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Ethereum Private Key Length

Web3.eth.accounts Web3.js 1.0.0 Documentation

Web3.eth.accounts Web3.js 1.0.0 Documentation

tx - Object: The transaction object as follows: nonce - String: (optional) The nonce to use when signing this transaction. Default will use web3.eth.getTransactionCount() . chainId - String: (optional) The chain id to use when signing this transaction. Default will use web3.eth.net.getId() . to - String: (optional) The recevier of the transaction, can be empty when deploying a contract. data - String: (optional) The call data of the transaction, can be empty for simple value transfers. value - String: (optional) The value of the transaction in wei. gas - String: The gas provided by the transaction. gasPrice - String: (optional) The gas price set by this transaction, if empty, it will use web3.eth.gasPrice() privateKey - String: The private key to sign with. callback - Function: (optional) Optional callback, returns an error object as first parameter and the result as second. Promise|Object returning Object: The signed data RLP encoded transaction, or if returnSignature is true the signature values as follows: messageHash - String: The hash of the given message. r - String: First 32 bytes of the signature s - String: Next 32 bytes of the signature rawTransaction - String: The RLP encoded transaction, ready to be send using web3.eth.sendSignedTransaction . Continue reading >>

Accounts, Addresses, Public And Private Keys, And Tokens

Accounts, Addresses, Public And Private Keys, And Tokens

Accounts, Addresses, Public And Private Keys, And Tokens The format of your private key is 3a1076bf45ab87712ad64ccb3b10217737f7faacbf2872e88fdd9a537d8fe266. The format of your account (which is generated from your public key) is 0xC2D7CF95645D33006175B78989035C7c9061d3F9. Note that there is a lowercase version 0xc2d7cf95645d33006175b78989035c7c9061d3f9 and a partially uppercase version 0xC2D7CF95645D33006175B78989035C7c9061d3F9. The partially uppercase version has a checksum to verify the address. See EIP55 - Yet another cool checksum address encoding The password encrypted private key is stored in a JSON file with the following format (newlines and indents added for clarity, example on OS/X): $ more ~/Library/Ethereum/keystore/UTC--2017-03-18T05-48-53.504714737Z--c2d7cf95645d33006175b78989035c7c9061d3f9 {"address":"c2d7cf95645d33006175b78989035c7c9061d3f9", "crypto":{ "cipher":"aes-128-ctr", "ciphertext":"0f6d343b2a34fe571639235fc16250823c6fe3bc30525d98c41dfdf21a97aedb", "cipherparams":{ "iv":"cabce7fb34e4881870a2419b93f6c796" }, "kdf":"scrypt", "kdfparams"{ "dklen":32, "n":262144, "p":1, "r":8, "salt":"1af9c4a44cf45fe6fb03dcc126fa56cb0f9e81463683dd6493fb4dc76edddd51" }, "mac":"5cf4012fffd1fbe41b122386122350c3825a709619224961a16e908c2a366aa6" }, "id":"eddd71dd-7ad6-4cd3-bc1a-11022f7db76c", "version":3} How To Create New Accounts (or Addresses) How To Create A New Account In Go Ethereum (geth) You can generate a new Ethereum account by executing geth account new if you already have the geth Ethereum node software installed: $ geth account newYour new account is locked with a password. Please give a password. Do not forget this password.Passphrase: xxxxxxxxRepeat passphrase: xxxxxxxxAddress: {4e6cf0ed2d8bbf1fbbc9f2a100602ceba4bf1319} A UTC--{year}-{month}--{account} enc Continue reading >>

2 Answers - Is It Possible To Brute Force Ethereum Private Keys To Open Different Wallets?

2 Answers - Is It Possible To Brute Force Ethereum Private Keys To Open Different Wallets?

Is it possible to brute force Ethereum private keys to open different wallets? It depends on your definition of possible. If you mean realistically possible, the short answer is No. and the long answer is Hell no. If you mean possible by a nearly omniscient demi-god, the answer is Probably not. Before I explain why, consider this: if it was possible to brute force Ethereum or Bitcoin wallets (keychains storing private keys), why would anyone use Ethereum or Bitcoin? If they were insecure, no one would give them a second thought, right? Surely, no one would use public/private key cryptography if it were easy to break. A private key in Ethereum is a randomly chosen 32 byte (or 256 bit) number. Thats any number between 1 and 115792089237316195423570985008687907852837564279074904382605163141518161494336, inclusive. This is a number so vast that the human brain really cant understand it without analogy. For example, lets say you had a perfectly efficient computer and you told it to simply count from 1 to 2^256 (the large number above). The energy required to power the computer would be more than the output of an average star over its entire lifetime. If, somehow, this counting became an easy problem to solve, its not too hard to increase the private key length to 257 bits which doubles the range of private keys. In fact, while youre at it, you could just use 512 bit length keys. Now, thats not to say no one will ever find a vulnerability in Ethereum. Theres a shelf life to crypto algorithms. For example, the sha1 hashing algorithm is starting to show signs of weakness, and the md5 algorithm before it is considered broken now. In a few decades, someone may invent attacks for crypto algorithms which Ethereum uses or we may have very powerful quantum computers. If an exploit i Continue reading >>

Ethereumjs-wallet - Npm

Ethereumjs-wallet - Npm

managing storage (neither in node.js or the browser) generate([icap]) - create an instance based on a new random key (setting icap to true will generate an address suitable for the ICAP Direct mode) fromPrivateKey(input) - create an instance based on a raw private key fromExtendedPrivateKey(input) - create an instance based on a BIP32 extended private key (xprv) fromPublicKey(input, [nonStrict]) - create an instance based on a public key (certain methods will not be available) fromExtendedPublicKey(input) - create an instance based on a BIP32 extended public key (xpub) fromV1(input, password) - import a wallet (Version 1 of the Ethereum wallet format) fromV3(input, password, [nonStrict]) - import a wallet (Version 3 of the Ethereum wallet format). Set nonStrict true to accept files with mixed-caps. fromEthSale(input, password) - import an Ethereum Pre Sale wallet For the V1, V3 and EthSale formats the input is a JSON serialized string. All these formats require a password. Note: fromPublicKey() only accepts uncompressed Ethereum-style public keys, unless the nonStrict flag is set to true. getChecksumAddressString() - return the address with checksum getV3Filename([timestamp]) - return the suggested filename for V3 keystores toV3(password, [options]) - return the wallet as a JSON string (Version 3 of the Ethereum wallet format) All of the above instance methods return a Buffer or JSON. Use the String suffixed versions for a string output, such as getPrivateKeyString(). Note: getPublicKey() only returns uncompressed Ethereum-style public keys. Importing various third party wallets is possible through the thirdparty submodule: var thirdparty = require('ethereumjs-wallet/thirdparty') fromEtherCamp(passphrase) - import a brain wallet used by Ether.Camp fromEtherWallet(input Continue reading >>

Ethereum-keys 0.1.0a4

Ethereum-keys 0.1.0a4

This method returns a signature for the given message_hash, signedby the provided public_key. message_hash: must be a byte string of length 32 private_key: must be an instance of PrivateKey KeyAPI.ecdsa_verify(message_hash, signature, public_key) -> bool Returns True or False based on whether the providedsignature is a valid signature for the provided message_hash andpublic_key. message_hash: must be a byte string of length 32 signature: must be an instance of Signature public_key: must be an instance of PublicKey KeyAPI.ecdsa_recover(message_hash, signature) -> PublicKey Returns the PublicKey instances recovered from the givensignature and message_hash. message_hash: must be a byte string of length 32 signature: must be an instance of Signature KeyAPI.private_key_to_public_key(private_key) -> PublicKey Returns the PublicKey instances computed from the givenprivate_key instance. private_key: must be an instance of PublicKey The PublicKey class takes a single argument which must be a bytesstring with length 64. Note that some libraries prefix the byte serialized public key witha leading \x04 byte which must be removed before use with thePublicKey object. PublicKey.from_private(private_key) -> PublicKey This classmethod returns a new PublicKey instance computed fromthe given private_key. private_key may either be a byte string of length 32 or aninstance of the KeyAPI.PrivateKey class. PublicKey.recover_msg(message, signature) -> PublicKey This classmethod returns a new PublicKey instance computed fromthe provided message and signature. signature must be an instance of KeyAPI.Signature PublicKey.recover_msg_hash(message_hash, signature) -> PublicKey Same as PublicKey.recover_msg except that message_hash should bethe Keccak hash of the message. PublicKey.verify_msg(message Continue reading >>

Understanding Private Key, Public Key & Address In Ethereum Blockchain

Understanding Private Key, Public Key & Address In Ethereum Blockchain

Public key is described as follows in yellow paper . Where pu is the public key, assumed to be a byte array of size 64 (formed from the concatenation of two positive integers each < 2256) and pr is the private key, a byte array of size 32 (or a single positive integer in the aforementioned range). This is done using group operation of EC cryptography. To derive public key, private key is multiplied by G.Multiplication used to derive public is EC multiplication which is entirely different from normal multiplication for which I am going to use JS library . G is called generator point which is one of the domain parameters of EC cryptography. G has fixed value for ecp256k1, which is recommended by experts. you can read more here . var EC = require('elliptic').ec;var BN = require('bn.js');var ec = new EC('secp256k1');var G = ec.g; // Generator pointvar pk = new BN('1'); // private key as big numbervar pubPoint=G.mul(pk); // EC multiplication to determine public point var x = pubPoint.getX().toBuffer(); //32 bit x co-ordinate of public point var y = pubPoint.getY().toBuffer(); //32 bit y co-ordinate of public point var publicKey =Buffer.concat([x,y])console.log("pub key::"+publicKey.toString('hex')) Ethereum address is described as follows in yellow paper For a given private key, pr, the Ethereum address A(pr) (a 160-bit value) to which it corresponds is defined as the right most 160-bits of the Keccak hash of the corresponding ECDSA public key. To generate Ethereum address, take Keccak-256 hash of public key. Right most 20 bytes is your Ethereum address. var EC = require('elliptic').ec;var BN = require('bn.js');var ec = new EC('secp256k1');const keccak256 = require('js-sha3').keccak256;var privateKey=Buffer.alloc(32, 0);privateKey[31]=1;console.log("PK::"+privateKey.toStrin Continue reading >>

How Is An Ethereum Address Generated?

How Is An Ethereum Address Generated?

Responding to How is the contract address generated when a contract is deployed? This is a fantastic question and one that I had to research a little bit to fully answer. The first thing to grasp is that a smart contract is just a specific type of Ethereum wallet that responds to transfers by executing code. So generating a contract address is essentially the same process as generating a new wallet for your personal use. The second idea youre going to want to understand is the role of public and private keys in generating the address. In order to interact with a wallet you need to have the right keys for it. Getting from key -> wallet is a multi-step process: Your mathematical equation to find the address of yourwallet 2. Take the Keccak-256 hash of the public key. You should now have a string that is 32 bytes. (note: SHA3256 eventually became the standard, but Ethereum uses Keccak) 3. Take the last 20 bytes of this public key (Keccak-256). Or, in other words, drop the first 12 bytes. These 20 bytes are the address, or 40 characters. When prefixed with 0x it becomes 42 characters long. Bada-bing, bada-boom, youve got an address. For more information on the specifics of Ethereum, keys, and addresses checkout: Continue reading >>

A Hacker Stole $31m Of Etherhow It Happened, And What It Means Forethereum

A Hacker Stole $31m Of Etherhow It Happened, And What It Means Forethereum

A hacker stole $31M of Ether how it happened, and what it means forEthereum Yesterday, a hacker pulled off the second biggest heist in the history of digital currencies. Around 12:00 PST, an unknown attacker exploited a critical flaw in the Parity multi-signature wallet on the Ethereum network, draining three massive wallets of over $31,000,000 worth of Ether in a matter of minutes. Given a couple more hours, the hacker couldve made off with over $180,000,000 from vulnerable wallets. Having sounded the alarm bells, a group of benevolent white-hat hackers from the Ethereum community rapidly organized. They analyzed the attack and realized that there was no way to reverse the thefts, yet many more wallets were vulnerable. Time was of the essence, so they saw only one available option: hack the remaining wallets before the attacker did. By exploiting the same vulnerability, the white-hats hacked all of the remaining at-risk wallets and drained their accounts, effectively preventing the attacker from reaching any of the remaining $150,000,000. To prevent the hacker from robbing any more banks, the white-hats wrote software to rob all of the remaining banks in the world. Once the money was safely stolen, they began the process of returning the funds to their respective account holders. The people who had their money saved by this heroic feat are now in the process of retrieving their funds. Its an extraordinary story, and it has significant implications for the world of cryptocurrencies. Its important to understand that this exploit was not a vulnerability in Ethereum or in Parity itself. Rather, it was a vulnerability in the default smart contract code that the Parity client gives the user for deploying multi-signature wallets. This is all pretty complicated, so to make th Continue reading >>

Questions On Public Addresses

Questions On Public Addresses

Private Key : 5JAyXYqnR6N123LWq64JHC74CeXrHPtNMq6xRuHvk7Aip2BrYQ3 Public Key : 1BZgEQ6sogmehQVFRJsLYmU8ZqaaQX5WKh How does it work in Ethereum? It would be nice if there was a bitaddress.org type site for Ethereum, it would at least be a step towards people understanding how addresses were calculated. Also, is the algorithm finalised yet? If I was to spend time making a vanity address right now, what's the chance that something changes in the future and my address is useless. Thanks! Continue reading >>

Ethereum-keys 0.1.0a7

Ethereum-keys 0.1.0a7

>>> from eth_keys import keys>>> pk = keys.PrivateKey(b'\x01' * 32)>>> signature = pk.sign_msg(b'a message')>>> pk'0x0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101'>>> pk.public_key'0x1b84c5567b126440995d3ed5aaba0565d71e1834604819ff9c17f5e9d5dd078f70beaf8f588b541507fed6a642c5ab42dfdf8120a7f639de5122d47a69a8e8d1'>>> signature'0xccda990dba7864b79dc49158fea269338a1cf5747bc4c4bf1b96823e31a0997e7d1e65c06c5bf128b7109e1b4b9ba8d1305dc33f32f624695b2fa8e02c12c1e000'>>> pk.public_key.to_checksum_address()'0x1a642f0E3c3aF545E7AcBD38b07251B3990914F1'>>> signature.verify_msg(b'a message', pk.public_key)True>>> signature.recover_msg(b'a message') == pk.public_keyTrue The KeyAPI object is the primary API for interacting with theethereum-keys libary. The object takes a single optional argument inits constructor which designates what backend will be used foreliptical curve cryptography operations. The built-in backends are: eth_keys.backends.NativeECCBackend A pure python implementationof the ECC operations. eth_keys.backends.CoinCurveECCBackend: Uses the`coincurve < >`__ library for ECCoperations. By default, ethereum-keys will try to use theCoinCurveECCBackend, falling back to the NativeECCBackend if thecoincurve library is not available. Note: The coincurve library is not automatically installed withethereum-keys and must be installed separately. The backend argument can be given in any of the following forms. String with the dot-separated import path for the backend class. >>> from eth_keys import KeyAPI>>> from eth_keys.backends import NativeECCBackend# These are all the same>>> keys = KeyAPI(NativeECCBackend)>>> keys = KeyAPI(NativeECCBackend())>>> keys = KeyAPI('eth_keys.backends.NativeECCBackend')# Or for the coincurve base backend>>> keys = KeyAPI('eth_keys.ba Continue reading >>

What Is A Bitcoin Private Key?

What Is A Bitcoin Private Key?

A private key is just a number picked at random. The private key is used to generate the public key through an irreversible process. In the case of Bitcoin the Private key is turned into the Public key through Elliptic Curve C ryptography or ECC for short. If you lose your private key you can't access your Bitcoins, and if someone else finds it out they can steal them. A Private key is just a long number and in the case of a Bitcoin it is a number between 1 & 1.158x 10^77. In practice this number is generated using a secure random number generator that is then fed into the SHA-256 hashing algorithm. The SHA-256 hashing algorithm takes a string of numbers and outputs a 256 bit number which then has to be checked to see if it is less than 1.158x 10^77. When creating your private key most software will do this under the hood, but if you choose certain methods on your own such as 1x10^77 or other certain obvious numbers and then hash via the SHA-256 hackers can create rainbow tables and match to your private key, public key and address. If you do this and choose a particular phrase you are reducing the entropy or chaos of your choice! Always opt for randomness just to be safe even if the chances are very small. The point of using Elliptic curve cryptography is to find a method whereby you can create a Bitcoin Public Key easily Bitcoin Private Key but not the reverse i.e. find the Bitcoin Private Key from its Public Key. This is due to the discrete logarithm problem for elliptic curves, where the best mathematical solutions to break elliptic curve cryptography have to take step proportional to 2n/2 , where n is the length of the number which the Bitcoin key has to below (1.158x 10^77) (also known as the field size the curve is based on for modular arithmetic). In practice t Continue reading >>

Private Key - Bitcoin Wiki

Private Key - Bitcoin Wiki

This page contains sample addresses and/or private keys. Do not send bitcoins to or import any sample keys; you will lose your money. A private key in the context of Bitcoin is a secret number that allows bitcoins to be spent.Every Bitcoin wallet contains one or more private keys, which are saved in the wallet file.The private keys are mathematically related to all Bitcoin addresses generated for the wallet. Because the private key is the "ticket" that allows someone to spend bitcoins, it is important that these are kept secure.Private keys can be kept on computer files, but in some cases are also short enough that they can be printed on paper. Some wallets allow private keys to be imported without generating any transactions while other wallets or services require that the private key be swept.When a private key is swept, a transaction is broadcast that sends the balance controlled by the private key to a new address in the wallet.Just as with any other transaction, there is risk of swept transactions to be double-spending. In contrast, bitcoind provides a facility to import a private key without creating a sweep transaction.This is considered very dangerous, and not intended to be used even by power users or experts except in very specific cases.Bitcoins can be easily stolen at any time, from a wallet which has imported an untrusted or otherwise insecure private key - this can include private keys generated offline and never seen by someone else [1] [2] . In Bitcoin, a private key is usually a 256-bit number (some newer wallets may use between 128 and 512 bits), which can be represented one of several ways.Here is a private key in hexadecimal - 256 bits in hexadecimal is 32 bytes, or 64 characters in the range 0-9 or A-F. E9873D79C6D87DC0FB6A5778633389_SAMPLE_PRIVATE Continue reading >>

Create Full Ethereum Wallet, Keypair And Address

Create Full Ethereum Wallet, Keypair And Address

Create full Ethereum wallet, keypair and address Generating a usable Ethereum wallet and its corresponding keys This article is a guide on how to generate an ECDSA private key and derive its Ethereum address. Using OpenSSL and keccak-256sum from a terminal. You can find a working implementation of keccak-256sum here . Cool thing, it exists as a package in the Arch User Repository as well . If youre feeling lazy, you can find statically linked pre-compiled versions for both i386 and x86-64 on my repo . Warning SHA3 != keccak. Ethereum is using the keccak-256 algorithm and not the standard sha3. More info at Stackoverflow . I have a repository with complete scripts in both bash and python if youd like. First of all we use OpenSSL ecparam command to generate an elliptic curve private key. Ethereum standard is to use the secp256k1 curve. The same curve is used by Bitcoin. This command will print the private key in PEM format (using the wonderful ASN.1 key structure) on stdout. If you want more OpenSSL info on elliptic curves, please feel free to dig further . > openssl ecparam -name secp256k1 -genkey -noout-----BEGIN EC PRIVATE KEY-----MHQCAQEEIFDLYO9KuwsC4ej2UsdA4SYk7s3lb8aZuW+B8rjugrMmoAcGBSuBBAAKoUQDQgAEsNjwhFoLKLXGBxfpMv3ILhzg2FeySRlFhtjfi3s8YFZzJtmckVR3N/YLJLnUV7w3orZUyAz77k0ebug0ILd1lQ==-----END EC PRIVATE KEY----- On its own this command is not very useful for us, but if you pipe it with the ec command it will display both private and public part in hexadecimal format, and this is what we want! Lets do it: > openssl ecparam -name secp256k1 -genkey -noout | openssl ec -text -nooutread EC keyPrivate-Key: (256 bit)priv: 20:80:65:a2:47:ed:be:5d:f4:d8:6f:bd:c0:17:13: 03:f2:3a:76:96:1b:e9:f6:01:38:50:dd:2b:dc:75: 9b:bbpub: 04:83:6b:35:a0:26:74:3e:82:3a:90:a0:ee:3b:91: bf: Continue reading >>

Ethereum Classic Public And Private Keys: A Little Enlightenment

Ethereum Classic Public And Private Keys: A Little Enlightenment

Private keys are 32 byte numbers between 1 and 115792089237316195423570985008687907852837564279074904382605163141518161494336 inclusive. People randomly select them. Some may be concerned that two people might unintentionally select the same private key. The odds of that happening are vanishingly small. In fact, the number of possible private keys is approximately equal to the number of atoms in the entire universe! Public keys are 64 byte numbers derived from private keys using an odd type of arithmetic with respect to pairs of numbers. Here is a Python script that calculates public keys from private keys: #!/usr/bin/env python3"""Calculates ETC public keys from ETC private keys.Usage: etc_pub_key """import randomimport sysA = 0N = 0xfffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffebaaedce6af48a03bbfd25e8cd0364141P = 0xfffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffefffffc2fGX = 0x79be667ef9dcbbac55a06295ce870b07029bfcdb2dce28d959f2815b16f81798GY = 0x483ada7726a3c4655da4fbfc0e1108a8fd17b448a68554199c47d08ffb10d4b8HEXADECIMAL = 16NUM_FORMAT = "{{:0{}x}}".format(len(hex(P)[2:]))def inverse(number): """ Inverts a number. """ inverse = 1 power = number for e in bin(P - 2)[2:][::-1]: if int(e): inverse = (inverse * power) % P power = (power ** 2) % P return inversedef add(pair_1, pair_2): """ Adds two pairs. """ if pair_1 == "identity": sum_ = pair_2 elif pair_2 == "identity": sum_ = pair_1 else: if pair_1 == pair_2: numer = 3 * pair_1[0] ** 2 + A lambda_ = (numer * inverse(2 * pair_1[1])) % P else: numer = pair_2[1] - pair_1[1] denom = pair_2[0] - pair_1[0] lambda_ = (numer * inverse(denom)) % P x = (lambda_ ** 2 - pair_1[0] - pair_2[0]) % P y = (lambda_ * (pair_1[0] - x) - pair_1[1]) % P sum_ = (x, y) return sum_def multiply(number, pair): """ Multiplies a pair by a number. """ p Continue reading >>

A Tale Of Two Curves

A Tale Of Two Curves

All popular blockchains, starting with Bitcoin through Ethereum all the way up to Zcash, use the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) for cryptographically signing transactions.Software implementations of ECDSA may be susceptible to side-channel attacks that leakinformation about the private key. Luckily, the latest generation devices are equipped withspecialized hardware that supports key generation and signing, but leveraging these newfeatures for existing blockchains is not straightforward because of thedifferent algorithms involved. The work in this article was done on behalf of Trusted Key Solutions and is used in Trusted Keys IDENTIFY secure digital identity system. A cryptographic signature proves that the sender of the transaction had access to a private key andthat the transaction has not been changed since it was signed. These ECDSAsignatures are typically calculated in the wallet app by first creating adigest (hash) over the unsigned transaction data and then running the ECdigital signature algorithm to calculate a pair of 256-bit integers identifiedby r and s. This pair of integers is added to the transaction data to createa signed transaction and then broadcast to the blockchain network. version01000000Number of inputs01Unspent transaction hashac18fa31f68e5597d4d1580ec1bdea10be30a39d10dddfd41360b3f7bbc40facUnspent output index00000000Length of scriptSig6aPush sig on stack47DER sequence30Length of sequence44DER integer02Length of integer206d3e58f553c0605c3a663d6baa7258cd536f3c50f4aac96c361695f82ab2017dValue of rDER integer02Length of integer2003ad05075cff6be0185d4dcc7581a60634de35a33585f009ab2f0d1beb9ccbd8Value of sSIGHASH flags01Push pubkey on stack21Pubkey (compressed)0374b22e7dd641b4d24c483023a275fc808c813fe89f8cb4a9c97ef0f3431afb37Sequence Continue reading >>

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