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Ethereum Private Network Node

How To: Create Your Own Private Ethereum Blockchain

How To: Create Your Own Private Ethereum Blockchain

How To: Create Your Own Private Ethereum Blockchain Releasing a Dust Server update today to include client local time zone based login rewards Android and iOS client updates are currently in QA and will release next week including promoted blasts now marked as promoted, legacy Dusters will now get rewards, and other performance enhancements and bug fixes. Designing analytics of rewards in preparation for switching to mainnet Developing method of paying Ethereum gas costs with an ERC-20 token Researching different mechanisms for storing content on the blockchain This post marks the first in a new How To series were starting in an effort to provide some easy to read instructions covering topics our developers found particularly ill-documented online. As we move beyond the token sale, our focus now is helping other developer teams interested in integrating GMT into their apps. To that end, were ramping up our technical content production to make it easier to onboard new developers looking to try their hand with blockchain technology. If you have a particular topic youd like to see detailed in a How To post, wed love to hear from you at [email protected] This is a guide for starting your own custom Ethereum blockchain on Mac, not to be confused with starting a node on the main Ethereum blockchain. Here we are starting an entirely new and separate blockchain that cannot interact with Ethereum mainnet. Starting your own Ethereum blockchain is useful, educational, and safer than the public testnet. Learning to set up a private testnet provides tangibility to otherwise abstract concepts such as mining, network peers, and even the geth datadir. ruby -e $(curl -fsSL chainId this is your chains identifier, and is used in replay protection. homesteadBlock, eip155Block, eip Continue reading >>

Two-node Setup Of A Private Ethereum On Aws With Contract Deployment (part 1)

Two-node Setup Of A Private Ethereum On Aws With Contract Deployment (part 1)

From time to time I plan to emulate an Ethereum environment. The idea behind is to observe how Ethereum nodes work to each other, and how different accounts interact in transaction and contract deployment. For testing, most contract deployment example nowadays is mainly on testrpc or testnet, but how the contract works among nodes is still new to me. I deploy this two-node setup on AWS. As I do not use any special features on AWS, it should be applicable to another cloud environment. My setup is inspired by the work from JJs World ( link ), and after testing this for several times with modification, I document the whole process I have done, and share some experience here about the whole process. I also use the Voting contract developed by Mahesh Murthy ( link ). This is a simple contract that best illustrates how a contract works in the chain. This by no means is a detailed step-by-step guide. I omit certain steps and make reference to some work done by others. For example, the detailed operation of AWS EC2, including launching a new instance with a setup like access key, security group, etc. can be found here ( link ). Part 1: Create a 2-node Ethereum network with private blockchain, and accounts on the two nodes can send ether to each other. Part 2: Deploy a contract from one node, and both accounts can access and execute functions on this contract. Use t2.medium (2 vCPU, 4 GB RAM) with default 8G SSD. Pick Ubuntu OS. Make sure that the two nodes are with the same security group, which allows TCP 30303 (or 30000-30999 as I may use more ports on this range). Port 30303 by default is for peering among nodes. I first tried t2.micro as it is the free-tier offer. However, mining was not successful (DAG loop without ether reward). I next tried t2.small and mining worked. H Continue reading >>

Heres How I Built A Private Blockchain Network, And You Cantoo

Heres How I Built A Private Blockchain Network, And You Cantoo

Heres how I built a private blockchain network, and you cantoo Nothing helps understand blockchains better than building oneyourself This is PART-4 of The Product Managers guide to the Blockchain series! If you somehow landed on my publication for the first time, Welcome! I recommend you start from part 1 , and then read part 2 and part3 before reading this post. However If you are the explorer type, read on! (Update: Heres the latest part 5 of the blockchain series ) In Part 3 of this series, we looked at the mechanics of Ethereum and also talked about the concept of Ethereum Accounts, Smart Contracts and Gas the fuel that helps all these pieces to work together. Its been a lot of reading so far, but while you can read all the blockchain content available on the internet, nothing helps understand blockchains better than building one yourself. So thats what I did. You can simply follow this post and build a little prototype to see how everything weve talked about so far comes together. Here is what we will accomplish in this post, Weve seen this before , but basically the Ethereum blockchain network is simply lots of EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machines) or nodes connected to every other node to create a mesh. Each node runs a copy of the entire blockchain and competes to mine the next block or validate a transaction. Whenever a new block is added, the blockchain updates and is propagated to the entire network, such that each node is in sync. To become a node in the Ethereum network, your computer will have to download and update a copy of the entire Ethereum blockchain. To achieve this Ethereum provides tools that you can download, connect to the Ethereum network with and then interact with it. These are: Geth if you have experience with web development and are interested i Continue reading >>

Private Network - Mantis

Private Network - Mantis

For tests we set up 10 EC2 instances on a private network, we used genesis as bellow: { "difficulty": "0x400", "extraData": "0x00", "gasLimit": "0x2fefd8", "nonce": "0x0000000000000042", "ommersHash": "0x1dcc4de8dec75d7aab85b567b6ccd41ad312451b948a7413f0a142fd40d49347", "timestamp": "0x00", "coinbase": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000", "mixHash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000", "alloc": { "d7a681378321f472adffb9fdded2712f677e0ba9": {"balance": "1606938044258990275541962092341162602522202993782792835301376"} }} for mining we used ethminer from from branch 108 which supports CPU mining we were testing on ubuntu 16.04, to compile ethminer you need to instal some packages: sudo apt-get -y install software-properties-commonsudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:ethereum/ethereumsudo apt-get updatesudo apt-get install git cmake libcryptopp-dev libleveldb-dev libjsoncpp-dev libboost-all-dev libgmp-dev libreadline-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev ocl-icd-libopencl1 opencl-headers mesa-common-dev libmicrohttpd-dev build-essential -ysudo apt-get install libjsonrpccpp-dev -y We started ethminer with ethminer -C -F 127.0.0.1:8546 and ours client with sbt -Dconfig.file=/home/ubuntu/node.conf run Firstly we run nodes not connected to each other, this way nodes got their own versions of blockchain after chains were ~60 blocks long we connected them together and let them mine and resolve conflicting branches at the same time. We let them run for 3 days and after checking did not notice any error in logs, nodes are roughly on the same block and they are mining without any issue. We also checked that we produced blocks with correct ommer. After that we connected geth classic node and it was able to join network and sync chain from genesis to current bloc Continue reading >>

Connecting To The Network

Connecting To The Network

Distribution of client implementations on the current live network - Realtime stats on EtherChain. Public, private, and consortium blockchains Most Ethereum projects today rely on Ethereum as a public blockchain, which grants access to a larger audience of users, network nodes, currency, and markets. However, there are often reasons to prefer a private blockchain or consortium blockchain (among a group of trusted participants). For example, a number of companies in verticals, like banking, are looking to Ethereum as a platform for their own private blockchains. Below is an excerpt from the blog post On Public and Private Blockchains that explains the difference between the three types of blockchains based on permissioning: Public blockchains: a public blockchain is a blockchain that anyone in the world can read, anyone in the world can send transactions to and expect to see them included if they are valid, and anyone in the world can participate in the consensus process the process for determining what blocks get added to the chain and what the current state is. As a substitute for centralized or quasi-centralized trust, public blockchains are secured by cryptoeconomics the combination of economic incentives and cryptographic verification using mechanisms such as proof of work or proof of stake, following a general principle that the degree to which someone can have an influence in the consensus process is proportional to the quantity of economic resources that they can bring to bear. These blockchains are generally considered to be fully decentralized. Consortium blockchains: a consortium blockchain is a blockchain where the consensus process is controlled by a pre-selected set of nodes; for example, one might imagine a consortium of 15 financial institutions, each of Continue reading >>

Private Network Ethereum/go-ethereum Wiki Github

Private Network Ethereum/go-ethereum Wiki Github

An Ethereum network is a private network if the nodes are not connected to the mainnetwork nodes. In this context private only means reserved or isolated, rather thanprotected or secure. Since connections between nodes are valid only if peers have identical protocol versionand network ID, you can effectively isolate your network by setting either of these to anon default value. We recommend using the --networkid command line option for this. Itsargument is an integer, the main network has id 1 (the default). So if you supply your owncustom network ID which is different than the main network your nodes will not connect toother nodes and form a private network. Every blockchain starts with the genesis block. When you run geth with default settingsfor the first time, the main net genesis block is committed to the database. For a privatenetwork, you usually want a different genesis block. Here's an example of a custom genesis.json file. The config section ensures that certainprotocol upgrades are immediately available. The alloc section pre-funds accounts. { "config": { "chainId": 15, "homesteadBlock": 0, "eip155Block": 0, "eip158Block": 0 }, "difficulty": "200000000", "gasLimit": "2100000", "alloc": { "7df9a875a174b3bc565e6424a0050ebc1b2d1d82": { "balance": "300000" }, "f41c74c9ae680c1aa78f42e5647a62f353b7bdde": { "balance": "400000" } }} To create a database that uses this genesis block, run the following command. This willimport and set the canonical genesis block for your chain. geth --datadir path/to/custom/data/folder init genesis.json Future runs of geth on this data directory will use the genesis block you have defined. geth --datadir path/to/custom/data/folder --networkid 15 With all nodes that you want to run initialized to the desired genesis state, you'll needt Continue reading >>

Ethereum: Using The Wallet With A Private Geth Node

Ethereum: Using The Wallet With A Private Geth Node

Ethereum: Deploying to a Private Blockchain This step may be optional depending on your situation. If youve had geth running in a dev environment for a while then its worth checking if a newer version is available. Check your current geth version by opening a terminal and typing: GethVersion: 1.5.9-stableGit Commit: a07539fb88db7231d18db918ed7a6a4e32f97450Protocol Versions: [63 62]Network Id: 1Go Version: go1.7.3OS: linuxGOPATH=GOROOT=/usr/lib/go-1.7 The stable version available at time of writing is 1.6.7. StackExchange has a nice answer on updating Mist on Ubuntu which helped me with the next part: sudo apt-get install software-properties-commonsudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:ethereum/ethereumsudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade Lastly, validate that geth was updated successfully: You should see output similar to below confirming the version installed as 1.6.7-stable GethVersion: 1.6.7-stableGit Commit: ab5646c532292b51e319f290afccf6a44f874372Architecture: amd64Protocol Versions: [63 62]Network Id: 1Go Version: go1.8.1Operating System: linuxGOPATH=GOROOT=/usr/lib/go-1.8 Next youll need to download the Ethereum Wallet if its not already installed on your machine. wget Wait until the download is complete and youll see something like this: .HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OKLength: 57229019 (55M) [application/octet-stream]Saving to: 'Ethereum-Wallet-linux64-0-9-0.zipEthereum-Wallet-lin 100%[===================>] 54.58M 794KB/s in 2m 12s 2017-08-18 23:12:42 (425 KB/s) - 'Ethereum-Wallet-linux64-0-9-0.zip saved [57229019/57229019] Unzip the downloaded file and cd into the newly created directory: unzip Ethereum-Wallet-linux64-0-9-0.zipcd linux-unpacked The new directory named /linux-unpacked should contain several files, including the ethereumwallet exec Continue reading >>

Rolling Your Own Proof-of-authority Ethereum Consortium

Rolling Your Own Proof-of-authority Ethereum Consortium

Rolling your own Proof-of-Authority Ethereum consortium How do you set up a private Ethereum chain and what considerations are there when doing so?A private chain can potentially have huge advantages over public ones, transactions are cheaper, latencies are lower and the level of control you have is higher.Why would you pick Proof-of-Authority over the other consensus methods out there? One of the largest flaws in the Ethereum protocol (and other Proof-of-Work based cryptocurrencies) is that any attacker with 51% or more of the mining resources (mining hashrate) will be in control of the network.While the blockchain is immutable and recorded blocks cannot be changed this attacker could potentially do other things such as making sure no legitimate traffic comes through (a denial of service attack).Considering anyone with the same genesis block could join your network this type of attack is very feasible and likely to hit you sooner or later. There is also the issue of power usage (Bitcoin now uses the same amount of electricity as a small country ).Ethereum has been working on alternatives to Proof-of-Work such as Proof-of-Stake which also solves the power issue but its more aimed at public networks. For a private network Proof-of-Work simply does not make sense. Ethereum will soon transition to a Proof-of-Stake consensus algorithm which resolves some of the issues with Proof-of-Work for public networks.Someone who wants to be a validator (miner) will deposit a number of ether into a smart contract and if a validator is deemed to be malicious the network simply locks this ether away. Because there is no race to solve hard mathematical problems there is less incentive to issue new coins all the time, a validator will instead get their ether from transaction fees.It does Continue reading >>

Solving The Problem With Ethereum Cross-client Private Networks

Solving The Problem With Ethereum Cross-client Private Networks

Solving the problem with Ethereum cross-client private networks This post was initially an answer on Ethereum Stack Exchange , but it was worth more exposure as I keep talking to people running into this problem again and again. And, it's a very time-consuming issue to get a Geth node talking to a custom Parity network, and often also vice-versa. Cross-client private networks: The problem Geth is a client written for Ethereum . It was one of the first official reference implementations and was never meant to run anything else but Ethereum. If you want to configure Geth for any other chain configuration, you would have to fork the source-code and create your own client implementation based on your desired rule-set. This happened for instance for Expanse ( Gexp ) and Ethereum Classic ( Getc ). Parity, however, was created much later than Ethereum itself, by a team that was initially involved with the C++ Ethereum client ( Eth ). After they (Gavin Wood, et al.) founded Ethcore (now Parity Technologies ), they created a client with a much broader vision; a client that is not supposed to only run Ethereum. Parity allows more abstraction in the core and therefore, all you need to start a new chain is a so called Chain Specification file which describes the whole chain parameters, including consensus rules, validator engines, and so on. The most visible consequence is that Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Expanse (just to pick up the examples form above) do not need to maintain their own copy of the Parity source-code in order to support their project and their consensus rules. Parity just works out of the box with the --chain parameters foundation, classic, or expanse. In addition, the --chain parameter allows configuring an entirely custom chain with pluggable consenus, cust Continue reading >>

How To Build A Private Ethereum Blockchain

How To Build A Private Ethereum Blockchain

Step 5: Create an account to use as the coinbase for your blockchain node An Ethereum account is the public key that stores ether that will be used in your private blockchain to pay for gas fees. Before we start the blockchain, we need to create an account that the mining rewards will be deposited too. You will be prompted to set a password for the account, DONT FORGET YOUR PASSWORD, you will not be able to recover it later and wont be able to spend the ether you mine or unlock that account. After entering the password twice, you should expect to get a response back like this: Address: {941f1f0b08757457be0b52d83a1e3e566473ed61} This is the public key of the Ethereum account. Ethereum convention is to prefix accounts with 0x so the account is sometimes seen as 0x941f1fobo8757457be0b52d83a1e3e566473ed61. Step 6: Create JSON File for Genesis Block to Bootstrap Private Blockchain Using a text editor, create a file CustomGenesis.json with the following contents: Step 7: Initialize the blockchain from your CustomGenesis.json file go-ethereum/build/bin/geth init ./CustomGenesis.json You should expect to see output similar to this: INFO[0223|20:20:03] Allotted 128MB cache and 1024 file handles to /home/ubuntu/.ethereum/geth/chaindata INFO[0223|20:20:04] closed db:/home/ubuntu/.ethereum/geth/chaindata INFO[0223|20:20:04] Allotted 128MB cache and 1024 file handles to /home/ubuntu/.ethereum/geth/chaindata INFO[0223|20:20:04] successfully wrote genesis block and/or chain rule set: 5dd3be94dcbf5216aaa3e82700fb51a831257df5d45d984941a0a32ee0f960d8 Congratulations! You have initialized a private Ethereum blockchain!! Before we move on, lets take a break for some optional exploration of the files we have generated. In your home directory you will now see a hidden directory called.ether Continue reading >>

How To Connect 3+ Ethereum Nodes In A Private Ethereum Network.

How To Connect 3+ Ethereum Nodes In A Private Ethereum Network.

Background and Prerequisites: This tutorial picks up where part one ( How to create a private Ethereum network ) left off. Numerous people have asked me how to connect 3+ nodes in a private network after reading my previous tutorial. There are scripts out there that will pseudo-automate the process, but I believe in understanding the fundamentals and building it yourself from the ground-up without obfuscating layers between you and your network. Many people got hung up on obtaining a machines enode address (basically your Ethereum clients public key) using the bootnode application. Depending on which machine youre running and how you installed geth (the Go Ethereum client), chances are you dont have bootnode installed. I realized that most people out there are not running Linux machines like me and therefore are getting stuck here. The good news is that creating a network with any number of peers is possible without having to install bootnode. A crucially important difference between private Ethereum networks and the main Ethereum network is that, unlike the main Ethereum network (where real money is used to power the Ethereum supercomputer, create contracts, and move money around the network), private Ethereum networks do not automatically let anyone join the network. In a private network, each peer must identify all other peers to which it wants to connect. In networking parlance, anode becomes apeerwhen it connects to a fellow node. Nodes are identified viaenodeaddresses, which are basically public keys. To illustrate how to create a private network with 3+ nodes, Ill use the private blackswan network I created to run one of our projects, called DDASH (Distributed Data Sharing Hyperledger). Youre welcome to follow along and join the blackswan network or take notes a Continue reading >>

Setting Up Private Network Or Local Cluster

Setting Up Private Network Or Local Cluster

In order to run multiple ethereum nodes locally, you have to make sure: each instance has a separate data directory (--datadir) each instance runs on a different port (both eth and rpc) (--port and --rpcport) in case of a cluster the instances must know about each other the ipc endpoint is unique or the ipc interface is disabled (--ipcpath or --ipcdisable) You start the first node (let's make port explicit and disable ipc interface) geth --datadir="/tmp/eth/60/01" -verbosity 6 --ipcdisable --port 30301 --rpcport 8101 console 2>> /tmp/eth/60/01.log We started the node with the console, so that we can grab the enode url for instance: > admin.nodeInfo.enodeenode://8c544b4a07da02a9ee024def6f3ba24b2747272b64e16ec5dd6b17b55992f8980[email protected]9[::]:30301 [::] will be parsed as localhost (127.0.0.1). If your nodes are on a local network check each individual host machine and find your ip with ifconfig (on Linux and MacOS): $ ifconfig|grep netmask|awk '{print $2}'127.0.0.1192.168.1.97 If your peers are not on the local network, you need to know your external IP address (use a service) to construct the enode url. geth --datadir="/tmp/eth/60/02" --verbosity 6 --ipcdisable --port 30302 --rpcport 8102 console 2>> /tmp/eth/60/02.log If you want to connect this instance to the previously started node you can add it as a peer from the console with admin.addPeer(enodeUrlOfFirstInstance). You can test the connection by typing in geth console: > net.listeningtrue> net.peerCount 1> admin.peers... As an extention of the above, you can spawn a local cluster of nodes easily. It can also be scripted including account creation which is needed for mining.See gethcluster.sh script, and the README there for usage and examples. See the Private N Continue reading >>

Creating A Private Chain/testnet

Creating A Private Chain/testnet

This guide is here to help you set-up a private blockchain in Ethereum using Geth. Information that helped me compile this guide: Tasha at Tech Lab has an excellent write up on the Ethereum genesis block and creating a private test network . Please go there for more detailed information about custom genesis blocks and what some of the lines in a custom genesis block mean. Ade Duke also has a great private Ethereum chain guide that helped me write this article. Geth is the CLI Ethereum client that runs on Windows, Mac, and Linux platforms. Geth is widely used to interact with Ethereum networks. Ethereum software enables a user to set up a "private" or "testnet" Ethereum chain that is separate from the main Ethereum chain. This is useful for testing distributed apps built on Ethereum without having to expose your apps or trials to the real Ethereum network using real Ether. You either pre-generate or mine your own Ether on your private Ethereum chain, so it is a much more cost effective way of trying out Ethereum.What are the components that tell Geth that we want to use/create a private Ethereum chain?The things that dictate a private Ethereum chain are: The Genesis block is the start block of the Blockchain - the first block, block 0, and the only block that does not point to a predecessor block. the genesis block is hard coded into clients, but in Ethereum it can be whatever you like. This gives us lots of options to create a customized, private blockchains based on our needs. Ethereum's consensus algorithm ensures that no other node will agree with your version of the blockchain unless they have the same genesis block. { "nonce": "0x0000000000000042", "timestamp": "0x0", "parentHash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000", "extraData": Continue reading >>

A Journey Into Blockchain: Private Network With Ethereum

A Journey Into Blockchain: Private Network With Ethereum

A Journey into Blockchain: Private Network with Ethereum Jake Henningsgaard Oct 09, 2017 0 Comments Rather than continue to stand on the side lines watching blockchain tech evolve, I thought I would venture into this new ambiguous world. Theres a lot of material to cover when exploring blockchain technology so I decided to focus on the blockchain itself. My goal is simple: create a private multi-node blockchain using the Ethereum blockchain. Here are my steps. Steps 16 focus on getting the private network up and running. Steps 7 & 8 are used to test the private network. This post is designed to get you up and running with blockchain quickly while exposing you to some of the underlying tech. There are easier ways to create a blockchain private network, but they often obscure a lot of the implementation and build work. Ethereum is one of the more popular implementations of blockchain. Therefore, there are quite a bit of resources and development tools to support the Ethereum development community. Some things to keep in mind while starting out with blockchain: Blockchain is designed to be decentralized however, it does not have to be. An entire blockchain can exist on a single machine Ethereum is just one implementation of blockchain; there are several others There are several client tool implementations available for the Ethereum network. In fact, if you go to the Ethereum website youll find a whole list of them, go-ethereum being the most popular. Geth is the tool you will use to interface with an instance running the Ethereum blockchain allowing you to interact with the Ethereum network. To install it on a Mac use the following commands brew updatebrew upgradebrew tap ethereum/ethereumbrew install ethereum See the wiki for instructions on installing it on Windows or L Continue reading >>

How To Create A Private Ethereum Network | Hacker News

How To Create A Private Ethereum Network | Hacker News

A blockchain is secure because in order to "hack" into the database you need to have 51% of the computational power on the network to create the longest chain. In a large network like Bitcoin or Ethereum the massive computational power of the network ensures generating 51% of the compute power of the network is near impossibly expensive. How secure is a private blockchain? If there are only a few servers the network could be destroyed by just unplugging a few machines, or plugging in a few more. I recommend reading this: . In a private blockchain the reading and writing permissions are controlled, therefore only selected nodes can write to it. "The validators are known, so any risk of a 51% attack arising from some miner collusion in China does not apply." I guess you could still have attack from authorized nodes in your own organization? Well, if you only need to maintain transactions within your own organization and there is full trust, why not just use a simple SQL database to record transactions instead of a much more expensive and complex blockchain? If there are multiple parties, what's to stop one of the nodes from, say, buying 1000 GPU instances on EC2 and massively increasing their hashing power. Even if you have some type of network control settings that only allow certain nodes access to the network, the proof of work could be distributed and you could just proxy the answer back to the machine that has access to the network. The case for private ledgers is coordination among a moderate number of non-anonymous mostly-untrusted entities. (Whether this case ever exists is left as an exercise for the reader.) They can't use a central database but they don't need mining either; variants of BFT can be used that work as long as (n/2)+1 entities are honest. If thing Continue reading >>

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