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Ethereum Light Node

Full Node - Bitcoin Wiki

Full Node - Bitcoin Wiki

Any computer that connects to the Bitcoin network is called a node. Nodes that fully enforce all of the rules of Bitcoin are called full nodes. Most nodes on the network are lightweight nodes instead of full nodes, but full nodes form the backbone of the network. The latest version of bitcoin full node software can be found on the bitcoin.org site . Full nodes download every block and transaction and check them against Bitcoin's core consensus rules. Here are examples of consensus rules, though there are many more: Blocks may only create a certain number of bitcoins. (Currently 12.5 BTC per block.) Transactions must have correct signatures for the bitcoins being spent. Transactions/blocks must be in the correct data format. Within a single block chain , a transaction output cannot be double-spent. If a transaction or block violates the consensus rules, then it is absolutely rejected, even if every other node on the network thinks that it is valid. This is one of the most important characteristics of full nodes: they do what's right no matter what. For full nodes, miners actually have fairly limited power: they can only reorder or remove transactions, and only by expending a lot of computing power. A powerful miner is able to execute some serious attacks , but because full nodes rely on miners only for a few things, miners could not completely change or destroy Bitcoin. Nodes that have different consensus rules are actually using two different networks/currencies. Changing any of the consensus rules requires a hard fork , which can be thought of as creating a new currency and having everyone move to it. Consensus rules are different from policy rules, which specify how a node or miner prioritizes or discourages certain things. Policy rules can be changed freely, and dif Continue reading >>

Light Client Parity Tech Documentation

Light Client Parity Tech Documentation

The first experimental light client was released with 1.7. To try out the light mode, simply run parity --light. --light Experimental: run in light client mode. Light clients synchronize a bare minimum of data and fetch necessary data on-demand from the network. Much lower in storage, potentially higher in bandwidth. Has no effect with subcommands (default: false). Parity light client version >=1.11 will start the synchronization from a hardcoded block number if no related database was found on the device (e.g. the light client was launched for the first time or the database was deleted). This allows to reach the top of the chain in a matter of seconds. Use the flag --no-hardcoded-sync to prevent this behavior and sync all headers starting from the genesis block. Read more about the hardcodedSync parameters in the FAQ - How to generate a new hardcoded sync block for Parity light client and chain specifications wiki pages. By default, each Parity node serves state data for connected light peers. To disable this, use the --no-serve-light command-line flag. --no-serve-light Disable serving of light peers. (default: false) Continue reading >>

Casper, Plasma And Sharding: A Light On Ethereum's Scaling Spectrum

Casper, Plasma And Sharding: A Light On Ethereum's Scaling Spectrum

Casper, plasma and sharding: A light on Ethereum's scaling spectrum Andrew Gillick , 03 May 2018 - Asic , Ether , Ethereum Several solutions are being worked on to scale out the Ethereum blockchain: sharding, Plasma and the Casper protocol being the most prominent. Hard forks and ASIC chips are also looming threats to the network's current Ethash mining protocol. So what does all this mean, in English please? Ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin recently teased a proof of concept scalability solution on Twitter: sharding the blockchains ledger into smaller blocks that are spread across the networks nodes. Sharding the network has been talked about for a while as a way to scale out the blockchain and was suggested in the Plasma whitepaper authored by Buterin and Joseph Poon, co-creator of the Lightning Network, back in August last year. Plasma is a separate scaling solution also being worked - that is a framework for smart contracts on which Dapps can run on their own blockchains instead running on the public (consensus) chain, analogous to Bitcoins Lightning. Ethereum has been trying to make the conversion from a proof-of-work (PoW) consensus to a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus with the Casper protocol, which is a hybrid PoW/PoS. As far back as 2015 , developers tried to incentivize miners to switch to PoS by ramping up the difficulty rate to mine through PoW, which lead to far higher costs for miners and negated their rewards. Casper is in the second stage of testing and in the meantime Buterin is focused on sharding to introduce quadratic scaling . Buterin said : The primary goal is massive scalability improvement. Each one of the shards (12 in that simulation, likely 100 live) will have as high capacity (and likely more) than the current existing Ethereum chain. "The li Continue reading >>

Ethereum Light Client Withreact

Ethereum Light Client Withreact

I'm a serial entrepreneur. I enjoy AI, UI, and blockchain. I like history and reading too. This is a basic way to setup Ethereum light client with private network. I will talk about 3 things. Light client is an ethereum client which keeps only keys. You can check accurate definition here . Traditionally in blockchain world, everyone keep same databases. Thats why we can trust entire system. I mean we can trust at least our own data. But light client dont keep data. But problem is keeping entire database is tough. When I created an ethereum wallet first time I needed to download entire ethereum database. That syncing process took almost whole day and the file size was huge. A web site said the storage size was more than 75GB in 2016 and was growing 1GB per month. This is insane and only blockchain enthusiast can keep it. You can not run ethereum full node on mobile devices. Or normal users dont want to keep full node on their devicesanyway. Thats why we need light clients. With light clients, user dont need to keep ethereum node. They can just enjoy decentralized services. This is pretty cool. I experimented light client with my private network. Because we can develop dapps for mobile, this has a huge potential. You need at least 1 ethereum node. Since light client dont run ethereum node, we need to run nodes for clients to connect. I installed geth which is Go implementation of the Ethereum protocol. I think geth is most popular. You can check how to install geth here . Once you install geth, you can setup private network. First, you have to prepare genesis block. You can easily create new genesis block with a command line tool called puppeth which is installed with geth. Heres my example. I choose proof of authorization as my consensus algorithm because I dont want he Continue reading >>

Light Client Protocol

Light Client Protocol

The purpose of the light client protocol is to allow users in low-capacity environments (embedded smart property environments, smartphones, browser extensions, some desktops, etc) to maintain a high-security assurance about the current state of some particular part of the Ethereum state or verify the execution of a transaction. Although full security is only possible for a full node, the light client protocol allows light nodes processing about 1KB of data per 2 minutes to receive data from the network about the parts of the state that are of concern to them, and be sure that the data is correct provided that the majority of miners are correctly following the protocol, and perhaps even only provided that at least one honest verifying full node exists. All substantial quantities of data in Ethereum are stored in a data structure known as the Patricia Merkle tree , a tree structure where each node in the tree is the hash of its children. Each set of key/value pairs maps to a unique root hash, and only a small subset of nodes is needed to prove that a particular key/value combination is in the tree corresponding to a particular root hash. The size complexity of a Merkle proof scales linearly with the height of a tree; because each child in a tree has a particular number of children (in our case, up to 17), this means that the size complexity of a Merkle proof is logarithmic in the quantity of data stored. This means that, even if the entire state tree is a few gigabytes in size, if a node receives a state root from a trusted source that node has the ability to know with full certainty the validity of any information with the tree by only downloading a few kilobytes of data in a proof. An SPV proof of a node in a Patricia tree simply consists of the complete subset of tree Continue reading >>

Introduction Of The Light Client For Dapp Developers

Introduction Of The Light Client For Dapp Developers

Introduction of the Light Client for DApp developers The first version of the Light Ethereum Subprotocol (LES/1) and its implementation in Geth are still in an experimental stage, but they are expected to reach a more mature state in a few months where the basic functions will perform reliably.The light client has been designed to function more or less the same as a full client, but the lightness has some inherent limitations that DApp developers should understand and consider when designing their applications. In most cases a properly designed application can work even without knowing what kind of client it is connected to, but we are looking into adding an API extension for communicating different client capabilities in order to provide a future proof interface. While minor details of LES are still being worked out, I believe it is time to clarify the most important differences between full and light clients from the application developer perspective. Light clients do not receive pending transactions from the main Ethereum network. The only pending transactions a light client knows about are the ones that have been created and sent from that client. When a light client sends a transaction, it starts downloading entire blocks until it finds the sent transaction in one of theblocks, then removes it from the pending transaction set. Currently you can only find locally created transactions by hash. These transactions and their inclusion blocks are stored in the database and can be found by hash later. Finding other transactions is a bit trickier. It is possible (though not implemented as of yet) to download them froma server and verify the transaction isactually included in the block if the server found it. Unfortunately, if the server says that the transaction does not Continue reading >>

How To Interact With The Ethereum Network On Mobile Environment

How To Interact With The Ethereum Network On Mobile Environment

Ethereum-based slot machine platform for both MAKE&PLAY How to interact with the Ethereum network on mobile environment As mobile penetration rises, many people have started using mobile as a replacement for PCs. Considering the short block times of Ethereum and the applications of various DApps, the increasing use of Ethereum on mobile is a predictable outcome. In this post, well look at some existing methods to communicate between a mobile device and Ethereum network, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method arising from some characteristics of mobile devices. Currently, Ethereum clients use three methods to communicate with Ethereum network: JSON RPC(Remote Procedure Call) request over http, web socket, and IPC(Inter-Process Communication). JSON-RPC is a method of communicating through data structure and rules specified in node through http environment. It is an approach that is widely used in the development of server-client, which allows access to Ethereum network through HTTP communication as it is. In fact, XMLHttpRequest via httpprovider.js is used as a way to access nodes from web3.js, and Metamask also seems to use this method to communicate between their server and clients. However, in order to use this method, you have to think a lot about security. To use your own assets on Ethereum network, you need authentication information for the account, and SSL is needed for this. To do this, you will need to configure the SSL proxy on your web server, create a server and SSH tunnel to communicate, or use authentication methods such as OAuth. This means that DDoS attack can be performed like existing server-client development, and there is dependency on external server, which means that maintenance of server is necessary. In other words, it is not a compl Continue reading >>

Ethereum Light-client With React Native

Ethereum Light-client With React Native

In the Blockchain world, a light-client is an application which runs its own p2p node and is therefore connected to the whole network without any centralized intermediaries. This is, at least from a decentralized mindset perspective, a desirable property. From a purely technical perspective however, this presents several problems. Besides the classic performance and reliability issues of a p2p network, one big problem inherent to blockchain systems is, that the data-structure underlying these blockchain systems is usually very large (GBs - TBs), so its simply not feasible to download it on a mobile device or sometimes even on a desktop. Because of this issue, the concept of light clients was developed. Such a light client, in the case of ethereum only downloads block-headers and verifies a lot less. With such a light client, its possible to be a part of the whole p2p network and directly interact with the blockchain by deploying contracts, sending transactions, querying balances etc. This concept has been working ok for BitCoin in the past and is one of the things which successful blockchain-platforms seem to need at some point. In the ethereum space however, this is, at the time of this blog post, an experimental feature. When I researched the subject superficially, I didnt find many ethereum projects using a light client yet. Most prominently there is status , who wrote their own wrapper of go-ethereum . I also found walleth , which is a new project and a Kotlin-based light client using the cross-compiled Android package of go-ethereum. This cross-compiled package is what I will also use in this blog post, as it seems to be the suggested and most standard way of approaching this problem at the moment. I will use react-native in this example, because Im familiar with Continue reading >>

How To Run An Ethereum Node In Gcp

How To Run An Ethereum Node In Gcp

The first step to setting up an Ethereum development environment is running a node.Public nodes run by MyEtherWallet and Augur are great public services. However, you cannot always attachyour private keys securely to such a node, and so you are limited to read-onlyinteractions (reading contract variables, checking account balances).Moreover, you cannot always upload contracts reliably due to(Solidity) compiler incompatibilities. The most reliable option is to run your own node. You can run a node locally on your laptop or local computer, such as describedin the Christmas classic How To Get on Rinkeby Testnet in 10 minutes .However this won't work for people who are behind a firewall that does not permit incoming public TCP/UDP connectionson port 30303 (the default), or any new port. Like many home users on their ISP's network.Also, are you expected to just keep your laptop open and running all the time, draining battery power andhogging your coffeeshop's wifi, like a chump? No way! The answer is to let the world's most too-powerful tech company run your node for you, for free. (Way!) This write-up will teach you how to run an Ethereum node on Google Cloud Product (GCP). You can get a free 1 year trial with $300 worth of credit by signing up with a new email address . Don't worry, you'll be prompted when your free trial expires before your credit card gets charged.If you own your own domain, you can create an infinite supply of email addresses to make bot accounts. (Disclaimer: I neither endorse nor condemn this course of action You'll get a popup asking you if it's okay that they snoop on what restaurants you search for and your current location on your Android phone.(How do you think they got to be the world's most too-powerful company). Do you want to run a free node Continue reading >>

What Are The Types Of Nodes In Ethereum?

What Are The Types Of Nodes In Ethereum?

I have seen the usage of the word full node many times. What exactly is an Ethereum full node? What are bootstrap nodes and light nodes/clients? Are there any other types of nodes? I think that Bitcoin wiki has a good article: its not for ethereum but the concept is pretty much the same. Full node is somebody connected to p2p network that verifies the blocks. I believe that all ethereum clients at this point are full nodes. Lightweight nodes do not check or download the whole block-chain. See this: Miners are full nodes that, in addition, validate the new blocks by solving a crypto problem. Please post Ethereum related links. I'm sure that you can find some as good as your bitcoin one ;) Nicolas Massart Jun 14 '16 at 0:41 @nicolas-massart I do not think there are many differences between Bitcoin and Ethereum for this point. bortzmeyer Jun 14 '16 at 12:34 A node is a device/program that communicates with the Ethereum network. Nodes are also known as clients. Software that can act as an Ethereum node include Parity and Go-ethereum (geth). This software mostly, if not always, also provides wallet functionality (software that allows users to perform transactions on the blockchain). Some node software also allows other programs to indirectly interact with the blockchain; this is provided through some remote procedure call (RPC) facility. RPC is usually implemented in the form of web APIs (HTTP) or Unix sockets. In general, we can divide node software into two types: full nodes and light(weight) nodes. Full nodes verify block that is broadcast onto the network. That is, they ensure that the transactions contained in the blocks (and the blocks themselves) follow the rules defined in the Ethereum specifications. They maintain the current state of the network (as defined accord Continue reading >>

Rinkeby: Ethereum Testnet

Rinkeby: Ethereum Testnet

An archive node synchronizes the blockchain by downloading the full chain from the genesis block to the current head block, executing all the transactions contained within. As the node crunches through the transactions, all past historical state is stored on disk, and can be queried for each and every block. Initial processing required to execute all transactions may require non-negligible time and disk capacity required to store all past state may be non-insignificant. High end machines with SSD storage, modern CPUs and 8GB+ RAM are recommended. To run an archive node, download rinkeby.json and start Geth with: geth --datadir=$HOME/.rinkeby init rinkeby.json geth --networkid=4 --datadir=$HOME/.rinkeby --cache=1024 --syncmode=full --ethstats='yournode:Respect my [emailprotected] ' --bootnodes=enode://a24ac7c5484ef4ed0c5eb2d36620ba4e4aa13b8c84684e1b4aab0cebea2ae45cb [emailprotected] 52.169.42.101:30303 You can download Geth from . A full node synchronizes the blockchain by downloading the full chain from the genesis block to the current head block, but does not execute the transactions. Instead, it downloads all the transactions receipts along with the entire recent state. As the node downloads the recent state directly, historical data can only be queried from that block onward. Initial processing required to synchronize is more bandwidth intensive, but is light on the CPU and has significantly reduced disk requirements. Mid range machines with HDD storage, decent CPUs and 4GB+ RAM should be enough. To run a full node, download rinkeby.json and start Geth with: geth --datadir=$HOME/.rinkeby init rinkeby.json geth --networkid=4 --datadir=$HOME/.rinkeby --cache=512 --ethstats='yournode:Respect my [emailprotected] ' --bootnodes=enode://a24ac7c5484ef4ed0c5eb2d36620ba4e4aa1 Continue reading >>

License

License

enumerated a few common parameter combos to get you up to speed quickly on how you can run your By far the most common scenario is people wanting to simply interact with the Ethereum network: create accounts; transfer funds; deploy and interact with contracts. For this particular use-case the user doesn't care about years-old historical data, so we can fast-sync quickly to the current Start geth in fast sync mode (--fast), causing it to download more data in exchange for avoiding processing the entire history of the Ethereum network, which is very CPU intensive. Bump the memory allowance of the database to 512MB (--cache=512), which can help significantly in sync times especially for HDD users. This flag is optional and you can set it as high or as low as you'd like, though we'd recommend the 512MB - 2GB range. Start up Geth's built-in interactive JavaScript console , (via the trailing console subcommand) through which you can invoke all official web3 methods This too is optional and if you leave it out you can always attach to an already running Geth instance Transitioning towards developers, if you'd like to play around with creating Ethereum contracts, you almost certainly would like to do that without any real money involved until you get the hang of the entire system. In other words, instead of attaching to the main network, you want to join the test network with your node, which is fully equivalent to the main network, but with play-Ether only. $ geth --testnet --fast --cache=512 console The --fast, --cache flags and console subcommand have the exact same meaning as above and they are equally useful on the testnet too. Please see above for their explanations if you've skipped to Specifying the --testnet flag however will reconfigure your Geth instance a bit: Inst Continue reading >>

Geth: Light Nodes Fr Ethereum Dank Iceberg-update

Geth: Light Nodes Fr Ethereum Dank Iceberg-update

Geth: Light Nodes fr Ethereum dank Iceberg-Update Mit dem Iceberg-Update 1.8.0 und dem Bugfix 1.8.1 fr den Geth-Client hat sich Ethereum unter anderem dem Thema Light Node gewidmet. Was bedeutet das fr den normalen Nutzer? Vielleicht ging es dem einen oder anderen hnlich: Begeistert von Ethereum hat man sich den Mist-Browser oder die Wallet heruntergeladen und wollte in die Welt der dApps eintauchen. Diesem stand nur ein Hindernis im Weg: die Synchronisation mit einer riesigen Blockchain. Riesig ist durchaus das korrekte Wort: Mit 217 GB ist die Ethereum-Blockchain um 16 % grer als die Blockchain von Bitcoin und ungefhr alle 15 Sekunden kommt ein neuer Block mit einer ungefhren Gre von 20 kB dazu! Nicht wenige Leute haben nach mehreren Versuchen der Blockchain-Synchronisation frustriert abgebrochen. Zwar existiert mit der Fast-Synchronization eine Methode, bei der nur der aktuelle Stand des Netzwerks gespeichert wird, aber ab dem Zeitpunkt dieses Snapshots wird die Blockchain weiter regulr fortgesetzt, so dass sich mit der Zeit wieder eine Unmenge an Daten anhuft. ber diese Mglichkeit hat BTC-ECHO vor einiger Zeit mit Christian Reitwiessner , dem Entwickler von Solidity gesprochen. Dieses Problem sollte schon vor einiger Zeit mit der Mglichkeit einer Light-Node gelst werden. Eine Light-Node ist eine Node, die nicht die gesamte Blockchain gespeichert hat, sondern nur die Header der aktuellen Blcke herunterldt und nur das verifiziert, was unbedingt verifizert werden muss. Das Ziel ist, auf die Weise eine Art von Node anbieten zu knnen, welche ber einen hnlichen Funktionsumfang wie das klassische Ethereum-Wallet beziehungsweise der Mist Browser mit sich bringt, jedoch nicht so lange fr die Synchronisation bentigt. Mit der aktuellen Version des Geth-Clients, dem mit Iceber Continue reading >>

Full Node Vs. Light Client: Whats The Difference?

Full Node Vs. Light Client: Whats The Difference?

Estimated reading time: 2 minutes, 10 seconds So youre just getting into cryptocurrency, and youre looking for an easy way to get involved, right? Downloading the entire blockchain may seem like a daunting task, but luckily you have other options! Were here to explain the differences between a light client and full node! Check out our video or read below for all you need to know about a full node vs. light client! A full node contains a full copy of the blockchain, while a light client is referencing a trusted full nodes copy of the blockchain. This allows users to transact on the blockchain without downloading an entire copy of the blockchain. And this is no small file. The entire history of the blockchain has to be downloaded, and for Bitcoin this is about 27GB. Obviously, if you have a device that doesnt have that kind of memory or processing power, a full node isnt really an option for you. Instead youre probably going to use a light client. Most mobile wallets are light clients, as most cell phones dont have the memory to run a full node. Downloadable light clients are also available for computers. You may be thinking that light clients are the best way to interact with the blockchain, but there are some benefits from running a full node too. Full nodes help process or validate transactions, so if youre interested in mining , you most likely have to be using a full node. Full nodes also contribute to the functionality of a network. By running a full node youre helping support the network. If youre a beginner, I definitely recommend getting acclimated with a light client. Its just going to make your life easier, and who knows maybe youll get interested in mining and make the leap to run a full node! While full nodes are the backbone of the network, light clients al Continue reading >>

An Economic Incentive For Running Ethereum Fullnodes

An Economic Incentive For Running Ethereum Fullnodes

An economic incentive for running Ethereum fullnodes This is a story about vipnode , an Ethereum Foundation Grant recipient . Full Node, Light Node: Whats the difference? When you connect to the Ethereum network, you can use a full node or a light node (also known as a light client). A full node has a copy of the entire state of the Ethereum blockchain and executes every transaction that gets mined this requires upwards of 120GB of storage and 8GB+ of memory. It can take several hours for a full node to join the network and become fully synchronized. If you wanted to run a full node in the cloud, it would cost around $20/mo. A light node has only the minimal amount of state to make sense of things while talking to full nodes. Were talking just a few hundred megabytes of storage and 128512MB of memory. The goal of a light node is to be small enough to run on a phone or embedded device. Any time a light node wants to query the blockchain or send a transaction, it must ask a full node to do it on its behalf. In effect, a light node is a mooch. But thats okay. A light node can join the network and start using it almost instantly, assuming it can find a full node with a light node slot available for it. Why wont my Light Node connect to the network? Two things happened in late-2017 which broke light nodes. A massive influx of new users swarmed the Ethereum network, many of them relying on light nodes to trade their fancy cats and make sweet bank. We can see the usage skyrocket by observing the transaction fees go up: Around the same time, LES/2 was released an upgrade of the protocol used for serving Light Nodes. The new protocol was still considered experimental and the server implementation was buggy. This meant that a lot of clients switched over to the new protocol, but Continue reading >>

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