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Ethereum Nonce

Ethereum's Memory Hardness Explained, And The Road To Mining It With Custom Hardware

Ethereum's Memory Hardness Explained, And The Road To Mining It With Custom Hardware

Ethereum's Memory Hardness Explained, and the Road to Mining It with Custom Hardware Ethereum's Memory Hardness Explained, and the Road to Mining It with Custom Hardware As crypto-currencies increase in value, so does the payout from mining them. This creates a substantial economic incentive to not only deploy more mining hardware, but to also develop faster, more efficient mining hardware. We saw this with bitcoin: Mining migrated from CPUs, to GPUs, to FPGAs, and now to ASICs [1] . Today, Ethereum GPU mining is the norm, but the miners havent made the jump to running the ethereum mining/hashing algorithm, ethash, on specialized hardware solutions (e.g. FPGAs and ASICs). Plenty of articles and forums attribute this to ethash being memory hard (a.k.a. memory bound ). Here, Ill walk through where Ethereum minings memory hardness comes from, and what the next generation of custom ethereum mining hardware might look like. For this article, Im assuming readers have a general understanding of standard computer technologies and crypto-currency blockchains, but dont need to be programming or mining experts. For a more technical, programmer-oriented explanation of Ethereums mining algorithm, called ethash, please refer to the ethash page on the ethereum wiki . For a less technical introduction to blockchains, visit the blockgeeks blockchain guide here . In proof-of-work mining, miners are tasked with generating a short binary blob (called a nonce), which, when hashed, produces an output value less than a pre-specified target threshold. Due to the cryptographic nature of each currencys hash function, there is no way to reverse-engineer or back-compute a nonce that satisfies the target threshold limit. Instead, miners must guess-and-check hashes as fast as possible, and hope the Continue reading >>

Ethereum Block Nonce - Ethereum Eth Commands, Bitcoin Trading Platform Uk, Ethereum Fog Foundation

Ethereum Block Nonce - Ethereum Eth Commands, Bitcoin Trading Platform Uk, Ethereum Fog Foundation

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Introduction | Ethereum Frontier Guide

Introduction | Ethereum Frontier Guide

The word mining originates in the context of the gold analogy for crypto currencies. Gold or precious metals are scarce, so are digital tokens, and the only way to increase the total volume is through mining it. This is appropriate to the extent that in Ethereum too, the only mode of issuance post launch is via the mining. Unlike these examples however, mining is also the way to secure the network by creating, verifying, publishing and propagating blocks in the blockchain. Mining Ether = Securing the network = verify computation Ethereum Frontier like all blockchain technologies uses an incentive-driven model of security. Consensus is based on choosing the block with the highest total difficulty. Miners produce blocks which the others check for validity. Among other well-formedness criteria, a block is only valid if it contains proof of work (PoW) of a given difficulty. Note that in Ethereum 1.1, this is likely gonna be replaced by a proof of stake model. [The proof of work algorithm used is called Ethash (a modified version of Dagger-Hashimoto involves finding a nonce input to the algorithm so that the result is below a certain threshold depending on the difficulty. The point in PoW algorithms is that there is no better strategy to find such a nonce than enumerating the possibilities while verification of a solution is trivial and cheap. If outputs have a uniform distribution, then we can guarantee that on average the time needed to find a nonce depends on the difficulty threshold, making it possible to control the time of finding a new block just by manipulating difficulty. The difficulty dynamically adjusts so that on average one block is produced by the entire network every 12 seconds (ie., 12 s block time). This heartbeat basically punctuates the synchronisation o Continue reading >>

Making Sense Of Ethereum Nonce(sense)

Making Sense Of Ethereum Nonce(sense)

Experienced Software Engineer. Senior Android Engineer @ Kik We expect users to send multiple Kin transactions in a row. Were not expecting users to understand blockchain and monitor their transactions manually. When testing our Kin wallet SDK ( Android and iOS ), we witnessed a problem sending multiple transactions one after the other. In a specific period of time, all of our transactions got stuck we couldnt see that they were pending, and eventually they were cancelled. As it turns out, transactions had the same nonce for multiple transactions. Proof of work nonce: A meaningless value in a block that can be adjusted in order to try to satisfy the proof of work condition. This is the essence of mining. This value makes satisfying proof of work hard computational work that depends on luck. Account nonce: A transaction counter in each account that prevents replay attacks . For example, a transaction sending 20 coins from A to B can be repeated over and over by B to continually drain As balance. Our problem is related to the latter nonce the transaction counter. When making a transaction in Ethereum, a consecutive number should be attached to each transaction on the same account. Each node will process transactions from a specific account in a strict order according to the value of its nonce. Therefore, failing to increment this value correctly can result in different kinds of errors. For instance, lets say the latest transaction nonce was 121: Reusing nonce: if we send a new transaction for the same account with a nonce of either 121 or below, the node will reject it. Gaps: if we send a new transaction with a nonce of either 123 or higher, the transaction will not be processed until this gap is closed, i.e. until a transaction with nonce 122 has been processed. As ment Continue reading >>

Glossary Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

Glossary Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

See also: Computational infeasibility: a process is computationally infeasible if it would take an impracticably long time (eg. billions of years) to do it for anyone who might conceivably have an interest in carrying it out. Generally, 280 computational steps is considered the lower bound for computational infeasibility. Hash: a hash function (or hash algorithm) is a process by which a piece of data of arbitrary size (could be anything; a piece of text, a picture, or even a list of other hashes) is processed into a small piece of data (usually 32 bytes) which looks completely random, and from which no meaningful data can be recovered about the document, but which has the important property that the result of hashing one particular document is always the same. Additionally, it is crucially important that it is computationally infeasible to find two documents that have the same hash. Generally, changing even one letter in a document will completely randomize the hash; for example, the SHA3 hash of "Saturday" is c38bbc8e93c09f6ed3fe39b5135da91ad1a99d397ef16948606cdcbd14929f9d, whereas the SHA3 hash of Caturday is b4013c0eed56d5a0b448b02ec1d10dd18c1b3832068fbbdc65b98fa9b14b6dbf. Hashes are usually used as a way of creating a globally agreed-upon identifier for a particular document that cannot be forged. Encryption: encryption is a process by which a document (plaintext) is combined with a shorter string of data, called a key (eg. c85ef7d79691fe79573b1a7064c19c1a9819ebdbd1faaab1a8ec92344438aaf4), to produce an output (ciphertext) which can be "decrypted" back into the original plaintext by someone else who has the key, but which is incomprehensible and computationally infeasible to decrypt for anyone who does not have the key. Public key encryption: a special kind of encr Continue reading >>

Neat Ethereum Tricks. The Transaction Nonce.

Neat Ethereum Tricks. The Transaction Nonce.

Neat Ethereum tricks. The transaction nonce. Neat Ethereum tricks. The transaction nonce. Whenever a user deploys a new contract to the Ethereum blockchain, that contract receives its own Ethereum address. User 0x0a Deploying contract Reclaim > contract address 0x0a1 As it turns out, these contract addresses ARE NOT a random address. The address of every contract well deploy depends on two parameters: The Ethereum address from which the contract is being deployed. The nonce of the transaction! Not to be confused with the nonce used in the mining process. In Ethereum, every transaction have a nonce associated with it. The nonce is one of the tools that helps to index and process transactions in the right order. The nonce itself IS NOT a random value. It grows by scalar one with every transaction we transmit to the blockchain. For the Ethereum test-net, the nonce begins with 0x100000 (1048576). The new contract address can be computed in the following way: def mk_contract_address(sender, nonce): return sha3(rlp.encode([normalize_address(sender), nonce]))[12:] sha3 and rlp and encryption functions. The only two variables are the address of the sender and the nonce (basically the transaction number for that particular address). Ive installed the pyethereum library on ubuntu 16.04. and changed dir to directory cd /pyethereum/ethereum . There I launched python 2.7.12 and imported the utils. $ cd/pyethereum/ethereum$ python>> import utils Than I used the functionutils.mk_contract_address(sender address, nonce) to get the addresses of my future contracts. For the sender address: 0x43CCFE27708381164Fd079556C7Ef158A6d409DcI can check for what the address of the next deployed contract will be. nonce1 =1048576 =>; 0x7930935a32ee489bd102002c2598602ff79c24fdnonce2 =1048577 =>; 0x0d7 Continue reading >>

Convert Bitcoin To Cad - Bitcoin Gold Block Time, Ethereum Nonce Transaction, Bitcoin Price Falling Prediction

Convert Bitcoin To Cad - Bitcoin Gold Block Time, Ethereum Nonce Transaction, Bitcoin Price Falling Prediction

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The Question Of Mining

The Question Of Mining

There are a lot of interesting changes to the Ethereum protocol that are in the works, which will hopefully improve the power of the system, add further features such as light-client friendliness and a higher degree of extensibility, and make Ethereum contracts easier to code. Theoretically, none of these changes are necessary; the Ethereum protocol is fine as it stands today, and can theoretically be released as is once the clients are further built up somewhat; rather, the changes are there to make Ethereum better. However, there is one design objective of Ethereum where the light at the end of the tunnel is a bit further: mining decentralization. Although we always have the backup option of simply sticking with Dagger, Slasher or SHA3, it is entirely unclear that any of those algorithms can truly remain decentralized and mining pool and ASIC-resistant in the long term (Slasher is guaranteed to be decentralized because its proof of stake, but has its own moderately problematic flaws). The basic idea behind the mining algorithm that we want to use is essentially in place; however, as in many cases, the devil is in the details. This version of the Ethereum mining algorithm is a Hashcash-based implementation, similar to Bitcoins SHA256 and Litecoins scrypt; the idea is for the miner to repeatedly compute a pseudorandom function on a block and a nonce, trying a different nonce each time, until eventually some nonce produces a result which starts with a large number of zeroes. The only room to innovate in this kind of implementation is changing the function; in Ethereums case, the rough outline of the function, taking the blockchain state (defined as the header, the current state tree, and all the data of the last 16 blocks), is as follows: Let h[i] = sha3(sha3(block_head Continue reading >>

Ethereum Transaction : What Is Nonce ?

Ethereum Transaction : What Is Nonce ?

In Ethereum, every transaction has a nonce. The nonce is the order of transactions sent from a given address. Each time you send a transaction, the nonce increases by 1. There are rules about what transactions are valid transactions and the nonce is used to enforce some of these rules. Specifically: Transactions must be in Order: You cannot have a transaction with a nonce of 1 mined before one with a nonce of 0. No Skipping! You cannot have a transaction with a nonce of 2 mined if you have not already sent transactions with a nonce of 1 and 0. This field prevents double-spends as the nonce is the order the transactions go in. In order for a double-spend to be "successful", you typically... Collect something in return from this first transaction Quickly send another transaction with a high gas price Have this second transaction mined first, therefore invalidating the first transaction. This is why exchanges wait for you to have a certain number of confirmations before allowing you to trade freshly-deposited funds. In Ethereum, this method of "double-spending" is not possible because each transaction has a nonce included with it. Even if you attempt to do the above, it will not work as the second transaction (nonce of 3) cannot be mined before the first transaction (nonce of 2). Continue reading >>

Transactions - What Is Nonce In Ethereum? How Does It Prevent Double Spending? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Transactions - What Is Nonce In Ethereum? How Does It Prevent Double Spending? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

What is nonce in Ethereum? How does it prevent double spending? recently I got fascinated by blockchain, and started learning Ethereum. I came across Concept of the nonce in Ethereum. After researching I found out that nonce is used for two purposes a. To keep transaction related to an account in order. i.e if there is a transaction with nonce 3 related to some account in the txpool and some transaction will nonce 4 arrived then that transaction won't be mined until and unless transaction with nonce 3 is mined. But I have some question that I am not able to find? i) nonce value is related to an address, right? So two address can have same nonce at the same time i.e. account with Address A can have the latest nonce 2 similarly account with address B can also have latest nonce 2. ii) Do all nodes in the network will have same latest nonce value for all accounts available in the network? That is, if there are three accounts and 2 miners then and nonce value for three accounts are 1,2,3 respectively, then both miner will have the same nonce. b) how is nonce used to prevent a double spend? If you refer the Glossary at Github Wiki , there are two types of nonce used in Ethereum. Account nonce - It's simply the transaction count of an account Proof of work nonce - The random value in a block that was used get the proof of work satisfied (depending on the difficulty at the time). Here you are referring to the account nonce, which is the transaction count from that account. i)Nounce value is related to an address right?So two address can have same nounce at the same time i.e account with Address A can have latest nounce 2 similarly account with address B can also have latest nounce 2. Yes as explained above, it's the transaction count and hence it's related to the account. And Continue reading >>

Ethereum Mining Guide: 2018 Edition

Ethereum Mining Guide: 2018 Edition

The following article was originally published on Reliablecoins website . Mining Ethereum is sorting through data blocks from peer distributed cryptocurrency networks to find information that can be used to solve challenging math problems. Successful Ethereum miners can earn crypotocurrency in in exchange for their work. Ethereum mining requires a lot of intensive computation work, time and lots of processing power. Ethereum is a platform with several applications that are helpful for users trying to do a variety of everyday tasks very simply. Results generated through digital mining is referred to as proof of work system. The process of getting cryptocurrency tokens of Ethereum from blockchain networks requires having computers programmed to run a hashing algorithm non-stop. The hashing algorithm condenses a large amount of information into fixed length string of numbers and letters. Ethash, the hashing algorithm employed by Ethereum, hashes metadata drawn from the most recently available using a nonce. This binary number is able to create a unique hash value. With every new block contained in the blockchain, a new target hash value is set by the network. All miners on that network attempt to guess which nonce will result in the desired value. The miner that discovers the right nonce is awarded the block and receives 5 ether. The process begins again following a cycle which occurs about every 12 seconds. Ethereum Mining Rigs:Dedicated machines can mine ethereum much faster than average computers, but youll need a little bit of help building an efficient mining workhorse like this one. For people interested in doing this type of mining, it is important to get an Ethereum mining how to guide that will walk through every possible step, explain the process in detail and m Continue reading >>

What Does Each Genesis.json Parameter Mean?

What Does Each Genesis.json Parameter Mean?

nonce A 64-bit hash, which proves, combined with the mix-hash, that a sufficient amount of computation has been carried out on this block: the Proof-of-Work (PoW). The combination of nonce and mixhash must satisfy a mathematical condition described in the Yellowpaper, 4.3.4. Block Header Validity, (44), and allows to verify that the Block has really been cryptographically mined and thus, from this aspect, is valid. The nonce is the cryptographically secure mining proof-of-work that proves beyond reasonable doubt that a particular amount of computation has been expended in the determination of this token value. (Yellowpager, 11.5. Mining Proof-of-Work). timestamp A scalar value equal to the reasonable output of Unix time() function at this block inception. This mechanism enforces a homeostasis in terms of the time between blocks. A smaller period between the last two blocks results in an increase in the difficulty level and thus additional computation required to find the next valid block. If the period is too large, the difficulty, and expected time to the next block, is reduced. The timestamp also allows verifying the order of block within the chain (Yellowpaper, 4.3.4. (43)). mixhash A 256-bit hash which proves, combined with the nonce, that a sufficient amount of computation has been carried out on this block: the Proof-of-Work (PoW). The combination of nonce and mixhash must satisfy a mathematical condition described in the Yellowpaper, 4.3.4. Block Header Validity, (44). It allows to verify that the Block has really been cryptographically mined, thus, from this aspect, is valid. difficulty A scalar value corresponding to the difficulty level applied during the nonce discovering of this block. It defines the mining Target, which can be calculated from the previous Continue reading >>

What You Should Know About Nonces And Difficulty

What You Should Know About Nonces And Difficulty

This is the sixth in a series of posts where we discuss the core concepts behind the Blockchain, Bitcoin and Ethereum. At Verify, were building a reputation protocol on the Ethereum blockchain and are sharing these posts in an effort to share our knowledge with the wider crypto community. In Ethereum ABC , we introduced the accounts fields. We mentioned the nonce field, but never explained it. This post will dive into that. Every transaction in Ethereum has what is called a nonce. We first saw the word nonce in our talk about Bitcoins mining , used to find proof of work; is it the same nonce in Ethereum transactions? Let us look into this question. In Ethereum there is a nonce for the block, which is similar to what we have been introduced to in Bitcoin. There is also a noncefor every transaction (in external accounts). It is the number of transactions made or sent from a given address. Whenever you send a transaction the nonce is incremented by one. The reason for a nonce in a transaction is to ensure: You may have already guessed why this is important. Well, you guessed right: it is to prevent double-spends. Consider an example where: you send out a transaction with normal GASPRICE, when it is waiting to be added by some miner you send out another transaction with high GASPRICE to have the second mined before the first, making the first transaction invalid. That is why you have a nonce in Ethereum transactions, double-spends can never happen. A transaction of nonce 2 can never be mined before a transaction of nonce 1. Also note that a nonce cant be skipped. Meaning if you sent out a transaction with nonce 3 without sending nonce 2 that cant work. Nonces need to be sequential and in order, no skips. What about contracts? They are a type of account so they too have a n Continue reading >>

Ethereum - Blockcypher Account Nonce Too Far Behind Transaction - Stack Overflow

Ethereum - Blockcypher Account Nonce Too Far Behind Transaction - Stack Overflow

BlockCypher Account nonce too far behind transaction I'm currently working on a DApp that involves sending transactions. I'm using BlockCypher to send the transactions since the API is fairly straight forward. One issue I'm finding is that when I run my API locally and call the send transaction method I receive the transaction hash and I'm able to check it on Etherscan and the transaction does goes ahead. The next step of course is deploying the API and then testing it, when I do this and hit the API endpoint with the exact same parameters. I receive the following error: Error validating transaction: Account nonce 68 too far behind transaction 0xad50ba948fc3fe266fb19c4aa3f3a81928ff114b3fadf597a620ec86eada7cf0:. It doesn't appear that the transaction in question even exists (from searching for it on Etherscan) and so it seems that my Nonce for this account is out of sync with what it should be. Is that even possible? And what is the way to overcome this issue? As it turns out, what I've found out is that the account should have a nonce of over 200. Here is how I construct the transaction: var count = web3.eth.getTransactionCount(FROM_ADDR); //console.log(count); //Does actually return over 200 both locally and on the server. var data = myContractInstance.transfer.getData(to, value, { from: FROM_ADDR }); var gasPrice = "2000000000"; var gasLimit = 90000; var rawTransaction = { "from": FROM_ADDR, "nonce": web3.toHex(count), "gasPrice": web3.toHex(gasPrice), "gasLimit": web3.toHex(gasLimit), "to": to, "data": data, "chainId": 0x01 }; console.log(rawTransaction); //The nonce is still over 200 (Though in hex obviously). Strangely, when I changed the address the transactions are correctly sending again on both my local machine and the server. I've left a email for BlockCypher Continue reading >>

Transactions Web3j 3.3.1 Documentation

Transactions Web3j 3.3.1 Documentation

Mining it yourself in a private environment, or the public test environment (testnet) is verystraight forwards. However, in the main live environment (mainnet) it requires significantdedicated GPU time which is not likely to be feasible unless you already have a gaming PC withmultiple dedicated GPUs. If you wish to use a private environment, there is some guidance on the Homestead documentation . To purchase Ether you will need to go via an exchange. As different regions have differentexchanges, you will need to research the best location for this yourself. The Homestead documentation contains a number of exchanges which is a good place to start. There are a number of dedicated test networks in Ethereum, which are supported by various clients. For development, its recommended you use the Rinkeby or Kovan test networks. This is because theyuse a Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus mechanism, ensuring transactions and blocks are created ina consistent and timely manner. The Ropsten testnet, although closest to the Mainnet as it usesProof of Work (PoW) consensus, has been subject to attacks in the past and tends to be moreproblematic for developers. You can request Ether for the Rinkeby testnet via the Rinkeby Crypto Faucet, available at . Details of how to request Ether for the Kovan testnet are available here . If you need some Ether on the Ropsten testnet to get started, please post a message with yourwallet address to the web3j Gitter channel and you will besent some. In the Ethereum test environment (testnet), the mining difficulty is set lower then the mainenvironment (mainnet). This means that you can mine new Ether with a regular CPU, such as yourlaptop. What youll need to do is run an Ethereum client such as Geth or Parity to start buildingup reserves. Further ins Continue reading >>

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