the enode url for instance: > admin.nodeInfo.enodeenode://8c544b4a07da02a9ee024def6f3ba24b2747272b64e16ec5dd6b17b55992f8980[email protected]9[::]:30301 [::] will be parsed as localhost (127.0.0.1). If your nodes are on a local network check each individual host machine and find your ip with ifconfig (on Linux and MacOS): $ ifconfig|grep netmask|awk '{print $2}'127.0.0.1192.168.1.97 If your peers are not on the local network, you need to know your external IP address (use a service) to construct the enode url. geth --datadir="/tmp/eth/60/02" --verbosity 6 --ipcdisable --port 30302 --rpcport 8102 console 2>> /tmp/eth/60/02.log If you want to connect this instance to the previously started node you can add it as a peer from the console with admin.addPeer(enodeUrlOfFirstInstance). You can test the connection by typing in geth console: > net.listeningtrue> net.peerCount 1> admin.peers... As an extention of the above, you can spawn a local cluster of nodes easily. It can also be scripted including account creation which is needed for mining.See gethcluster.sh script, and the README there for usage and examples. See the Private N Continue reading >>

How To: Create Your Own Private Ethereum Blockchain

How To: Create Your Own Private Ethereum Blockchain

How To: Create Your Own Private Ethereum Blockchain Releasing a Dust Server update today to include client local time zone based login rewards Android and iOS client updates are currently in QA and will release next week including promoted blasts now marked as promoted, legacy Dusters will now get rewards, and other performance enhancements and bug fixes. Designing analytics of rewards in preparation for switching to mainnet Developing method of paying Ethereum gas costs with an ERC-20 token Researching different mechanisms for storing content on the blockchain This post marks the first in a new How To series were starting in an effort to provide some easy to read instructions covering topics our developers found particularly ill-documented online. As we move beyond the token sale, our focus now is helping other developer teams interested in integrating GMT into their apps. To that end, were ramping up our technical content production to make it easier to onboard new developers looking to try their hand with blockchain technology. If you have a particular topic youd like to see detailed in a How To post, wed love to hear from you at [email protected] This is a guide for starting your own custom Ethereum blockchain on Mac, not to be confused with starting a node on the main Ethereum blockchain. Here we are starting an entirely new and separate blockchain that cannot interact with Ethereum mainnet. Starting your own Ethereum blockchain is useful, educational, and safer than the public testnet. Learning to set up a private testnet provides tangibility to otherwise abstract concepts such as mining, network peers, and even the geth datadir. ruby -e $(curl -fsSL chainId this is your chains identifier, and is used in replay protection. homesteadBlock, eip155Block, eip Continue reading >>

Creating A Private Chain/testnet

Creating A Private Chain/testnet

This guide is here to help you set-up a private blockchain in Ethereum using Geth. Information that helped me compile this guide: Tasha at Tech Lab has an excellent write up on the Ethereum genesis block and creating a private test network . Please go there for more detailed information about custom genesis blocks and what some of the lines in a custom genesis block mean. Ade Duke also has a great private Ethereum chain guide that helped me write this article. Geth is the CLI Ethereum client that runs on Windows, Mac, and Linux platforms. Geth is widely used to interact with Ethereum networks. Ethereum software enables a user to set up a "private" or "testnet" Ethereum chain that is separate from the main Ethereum chain. This is useful for testing distributed apps built on Ethereum without having to expose your apps or trials to the real Ethereum network using real Ether. You either pre-generate or mine your own Ether on your private Ethereum chain, so it is a much more cost effective way of trying out Ethereum.What are the components that tell Geth that we want to use/create a private Ethereum chain?The things that dictate a private Ethereum chain are: The Genesis block is the start block of the Blockchain - the first block, block 0, and the only block that does not point to a predecessor block. the genesis block is hard coded into clients, but in Ethereum it can be whatever you like. This gives us lots of options to create a customized, private blockchains based on our needs. Ethereum's consensus algorithm ensures that no other node will agree with your version of the blockchain unless they have the same genesis block. { "nonce": "0x0000000000000042", "timestamp": "0x0", "parentHash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000", "extraData": Continue reading >>

Create, Connect To And Mine On A Private Ethereum Network In 15 Minutes Usingnodeth

Create, Connect To And Mine On A Private Ethereum Network In 15 Minutes Usingnodeth

Create, connect to and mine on a private Ethereum network in 15 minutes usingNodETH NodETH is currently in public beta. During this time all nodes are 100% free. Give the service a go and let us know what you think! Most of the time when you interact with the Ethereum blockchain youre probably connecting into the live main network, the test network, or developing locally using testrpc. But what if you want to hold the keys to your own Ethereum kingdom? Be miner numero uno? Have an unspoilt blockchain all to yourself? Ethereum is just a standard, and given a genesis block you too can use the same standard to start your own private network for your development, business or tyrannical needs. There are some great guides on how to achieve this manually using go-ethereum (geth). But with geth constantly in a state of development weve found resources rarely keep up with reality. The manual labour to configure your private network and add new nodes as needed can also be a pain. Thats why we made NodETH an easy to use cloud based Ethereum node deployment interface. Times ticking. Cut to it. How do I create my private network? Head to My Networks on NodETH and click to Create a Network. Next youll be presented with a simple interface to configure your network: Difficulty: keep it low, get ETH fast once you start mining blocks. This is the initial difficulty for mining on your network. The higher the difficulty the more computation required to mine a block on the network. Youll probably want to keep this value low. Either way itll adjust as blocks are mined to try and maintain a gap between blocks of 10 seconds. Gas Limit: just using this network for internal testing? You can leave it at the default. This limits the amount of gas which can be consumed by transactions in each bloc Continue reading >>

A Journey Into Blockchain: Private Network With Ethereum

A Journey Into Blockchain: Private Network With Ethereum

A Journey into Blockchain: Private Network with Ethereum Jake Henningsgaard Oct 09, 2017 0 Comments Rather than continue to stand on the side lines watching blockchain tech evolve, I thought I would venture into this new ambiguous world. Theres a lot of material to cover when exploring blockchain technology so I decided to focus on the blockchain itself. My goal is simple: create a private multi-node blockchain using the Ethereum blockchain. Here are my steps. Steps 16 focus on getting the private network up and running. Steps 7 & 8 are used to test the private network. This post is designed to get you up and running with blockchain quickly while exposing you to some of the underlying tech. There are easier ways to create a blockchain private network, but they often obscure a lot of the implementation and build work. Ethereum is one of the more popular implementations of blockchain. Therefore, there are quite a bit of resources and development tools to support the Ethereum development community. Some things to keep in mind while starting out with blockchain: Blockchain is designed to be decentralized however, it does not have to be. An entire blockchain can exist on a single machine Ethereum is just one implementation of blockchain; there are several others There are several client tool implementations available for the Ethereum network. In fact, if you go to the Ethereum website youll find a whole list of them, go-ethereum being the most popular. Geth is the tool you will use to interface with an instance running the Ethereum blockchain allowing you to interact with the Ethereum network. To install it on a Mac use the following commands brew updatebrew upgradebrew tap ethereum/ethereumbrew install ethereum See the wiki for instructions on installing it on Windows or L Continue reading >>

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