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Ethereum Private Key List

Understanding Private Key, Public Key & Address In Ethereum Blockchain

Understanding Private Key, Public Key & Address In Ethereum Blockchain

Public key is described as follows in yellow paper . Where pu is the public key, assumed to be a byte array of size 64 (formed from the concatenation of two positive integers each < 2256) and pr is the private key, a byte array of size 32 (or a single positive integer in the aforementioned range). This is done using group operation of EC cryptography. To derive public key, private key is multiplied by G.Multiplication used to derive public is EC multiplication which is entirely different from normal multiplication for which I am going to use JS library . G is called generator point which is one of the domain parameters of EC cryptography. G has fixed value for ecp256k1, which is recommended by experts. you can read more here . var EC = require('elliptic').ec;var BN = require('bn.js');var ec = new EC('secp256k1');var G = ec.g; // Generator pointvar pk = new BN('1'); // private key as big numbervar pubPoint=G.mul(pk); // EC multiplication to determine public point var x = pubPoint.getX().toBuffer(); //32 bit x co-ordinate of public point var y = pubPoint.getY().toBuffer(); //32 bit y co-ordinate of public point var publicKey =Buffer.concat([x,y])console.log("pub key::"+publicKey.toString('hex')) Ethereum address is described as follows in yellow paper For a given private key, pr, the Ethereum address A(pr) (a 160-bit value) to which it corresponds is defined as the right most 160-bits of the Keccak hash of the corresponding ECDSA public key. To generate Ethereum address, take Keccak-256 hash of public key. Right most 20 bytes is your Ethereum address. var EC = require('elliptic').ec;var BN = require('bn.js');var ec = new EC('secp256k1');const keccak256 = require('js-sha3').keccak256;var privateKey=Buffer.alloc(32, 0);privateKey[31]=1;console.log("PK::"+privateKey.toStrin Continue reading >>

Keythereum

Keythereum

Keythereum is a JavaScript tool to generate, import and export Ethereum keys. This provides a simple way to use the same account locally and in web wallets. It can be used for verifiable cold storage wallets. Keythereum uses the same key derivation functions (PBKDF2-SHA256 or scrypt), symmetric ciphers (AES-128-CTR or AES-128-CBC), and message authentication codes as geth . You can export your generated key to file, copy it to your data directory's keystore, and immediately start using it in your local Ethereum client. Note: starting in version 0.5.0, keythereum's encrypt and decrypt functions both return Buffers instead of strings. This is a breaking change for anyone using these functions directly! To use keythereum in Node.js, just require it: A minified, browserified file dist/keythereum.min.js is included for use in the browser. Including this file simply attaches the keythereum object to window: Generate a new random private key (256 bit), as well as the salt (256 bit) used by the key derivation function, and the initialization vector (128 bit) used to AES-128-CTR encrypt the key. create is asynchronous if it is passed a callback function, and synchronous otherwise. //optionalprivatekeyandinitializationvectorsizesinbytes //(ifparamsisnotpassedtocreate,keythereum.constantsisusedbydefault) varparams={keyBytes:32,ivBytes:16}; You will need to specify a password and (optionally) a key derivation function. If unspecified, PBKDF2-SHA256 will be used to derive the AES secret key. varkdf="pbkdf2";//or"scrypt"tousethescryptkdf The dump function is used to export key info to keystore "secret-storage" format . If a callback function is supplied as the sixth parameter to dump, it will run asynchronously: //Note:ifoptionsisunspecified,thevaluesinkeythereum.constantsareused. v Continue reading >>

Ether - Generate Ethereum Address From A Private Key - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Ether - Generate Ethereum Address From A Private Key - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Generate Ethereum address from a private key My question was first asked on stackoverflow but due lack of privileges I couldn't move it here directly. I am trying to generate an Ethereum address based on a given private key following this " How are ethereum addresses generated? " and using this Keccak-256 Ethereum implementation . But it show this error: Warning: openssl_pkey_get_details() expects parameter 1 to be resource, boolean given in /localweb/getethaddress.php on line 15openssl_pkey_get_private error:0D07207B:asn1 encoding routines:ASN1_get_object:header too longopenssl_pkey_get_private error:0D068066:asn1 encoding routines:ASN1_CHECK_TLEN:bad object headeropenssl_pkey_get_private error:0D07803A:asn1 encoding routines:ASN1_ITEM_EX_D2I:nested asn1 erroropenssl_pkey_get_private error:10092010:elliptic curve routines:d2i_ECPrivateKey:EC libopenssl_pkey_get_private error:100DE08E:elliptic curve routines:OLD_EC_PRIV_DECODE:decode erroropenssl_pkey_get_private error:0D07207B:asn1 encoding routines:ASN1_get_object:header too longopenssl_pkey_get_private error:0D068066:asn1 encoding routines:ASN1_CHECK_TLEN:bad object headeropenssl_pkey_get_private error:0D07803A:asn1 encoding routines:ASN1_ITEM_EX_D2I:nested asn1 erroropenssl_pkey_get_private error:0907B00D:PEM routines:PEM_READ_BIO_PRIVATEKEY:ASN1 lib Continue reading >>

Account Management Ethereum Homestead 0.1 Documentation

Account Management Ethereum Homestead 0.1 Documentation

Remember to use a strong and randomly generated password. We just created our first account. If we try to list our accounts again we can see our new account: > eth.accounts["0xb2f69ddf70297958e582a0cc98bce43294f1007d"] For the command line averse, there is now a GUI-based option for creating accounts: The official Mist Ethereum wallet. The Mist Ethereum wallet, and its parent Mist project, are being developed under the auspices of the Ethereum Foundation, hence the official status. Versions of the wallet app are available for Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows. The Mist wallet is beta software. Please beware and use it at your own risk. Creating an account using the GUI Mist Ethereum wallet couldnt be easier. In fact, your first account is created during the installation of the app. Download the latest version of the wallet app for your operating system. Opening the Wallet App will kick off syncing a full copy of the Ethereum blockchain on your computer, since you will in effect be running a full geth node. Unzip the downloaded folder and run the Ethereum-Wallet executable file. Wait for the blockchain to fully sync, then follow the instructions on the screen and your first account will be created. When you launch the Mist Ethereum wallet for the first time, you will see the account you created during the installation process. By default it will be named MAIN ACCOUNT (ETHERBASE). Creating additional accounts is easy; just click on ADD ACCOUNT in the apps main screen and enter the required password. The Mist wallet is still in active development, so details of the steps outlined above may change with upgrades. Creating a Multi-Signature Wallet in Mist The Mist Ethereum wallet has an option to secure your wallet balance with a multisig wallet. The advantage of using a multisig Continue reading >>

What Are Ethereum Private Keys?

What Are Ethereum Private Keys?

Moving Ether around is very easy, but in the background an important part of moving and storing Ether involves something called a private key. The easiest way to understand private keys is to think about an old-fashioned mailbox system: Lets say Maria wants to send mail to Peter. First she needs to know what Peters mailbox address or number is. Lets say Peters mailbox is number 2034. Similarly, if she wants to send Ether to Peter, she needs to know his Ether address, which is a number that uniquely identifies him. This is also sometimes called his wallet address, or public key, which functions similar to your bank account number. Its a long and complicated number because there are so many Ether mailboxes in the world, but thankfully you dont have to remember it, you can find it on the internet. So now Maria deposits the Ethereum in Peters mailbox. She can have a peek inside and see the Ethereum there, in fact anyone who walks by can see that mailbox 2034 is filled with one Ethereum. This is part of the exciting part of Ethereum - that everyone can see all the transactions but without anyone having to share their identity. People can see there is one Ethereum in 2034, but no-one, except for Maria and Peter, will know it belongs to Peter. Now lets see how Peter gets his Ethereum - well he can see its there, so he doesnt have to do anything. But if he wants to move it, he needs to open the box to send it to someone else. To open this he needs a key - and this is his own unique key, also called a private key, that he, and only he can use to open the mailbox. When he opens it he can remove the Ethereum and deposit into someone elses box, lets maybe say he is buying an online game from Microsoft, now he can deposit it into Microsofts box and once they can see the Ethereum re Continue reading >>

Account - How To Get Ethereum Addresses With Balance - Stack Overflow

Account - How To Get Ethereum Addresses With Balance - Stack Overflow

How to get Ethereum addresses with balance You can dump blockchain state into a json file and see balance per address here. If you need just balances, and don't want to read huge json file, you can postprocess it with jq . This could take time, like hour or maybe more, but still possible: geth dump 4400000 > accounts.jsoncat accounts.json | jq '.accounts as $acc | $acc | keys[] | ["0x"+., $acc[.].balance] | join(",")' > balances.txt If you want to find accounts with top balance: cat balances.txt | sort --field-separator=',' --key=2 -n -r > balances-sorted.txt Thank you for your solution, but unfortunately, I got this error: Fatal: could not create new state: missing trie node fa220efdfa9f27c2b2f9a3803920a9f3e425e6a28a5527967b3e2071478bd893 (path ) I redownload the blockchain several times, and it did not help. Fade to Grey Oct 27 at 19:08 It seems you database is corrupted, and at this case db dump can't work of course. I suggest to redownload it, but using a full sync mode, without --fast option. Igor Artamonov Oct 30 at 13:28 Thanks. Always the same result - Fatal: could not create new state: missing trie node fa220efdfa9f27c2b2f9a3803920a9f3e425e6a28a5527967b3e2071478bd893 (path ) And yes, I do not use fast synchronization. Also, i tried to use more cache (1024/2048). Fade to Grey Oct 31 at 11:20 You need to submit a bug report to geth github repo PS you have a very fast server, on a standard server it takes a week to synchronize in non-fast mode Igor Artamonov Oct 31 at 12:08 Thanks, I'll try to do it. I just used Mac Pro 2013 - 12c/24t, 64GB Ram =) Fade to Grey Oct 31 at 20:00 Continue reading >>

Why Generate Truly Random Privatekeys?

Why Generate Truly Random Privatekeys?

[spotted] 21 BTC (cumulative) sent to an address whose private key is compromised To develop our applications, we are constantly handling authentication protocols (basic, digest, oauth,). We even use hash functions and in 2016, when Apple required that all connections be in https, we could no longer ignore the main principles of symmetric and asymmetric encryption. And still When I generated accounts every 2 minutes while doing my tests on Ethereum, I had the impression to reserve myself addresses unnecessarily, I realize now that this reasoning is fundamentally wrong for several reasons. First, the probability of a collision when creating an address is infinitely small, orders of magnitude are so huge that it is difficult to represent them. Then, even if two people tried to brute-force keys for 100 years, these addresses would have to be used on the Blockchain transactions for that to be relevant. Conclusion, no reason to feel guilty if you generate thousands of addresses, consider rather that they already exist all but you can not control them. So we have a system without storage / persistence that allows from a private key to generate a public key and an address. This is obviously a one-way system. Do not try to hack it, there is no flaw in this system, it is both ultra secure and very user friendly. Without dependency (third party or hardware) I can sign transactions on the Blockchain with the only constraint, the knowledge of my secret code. On the other hand, if your private key is compromised, a hacker can quietly take away your cryptos and you will not be able to do anything. If you find this shocking, make an analogy with your mailbox. When you send me an email, I know your public address (your email), imagine that your password is your date of birth (private Continue reading >>

Ethereum-word-list/readme.md At Master Pirapira/ethereum-word-list Github

Ethereum-word-list/readme.md At Master Pirapira/ethereum-word-list Github

The interface / client / wrapper / holder that you use to manage your account(s). Example: MyEtherWallet.com, your Ledger Hardware Wallet, a Multisig Wallet Contract. A public & private keypair that "holds" your funds. Your funds are actually stored on the blockchain, not in the wallet or account. Just like your Reddit account has a username (public) and password (private), so does your Ethereum account. For additional security, you can use a password to encrypt your private key which would result in a username (public) and password (private) and password for that password (private + more secure). See the Keystore File section. In cryptography, you have a keypair: the public and private key. You can derive a public key from a private key, but cannot derive a private key from a public key. (Advanced) In Ethereum, the address "acts" like the public key, but it's not actually the public key. (Advanced) In Ethereum, the public key is derived from the private key and is 128 hex characters. You then take the "SHA3" (Keccak-256) hash of this (64 characters), take the last 40 characters, and prefix with 0x, give you your 42-character address. You use this to send funds from an account. The secret half of your Address / public key. ( Almost ) every string of 64 hexadecimal characters is a private key. If you hand-type a private key differently today than yesterday, you will access a different wallet. Never hand type your private key. This is the string you need to send from your account. Without it you cannot access your funds. Although, you don't need to save this raw, unencrypted private key in this format. You can saving the fancy versions of it (e.g. the Keystore File / Mnemonic Phrase). Example: afdfd9c3d2095ef696594f6cedcae59e72dcd697e2a7521b1578140422a4f890 Encrypted ver Continue reading >>

Accessing Your Ether Wallets Private Keys On Blockchain.info

Accessing Your Ether Wallets Private Keys On Blockchain.info

Accessing your Ether wallets Private Keys on Blockchain.info Currently, many companies support creation and use of Ether wallets. Its possible to send and receive ETH easily, without being need to download the whole Blockchain for the task. However, many of these wallets havent added support for ERC-20 tokens. These tokens are used often as a trading value in many ICOs, and also given to the users as payment for their contribution. With Chronologics ICO it wasnt different. There are steps to be taken to visualize and use these tokens for some wallets. Now, lets talk about the wallets that really allow users full control over their address. Among them we have Jaxx, MyEtherWallet, Blockchain.info, and others. If youve made your contribution from any of these rest assured that with a few simple steps you can manage and even transfer your DAY tokens. However, if youve sent your contribution from Coinbase, Bittrex, Poloniex, FreeWallet, BTC Markets or Kraken, among others, then you have a problem. In order to check the DAY tokens inside your ETH address, you dont need to unblock/open your wallet, rather only type your wallets address on EtherScan.io or Ethplorer.io. Now, if you really want to move your DAY tokens, or any other ERC-20 asset from those wallets, then youll have to access it using the Private Key, JSON file and password, etc. Today well feature a quick tutorial on how to recover your Private Key from an Ether wallet hosted by Blockchain.info. Step #1: Login into your Blockchain.info account. Step #2: Click on Ether (left side of your screen). Step #3: Select the option Export Private Key, as demonstrated below. Step #4: This warning mentions the implied risks of exposing your Private Key. Basically, never let anyone else see it and always double-check the websi Continue reading >>

How Do You See My Private Key?

How Do You See My Private Key?

I don't think anyone uses the ethereum wallet. its the biggest piece of shit. just save your keystore folder on a USB and delete the whole thing. you want view your private key ? upload the UTC file to myetherwallet and it will present you with everything you need. WAT? And how do you expect them to transact if they only have their keys on a usb? Shitloads of people use the Ethereum Wallet, it's practically the only way to interact with the DAO's for a start. Yes it's a beta heap of shit compared to their final vision for the Mist Browser but the whole platform is still a work in progress. People just don't seem to get that. I too am wondering about my private key in my ethereum wallet - how do I access it? Can anyone else access it? Is the ethereum wallet secure? As a non programmer occasionally executing my first transactions in crypto in recent weeks, there are a myriad of concerns that come to mind - password protection, private key protection, hacking concerns, etc. etc. I start calling friends for help - friends in the know i.e. some are programmers and others are in the crypto business and they also find it difficult to navigate this stuff smoothly - so clearly the industry has a ways to go before its ready for prime time. But we know that, don't we? So my question still is how do I know what my private key is in my ethereum wallet dag nannit? OK, here is the answer to the question 'how do you see my private key' which I got from a trusted source in the crypto space: 'Knowing the password = Owning the private key Nobody will ask you for the private key itself and it is not visible. Finally he also said you must backup your files: To backup the private key and account details. This required to be done once only and not every time you send or receive Ether. 1) In Continue reading >>

2 Answers - Is It Possible To Brute Force Ethereum Private Keys To Open Different Wallets?

2 Answers - Is It Possible To Brute Force Ethereum Private Keys To Open Different Wallets?

Is it possible to brute force Ethereum private keys to open different wallets? It depends on your definition of possible. If you mean realistically possible, the short answer is No. and the long answer is Hell no. If you mean possible by a nearly omniscient demi-god, the answer is Probably not. Before I explain why, consider this: if it was possible to brute force Ethereum or Bitcoin wallets (keychains storing private keys), why would anyone use Ethereum or Bitcoin? If they were insecure, no one would give them a second thought, right? Surely, no one would use public/private key cryptography if it were easy to break. A private key in Ethereum is a randomly chosen 32 byte (or 256 bit) number. Thats any number between 1 and 115792089237316195423570985008687907852837564279074904382605163141518161494336, inclusive. This is a number so vast that the human brain really cant understand it without analogy. For example, lets say you had a perfectly efficient computer and you told it to simply count from 1 to 2^256 (the large number above). The energy required to power the computer would be more than the output of an average star over its entire lifetime. If, somehow, this counting became an easy problem to solve, its not too hard to increase the private key length to 257 bits which doubles the range of private keys. In fact, while youre at it, you could just use 512 bit length keys. Now, thats not to say no one will ever find a vulnerability in Ethereum. Theres a shelf life to crypto algorithms. For example, the sha1 hashing algorithm is starting to show signs of weakness, and the md5 algorithm before it is considered broken now. In a few decades, someone may invent attacks for crypto algorithms which Ethereum uses or we may have very powerful quantum computers. If an exploit i Continue reading >>

The Top 10 Best Ethereum Wallets (2018 Edition)

The Top 10 Best Ethereum Wallets (2018 Edition)

The Top 10 Best Ethereum Wallets (2018 Edition) By: Sudhir Khatwani In: Ethereum Last Updated: Ethereum currently has the second largest market cap after Bitcoin . Because of this, many investors are now flocking to Ethereum. Naturally, this has surged demand for more secure Ethereum wallets. And in my opinion, this is what all secure cryptocurrency wallets need to have: Private keys Wallets where you control your private keys. Ease of use Elegant UI for ease of use. Development community Active development community. Backup & security Backup and restore features. Compatibility Compatible with different operating systems. I believe that if a wallet doesnt have any one of these things, your coins could be at risk and you could give yourself a major headache. When looking for wallets, make sure that the above requirements are met before you store your coins there. If you want to get hold of ETH Instantly using Bitcoin or any other cryptocurrency, just use the widget below. Here I have listed out the best wallets for Ethereum. They all meet the above requirements. The Ledger Nano S is one of the most inexpensive Ethereum hardware wallets available ($65). Here, Ether is stored offline on the device. Whenever you want to spend Ether, Ledger signs it using the private key stored on the device. You can store both ETH & ETC. Harsh has made few videos guide about Ledger Nano S that you must check out. This will help you to learn everything about Ledger Nano S. The best thing about the Ledger Nano S is that it comes with a small OLED screen which allows you to control your transactions. The security is so robust that you can use your Nano S device even on a hacked computer. Trezor was the first hardware wallet invented for Bitcoin. However,nowTrezor can be used for Ethereum too Continue reading >>

Exporting The Private Key For Your Ethereum Address

Exporting The Private Key For Your Ethereum Address

Exporting the private key for your Ethereum address Backing up your Blockchain.info wallet is critical and can be done by following this guide . Creating the backup phrase will secure your bitcoin and ethereum balances. You also have the option of exporting the individual private key for your ethereum address. This is useful if you accidentally sent ethereum based tokens (known as ERC20 tokens) to your Blockchain wallet. At this time we do not support sending tokens or showing token balances in the Blockchain wallet, which you can read about in greater detail here . To export yourethereum private key start by clickingETHER in the lefthand menu: You will see the main transaction page for the ethereum section of your wallet. To the top right you can seeExport Private Key: PressExport Private Key and acknowledge the following message: PressContinue and the private key will be displayed. As stated in the warning you shouldnever share this information with anyone. Access to a private key means access to the funds associated with the public address. Continue reading >>

Mist Browser Dev Team Identifies Potential Exposure Of Ether Private Keys

Mist Browser Dev Team Identifies Potential Exposure Of Ether Private Keys

Mist Browser Dev Team Identifies Potential Exposure of Ether Private Keys The Mist Browser, the tool of choice to browse and use apps according to its official Github page , has just announced that they have detected a bug in their beta version. The bug could allow for shady websites to lift your digital keys right out of your ether wallet, thus gaining total control over your funds. In the security alert which appeared on December 15, Mist Browser Beta versions 0.9.3 and lower are at risk, and should users of the software should not browse untrusted websites with Mist Browser Beta at this time. Mist is a web browser and Ethereum wallet bundled into one package. It is designed to be the Ethereum network interface for the average user. Today, in order to use Ethereum-powered Dapp sites such as CryptoKitties or the demo casino games on the FunFair page, you need to use Google Chrome and have the browser extension MetaMask installed. While this is fine for most serious Ethereum users, it represents a large friction point when it comes to entering the ecosystem. Mist is instead aiming itself at becoming a highly intuitive and user-friendly experience that will provide a seamless experience for interacting with Dapps. The Mist project was initially announced back in 2014 by Alex Van de Sande in this video on the official Ethereum YouTube channel. The bug, which is caused by a Chromium vulnerability was detected and being attended to before the general release of the software. This is important because it means that as far as we know, no one has fallen victim to theft through this particular vulnerability. Secondly, it shows us that the team behind Mist are generally doing an excellent job of staying on top of things. They are detecting and resolving issues before they becom Continue reading >>

Accounts, Addresses, Public And Private Keys, And Tokens

Accounts, Addresses, Public And Private Keys, And Tokens

Accounts, Addresses, Public And Private Keys, And Tokens The format of your private key is 3a1076bf45ab87712ad64ccb3b10217737f7faacbf2872e88fdd9a537d8fe266. The format of your account (which is generated from your public key) is 0xC2D7CF95645D33006175B78989035C7c9061d3F9. Note that there is a lowercase version 0xc2d7cf95645d33006175b78989035c7c9061d3f9 and a partially uppercase version 0xC2D7CF95645D33006175B78989035C7c9061d3F9. The partially uppercase version has a checksum to verify the address. See EIP55 - Yet another cool checksum address encoding The password encrypted private key is stored in a JSON file with the following format (newlines and indents added for clarity, example on OS/X): $ more ~/Library/Ethereum/keystore/UTC--2017-03-18T05-48-53.504714737Z--c2d7cf95645d33006175b78989035c7c9061d3f9 {"address":"c2d7cf95645d33006175b78989035c7c9061d3f9", "crypto":{ "cipher":"aes-128-ctr", "ciphertext":"0f6d343b2a34fe571639235fc16250823c6fe3bc30525d98c41dfdf21a97aedb", "cipherparams":{ "iv":"cabce7fb34e4881870a2419b93f6c796" }, "kdf":"scrypt", "kdfparams"{ "dklen":32, "n":262144, "p":1, "r":8, "salt":"1af9c4a44cf45fe6fb03dcc126fa56cb0f9e81463683dd6493fb4dc76edddd51" }, "mac":"5cf4012fffd1fbe41b122386122350c3825a709619224961a16e908c2a366aa6" }, "id":"eddd71dd-7ad6-4cd3-bc1a-11022f7db76c", "version":3} How To Create New Accounts (or Addresses) How To Create A New Account In Go Ethereum (geth) You can generate a new Ethereum account by executing geth account new if you already have the geth Ethereum node software installed: $ geth account newYour new account is locked with a password. Please give a password. Do not forget this password.Passphrase: xxxxxxxxRepeat passphrase: xxxxxxxxAddress: {4e6cf0ed2d8bbf1fbbc9f2a100602ceba4bf1319} A UTC--{year}-{month}--{account} enc Continue reading >>

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