Beginner's Guide To Ethereum Casper Hardfork: What You Need To Know
The Casper updates mission is straightforward, then: to shift ether from being a PoW coin to a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) coin . As opposed to the PoW consensus protocol, the PoS protocol achieves consensus through stakerssometimes referred to as minters, toowho stake their coins by locking them down in specialized wallets . With these stakers at work, mining will become redundant, meaning the Ethereum network post-Casper will rely on stakers and staking pools instead of miners for its operability. And, like miners, stakers will be rewarded for their service to the network. Minters will receive an annual dividend of ether (collected from network fees), so staking would be a lucrative endeavor for those with enough coins. Naturally, then, the more ETH you stake, the larger your annual dividends will be. For now, Ethereums developers havent arrived at a hard number for the amount of ETH that will be required to stake. What they have confirmed, though, is that the number will likely start out higher before gradually being brought considerably lower. For instance, Ethereum founder Vitalik Buterin has recently thrown around a guesstimate of needing approximately 1,000 ETH to be one of the networks inaugural stakers. He said that number could be dropped down to as low as 10 ETH over time. Whatever the number ends up being, users will still be able to band together and create staking pools, just like there are robust mining pools in the Bitcoin and Ethereum communities today. Youll simply pitch your desired amount of ether in, lock in down with your peers, and rake in the dividends together (to be shared proportionally, of course). Well, the Casper update is certainly a team effort, but its inarguable that top Ethereum researcher Vlad Zamfir has been at the vanguard of the updates Continue reading >>
Mitigating The Risk Of Ethereum Switching To Pos In 2018
Mitigating the risk of Ethereum switching to POS in 2018 As an educated miner, what are possible mitigating actions I can do to secure my mining investment given that there is a high probability that Ethereum will push through with the switch to POS in 2018? I understand that I can always shift to another coin then, but what i'm really asking is, are there any PROACTIVE actions I can do TODAY that will reduce the risk of not being able to ROI on my mining investment? Byteball I T J U S T W O R K S . Sending Crypto to Email - Risk-Free Conditional Smart Payments - ICO Platform with KYC One thing i can think of is to sell your mining rig prior to the switch to POS. It will be easy to sell the components because these are all used as regular components of a normal computer. The graphics cards will be easier to sell because there is a demand from gamers who use these to play computer video games. Looking forward to read ideas/strategies from other people as well. Quote from: m.vina on November 15, 2017, 07:00:17 AM As an educated miner, what are possible mitigating actions I can do to secure my mining investment given that there is a high probability that Ethereum will push through with the switch to POS in 2018? I understand that I can always shift to another coin then, but what i'm really asking is, are there any PROACTIVE actions I can do TODAY that will reduce the risk of not being able to ROI on my mining investment? Dude, ETH is not the only profitable coin around, and don't worry, every now and the new coins are always born, in 2017 alone there are new born coins that is profitable than ETH, Ex. ETN and PIRL. Aside from the worst case scenario that could happen, you may do comments above Quote from: m.vina on November 15, 2017, 07:00:17 AM As an educated miner, what Continue reading >>
4 Answers - When Will Ethereum Change From Pow To Pos?
When will Ethereum change from POW to POS? So Vitalik, one of the founders of Ethereum, has been spending a lot of time talking about this on reddit and gitter.im . Based on his conversation, it seems that there will be a soft launch of POS in August or September (ie a hybrid between POW and POS) with the full transition happening by EOY. Vitalik has already created the POS repository to begin pushing code to prod: In addition, there is a timer built into the Ethereum code that effectively doubles the complexity of the hashing algorithm starting later this month. This will making mining much more difficult and an addition incentive to move to POW. By 2018, you can expect Ethereum to be POS. Originally Answered: Why would Ethereum change from POW to POS? Proof of Work (POW) is the current standard mode of operation set by most cryptocurrencies following the lead of Bitcoin. In this method physical hardware with high computing power is used to run an algorithmic program to get rewards. The net effect of this is that costly hardware run programs while consuming electric power and CPU cycles for unproductive work. Te network users running these programs for rewards are called miners. Proof of Stake (POS) seeks to switch from the mining process to a blockchain network supported only by users who validate transactions with no mining. This is a green and efficient method to run the network. Continue reading >>
Ethereum's Big Switch: The New Roadmap To Proof-of-stake - Coindesk
Ethereum's Big Switch: The New Roadmap to Proof-of-Stake After years of development, ethereum has a new planto update the algorithm that keeps its entire network in sync. Vitalik Buterin, ethereum's creator , recently released a rough implementation guide that reveals the network's developers will first start with a 'hybrid' system that merges bitcoin-style proof-of-work mining with itsmuch-anticipated and still-experimental proof-of-stake system called Casper, created by Buterin. The planeffectively meansethereum will begin alternating between the two systems, so that some transaction blocks (one out of 100) are secured viaproof-of-stake and the rest remain on proof-of-work. Buterin has notably been working on his implementationin parallel with ethereum developer Vlad Zamfir, "cross-pollinating" their ideas. According toKarl Floersch, blockchain engineer for ethereum startup ConsenSysand a coder working with Buterin on Casper's development, the result is that the network is choosing the more conservative of two potential paths forward. "What Vitalik has come up with is a get-it-out-the-door, working version, that works, but might be less theoretically revolutionary than Vlad's." Because Buterin's implementation of Casper can, he thinks, get to production faster, it will be used in the first stage of ethereum's evolution. If implemented, this would be the first time proof-of-stake would be employed on the live ethereum platform, albeit playing a minor role. It also would a largereal-world test of proof-of-stake, enabling the cryptocurrency community to determine whether the proof algorithm is asuperior one, as proponents have argued. To advocates, the goal of this potentially revolutionary change to proof-of-stake is to reduce the electricityethereum requires to reacha Continue reading >>
Ethereum's Proof Of Stake Casper Testnet Nears Launch
One of the biggest upgrade in ethereum, and perhaps in the entire ecosystem, might be closer to implementation than previously thought, withLane Rettig, a researcher at the Ethereum Foundation, stating : Casper FFG testnet is coming. Weve got a three-node network working with two validators. Still a few bugs to work out. Whitepapers are cool and all but seeing this come to life is amazing. Casper Friendly Finality Gadget (FFG) is a hybrid Proof of Stake (PoS) and Proof of Work (PoW) implementation developed by Vitalik Buterin, ethereums inventor, and others. This implementation is apparently sufficiently advanced to the extent it could even be incorporated in the next ethereum upgrade, Constantinople Metropolis. According to Ethnews, Buterin said : Theoretically, Casper may well be at the stage where we may actually just try doing it for the next fork, even if that sounds ambitious. There is no estimated date for the second Metropolis fork as far as we are aware. Initially, the intention was to have just one Metropolis upgrade, but some aspects were taking far too long, while much else had been finalized. Developers therefore split it into Byzantium and Constantinople, with Byzantium going through just a few weeks ago. Constantinople is now expected next and might potentially incorporate Casper. The Casper testnet is, as the name says, an environment where they can test the first version of PoS. That means the code is not finalized, but has taken form rather than being at the theoretical design stage. The purpose of the testnet is to firstly ensure security and secondly to refine it fully as coders see how it works in a virtual lab environment. It is the last stage of any upgrade, before it goes to main-net, and indicates a live launch might be just months away. When e Continue reading >>
While Ethereum Figures Out How To Implement Pos, This Blockchain Startup Is Already Steaming Ahead
While Ethereum Figures Out How to Implement PoS, This Blockchain Startup is Already Steaming Ahead There has been a lot of attention drawn towards the Proof-of-Stake mechanism recently, especially ever since Ethereum announced that it would be moving away from its current Proof-of-Work (PoW) system . For those new to blockchain technology, the differences between these two mechanisms can seem difficult and confusing. For more information, there are many in-depth articles available elaborating on the differences between the Proof-of-Work mechanism and the Proof-of-Stake mechanism . However, while the specifics of each mechanism are quite complicated, it is easy to understand what sets the two methods apart. What Are the Major Differences Between Proof-of-Stake (PoS) and Proof-of-Work (PoW)? The main difference between PoS and PoW is that PoS has no resource-heavy mining involved. With PoW, miners are responsible for computing complex algorithms in order to secure consensus. With PoS, coins are minted or forged. This makes PoS much more cost-effective than PoW. PoS is also much less reliant on mining factories than PoW. Therefore, a PoS approach could be much more resistant to censorship in light of Chinas recent ban of crypto exchanges , as it is likely that mining operations could be a lucrative centralized target to censor in the future. Ethereums Transition From Proof-of-Work (PoW) to Proof-of-Stake (PoS) Ethereums future Casper update is set to transform Ethereum from the PoW mechanism to the PoS mechanism. This PoS protocol will achieve consensus through stakers who essentially stake their coins by locking them down in specialized wallets. Similar to the way miners are currently rewarded, stakers will be rewarded in return for their service to the network. They wil Continue reading >>
What Is The Ethereum Casper Protocol?
written by Jonnie Emsley February 7, 2018 The term Casper has been popping up lately in the Ethereum community like a whack-a-mole. Youll even see it hitting headlines alongside ETHs recent 30% spike in value , with punters explaining the upwards explosion as sheer anticipation of what Casper will do for Ethereum. With the successful launch of the Casper Testnet on the last day of 2017, excitement in the Ethereum community is gathering the momentum of a runaway freight train. Still, while everyone revs up for a Casper-supercharged world computer, its release date is as elusive and mysterious as a poltergeist, with Ethereums developers loosely announcing it will occur some time this year. But before we get ahead of ourselves, lets break it down and have a look at Ethereums ghostly counterpart. Casper is a hard fork of Ethereum that solves many of the underlying issues holding the cryptocurrency back from mass adoption. At its core, Casper aims to enhance Ethereums security and reduce the risk of centralization, while eliminating the financially and environmentally unsustainable practice of mining. Casper marks a shift to the Proof-of-Stake protocol, but it will start out as a hybrid with the current Proof-of-Work . In practice, this means that the PoS will only be used every 100th block. All details are exceedingly vague at this stage, but the eventual outcome of Casper could result in three versions (forks) of Ethereum: PoS, PoW, and Classic. As we count down to the Casper fork, Ethereum miners are starting to bite their nails. Why? It is highly probable that the transition to PoS will mark the end of Ethereum mining, as ETHs developers plan to detonate a difficulty bomb on the PoW fork when they release Casper. The bomb is a piece of Ethereum code that by design makes Continue reading >>
What Is The Ethereum Ice Age?
Ethereum is currently a Proof of Work cryptocurrency, meaning that computational power is needed, not only to produce new coinsbut to process transactions and to keep the entire ecosystem moving. In order to ensure the system is scalable and decentralized, Ethereum plans to move to a Proof of Stake protocol where a lot lesscomputational power is required and miners can earn rewards according to their balance. The Ethereum Foundation is still working on the Proof of Stake protocol, Casper. Since Casper is not finished and it's not contained in the release version of Ethereum a hard-fork might be required to implement this change. An hard-fork creates an incompatibility between the previous version and the latest, there is always the possibility to create a "split" that result in two blockchains, like Ethereum Classic , did on the 1920000th block, after the hard-fork to refund The DAO token holders took place . In order to ensure such event doesn't take place (although it did already) and to give themselves a time-frame to finish Casper (making the community aware of the introduction of a hard fork within that time-frame), a Difficulty Time Bomb, is also known as Ice Age was implemented in Ethereum. The Ethereum Ice Age is a difficulty adjustment scheme that was put in place to ensure that everyone has an incentive to move to the new blockchain once the hard-fork is implemented. It was introduced on the 7th of September (2015-09-07), about 11 months ago and it's programmed to raise difficulty exponentially. It's impossible for miners to keep up with the increase of difficulty which would raise block time and it would make the blockchain freeze, hencethe name Ice Age. The key part is the calculation for the increase in difficulty is Math.pow(2,Math.floor(block.number / 10 Continue reading >>
Ethereum Launches Casper Testnet, Paving The Way For Proof-of-stake
Ethereum Launches Casper Testnet, Paving the Way for Proof-of-Stake Ethereum developers have launched an alpha test network (testnet) for Casper, paving the way for the cryptocurrency to eventually transition to a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus algorithm. Like bitcoin, ethereum currently operates on a proof-of-work (PoW) consensus algorithm, meaning that the network is secured and new currency units are issued through mining, whereby participants solve cryptographic puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks. However, PoW has attracted criticism over the years, both for its tendency to centralize mining hardware into a few pools and for the amount of electricity it consumes. Ethereum aims to address these problems by transitioning to Casper , a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus algorithm. Under Casper, participants can become validators by locking up or staking ether. Validators will take turns proposing and voting on blocks, and both the weight of their votes and the size of their rewards will hinge on the size of their stakes. According to developers, moving to Casper will greatly reduce the amount of electricity wasted through PoW mining. In addition to limiting its environmental impact, PoS will allow ethereum to dramatically reduce its rate of currency inflation since validators will have much lower overhead and will thus require smaller rewards to incentivize them to continue to serve as validators. Moreover, PoS will also reduce the incentive that validators have to centralize their influence. With decreased centralization comes increased security and, importantly, resistance to dreaded 51 percent attacks. Ethereum is not the first project to attempt to integrate a PoS consensus algorithm. However, most previous PoS implementations have been criticized Continue reading >>
Lightning Network For Ethereum? Eth Surges As Casper Approaches
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Update On The Ethereums Casper Pos Hybrid And Sharding
All seems to be going well for development at the worlds second most valuable cryptocurrency. The team at the Ethereum foundation is actively busy testing the latest featured of the Metropolis upgrade . One of the most important of these features was the movement from Proof-of-Work mining to Proof-of-Stake. Ethereum has been working on a hybrid between the two solutions that has aptly been named the Casper POS protocol . This has been on the Testnet and has been running for a few weeks already. According to Vitalik Buterin who is the founder of Ethereum: The Casper aspect of Casper, where two conflicting blocks should not be able to be finalized, seems to actually happen running and the network agrees all along what the final chain is Although the Casper Hybrid has been running in the testing environment, it has not been without a few problems. Apparently the nodes losing their connection and get floods of new connections so the developers have had to institute clever hacks to get around this. This means that the Ethereum developers will have to complete quite a bit more testing before there can be any sort of live implementation of the protocol. However, according to Buterin it seems as if the most important part of the upgrade is indeed effective. This is the manner in which conflicting nodes are able to reach a network consensus. With the minor reconnection issues corrected, it is entirely possible that we could see Casper hitting the Mainnet by the middle of the year. There has also been quite a lot of work that has been done on the sharding side. This is arguably one of the most important updates to blockchain technology ever as it aims to markedly decrease transaction times. Blockchain sharding uses parallelisation of blockchains. This will eliminate the ineffici Continue reading >>
When Will Ethereum Mining End?
In August of this year (2017), Vitalik Buterin, creator of Ethereum , released the implementation guide for the first version of Casper. As a hybrid proof-of-stake (PoS)/proof-of-work (PoW) algorithm, Casper v1 is going to decrease (and eventually end) the profitability for Ethereum miners . The release date is estimated to be sometime in 2018 as part of the Constantinople hard fork and theres a lot to learn before this happens: Casper is a PoS algorithm thats projected to be released on the Ethereum network sometime in 2018. Beginning as a hybrid with the current PoW algorithm, the first version of Casper will only use a PoS consensus to validate every 100th block, called checkpoints. Once a checkpoint is validated, theres no way to go back and use a chain without it. Even if 99% of miners support a chain that doesnt include a checkpoint block, all clients in the network will still continue to use the one with the checkpoints. This removes a lot of the power that miners currently have. The Ethereum community hypothesizes that the switch to PoS will help with the scaling issues that the network is currently facing. The algorithm should enable new blocks to be created more quickly while allowing the network to scale more efficiently through sharding. Sharding is a horizontal partitioning of a large database into smaller and more easily managed parts. Beyond that, PoS algorithms also use less energy to run the network, reduce centralization, and make 51% attacks more difficult. With the upcoming hard fork, there could potentially be three forks of Ethereum: And, if youre a miner, you may be thinking, No big deal, Ill just continue to mine and give support to the Ethereum PoW fork. The Ethereum developers have stated that theyll be releasing what they call the difficulty Continue reading >>
How Ethereum's Casper Protocol Will Address Problems With Proof Of Stake
How Ethereum's Casper Protocol Will Address Problems With Proof Of Stake Bitcoin and Ethereum both currently operate under a Proof of Work protocol. Ethereum is moving from Proof of Work towards Proof of Stake under its new Casper protocol. Despite its many benefits, the drawbacks of Proof of Stake have prevented its widespread adoption. Casper aims to solve Proof of Stake's drawbacks, resulting in an improvement over existing Proof of Work and Proof of Stake protocols. The updated protocol improves the long term outlook of Ethereum's valuation. An overarching problem that cryptocurrencies must address is called the Byzantine General's Problem . The Byzantine General's Problem essentially simplifies down to: How do you prevent data from being corrupted or falsified in a network where there are nodes that have economic incentive to lie about the data? In application to cryptocurrency, the problem boils down to preventing attackers from lying about a coin's ledger, given the economic incentive of doing so. We need a way to form consensus on the ledger because anyone can create a block, while we only want a unique chain, so we want a way to decide which block to trust. The two main schools of thought to solving the Byzantine General's Problem are Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS). Explicitly, a "proof of work" is a piece of data which is difficult (costly, time-consuming) to produce but easy for others to verify and which satisfies certain requirements. Producing a proof of work can be a random process with low probability so that a lot of trial and error is required on average before a valid proof of work is generated. Currently Bitcoin, Ethereum, and the vast majority of other cryptocurrencies utilize some form of proof of work. PoW (referring to the protocol Continue reading >>
Vitalik Buterin Says I Will Leave Ethereum If Immaturity Continues
Could Ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin pull a Satoshi Nakamoto by disappearing into the ether as it were? Buterin just admitted its a possibility, if rampant immaturity and meme mania continue to dominate the ETH community as opposed to a genuine focus on technological benefits to society at large. Join the Bitsonline Telegram channel to get the latest Bitcoin, cryptocurrency, and tech news updates: Vitalik Buterin: Heed These Words of Warning Buterin created Ethereum as a platform upon which developers could build a better future for the world in the coming years. But the 23-year-old Russian-Canadian programmer is growing increasingly frustrated with the pettiness he sees sloshing around the cryptocurrency ecosystem in general. Buterin began airing out this frustration by retweeting a doomfully predictive tweet from early Bitcoin evangelist and software developer Amir Taaki, who called Bitcoin a failed project. Taaki wrote: Bitcoin is turning into a failed project. The seeds of its destruction among the debris of a community blinded by numerical price increases, and imminent divine reclamation. One day you will all understand my words but it will be too late, the ship would have sailed. Amir Taaki (@AmirPolyteknik) December 26, 2017 Adding to Taakis points, Buterin laid out his own: *All* crypto communities, ethereum included, should heed these words of warning. Need to differentiate between getting hundreds of billions of dollars of digital paper wealth sloshing around and actually achieving something meaningful for society. *All* crypto communities, ethereum included, should heed these words of warning. Need to differentiate between getting hundreds of billions of dollars of digital paper wealth sloshing around and actually achieving something meaningful for society Continue reading >>
When A Proof Of Stake Comes Out, Will Ethereum Go Up In Price?
When a proof of stake comes out, will Ethereum go up in price? Originally Answered: How will proof of stake affect the price of ETH? I don't think the price will rise due to the restricted supply of coins. I think the price will rise due to the platform reaching another major milestone. It is pretty difficult to think of a scenario where a well functioning POS system doesn't affect the price positively. The last milestone, Homestead, brought a significant rise in price as Ethereum transitioned out of early testing phase and the team proved that they could build a reliable platform. With PoS there will be less of a need to sell for covering electricity/hardware costs. Ether earned from staking will probably be added to the stake rather than sold. As mining is expensive as mentioned above, you cant blame miners for selling the coins they earn which causes price volatility. The reason why a PoS would give you price stability is because it gives the person more incentive to keep the coin than to sell. Ethereum is also designed to actually be able to LOSE ETH coins after PoS. Meaning instead of the supply constantly appreciating, it could depreciate, hence driving value up even more. PoS has always been a stated goal of the Ethereum Foundation and would be a major accomplishment. No one has ever been able to pull off a decent implementation of PoS before which avoids all the pitfalls and is actually an improvement over PoW. As PoW uses massive amounts of computing power, it also comes with a huge toll on the electricity bill, not to mention the deterioration of your mining computer. With PoS, you would be able to stake using something as simple as a Raspberry Pi (USD 35), which only uses a very small amount of electricity would enable you to stake more coins compared to a s Continue reading >>