CryptoCoinsInfoClub.com

Ethereum In Depth

Known Attacks - Ethereum Smart Contract Best Practices

Known Attacks - Ethereum Smart Contract Best Practices

The following is a list of known attacks which you should be aware of, and defend against when writing smart contracts. One of the major dangers of calling external contracts is that they can take over the control flow, and make changes to your data that the calling function wasn't expecting. This class of bug can take many forms, and both of the major bugs that led to the DAO's collapse were bugs of this sort. The first version of this bug to be noticed involved functions that could be called repeatedly, before the first invocation of the function was finished. This may cause the different invocations of the function to interact in destructive ways. // INSECUREmapping (address => uint) private userBalances;function withdrawBalance() public { uint amountToWithdraw = userBalances[msg.sender]; require(msg.sender.call.value(amountToWithdraw)()); // At this point, the caller's code is executed, and can call withdrawBalance again userBalances[msg.sender] = 0;} Since the user's balance is not set to 0 until the very end of the function, the second (and later) invocations will still succeed, and will withdraw the balance over and over again. A very similar bug was one of the vulnerabilities in the DAO attack. In the example given, the best way to avoid the problem is to use send() instead of call.value()() . This will prevent any external code from being executed. However, if you can't remove the external call, the next simplest way to prevent this attack is to make sure you don't call an external function until you've done all the internal work you need to do: mapping (address => uint) private userBalances;function withdrawBalance() public { uint amountToWithdraw = userBalances[msg.sender]; userBalances[msg.sender] = 0; require(msg.sender.call.value(amountToWithdraw)()); // Continue reading >>

What Is Ethereum? An In-depth Review - Coinpickings

What Is Ethereum? An In-depth Review - Coinpickings

(2) ERC20 Tokens and a Booming ICO (initial coin offering) Market The value of Ethereum is much easier to understand when compared to Bitcoin. Bitcoin is used as an alternative currency. Ethereum is a platform for creating decentralized applications on the blockchain. The use cases for Bitcoin are as a superior medium of exchange compared to fiat currency (i.e. USD or Euro). The use cases for Ethereum are as far-reaching as your imagination. According to the Ethereum website, it can be used to codify, decentralize, secure and trade just about anything. Heres just a few use cases of Ethereum and smart contracts: (2) As a financial contract between any # of parties (3) As a means of decentralized governance and voting (4) As a means of sharing information under certain conditions (2) ERC20 Tokens and a Booming ICO Market: ERC20 tokens are standard for Ethereum smart contracts. This means that ICOs and other cryptocurrencies that are created on the Ethereum platform are classified as ERC20 tokens. Over 50% of all ICOs in 2017 are ERC20 tokens! To say the ICO market is booming is an understatement. YTD (year-to-date) in 2017, ICOs have surpassed VC (venture capital) investing in blockchains. In fact, just over the summer of 2017, startups raised over $1 billion through ICOs alone. Before ICOs, startups had to seek investment from capital raises with private groups of very wealthy accredited investors.. Now they can turn towards a much bigger pool of money: public crowdfunding. The best part is that Ethereum is the leading platform for creating an ICOand therefore, right at the center of all this ICO craze. As I mentioned earlier, the more people who interact with and create smart contracts on Ethereum, the greater its value will be. Ethereum and all cryptos are still in th Continue reading >>

How Ethereum Works - Coindesk

How Ethereum Works - Coindesk

CoinDesk Launches 2017 Year in Review Opinion and Analysis Series Now that we've covered what ethereum is, let's dive deeper into how the platform functions under the hood. Consider the online notebook application described in " What is Ethereum? " Using ethereum, the appdoesn't require one entityto store and control its data. To accomplish this, ethereum borrows heavily from bitcoin's protocol and its blockchain design, but tweaks it to support applications beyond money. Ethereum aims to abstract away bitcoin's design, however, so that developers can create applications or agreements that have additional steps, new rules of ownership, alternative transaction formats or different ways to transfer state. The goal of ethereum's 'Turing-complete' programming language is to allow developers to write more programs in which blockchain transactions could govern and automate specific outcomes. This flexibility is perhaps ethereum's primary innovation, as explained in the guide " How Ethereum Smart Contracts Work ". The structure of the ethereum blockchain is very similar to bitcoin's, in that it is a shared record of the entire transaction history. Every node on the network stores a copy of this history. The big difference withethereum is that its nodes store the most recent state of each smart contract, in addition to all of the ether transactions. (This is much more complicated than described, but the text below should help you get your feet wet.) For each ethereum application, the network needs to keep track of the 'state', or the current information of all of these applications, including each user's balance, all the smart contract code and where it's all stored. Bitcoin uses unspent transaction outputs to track who has how muchbitcoin. While it sounds more complex, the id Continue reading >>

Bitcoin Exchange Forum Ethereum Depth Chart

Bitcoin Exchange Forum Ethereum Depth Chart

Bitcoin Exchange Forum Ethereum Depth Chart Instead, the order was Buy Usdt Poloniex Android Crypto Trading App before placing it, because I prefer Limit orders for all buys. Many leaders seek to regulate cryptocurrenciesbut if we study the consequences of the Chinese regulations, we find Highest Profit Cloud Mining Pool Cloud Mining Contracts they have been ineffective. Here you can discuss Ethereum news, memes, investing, trading, miscellaneous market-related subjects and other relevant technology. Please note this guide is not intended as advice on buying or selling cryptocurrency. This caused some turbulence in the markets until Binance made an official announcement that they were going to be moving operations to the crypto-friendly island of Malta in Europe, stating:. All buy-back transactions will be announced on the blockchain. Nerman Full Member Offline Activity: Here is their fee schedule page. Phil December 23, at 8: Just Meeh March 3, at I feel as if I have been hacked Reply. Serban January 13, at 5: In order for prices to move up or down, these walls of orders must first be filled or get canceled. Iwa3 January 3, at 1: You must first have Bitcoin Exchange Forum Ethereum Depth Chart Coinbase account fully verified and linked to a bank account. The bulls are attempting to break out of the down trendline, which continues to Is It Illegal To Buy Cryptocurrency Capital Review major resistance. The charts for the analysis are provided by TradingView. What might be worth considering is the fact that the bulls are not able to push prices higher. The market data is provided by the HitBTC exchange. I bought some Ripple on Binance. Those are actual orders that have been placed by buyers and sellers. The price chart is set to show LTC prices for the previous 7 days wit Continue reading >>

I Wrote This To Explain Ethereum In Depth To Newbies. Please Check For Accuracy!

I Wrote This To Explain Ethereum In Depth To Newbies. Please Check For Accuracy!

Hello r/ethereum - I'm currently in Singapore exploring all of the cool blockchain tech that's going on here. I'm also writing a blog that aims to explain blockchain technology simply to anyone whose interested. www.cryptoambit.com If you guys could spot check my Ethereum post for accuracy, I'd appreciate it. If you like it, would also appreciate some subscribers! Thanks By now, most people know Ethereum as the second most valuable cryptocurrency, currently valued at over $60 billion dollars. Well, it turns out that Ethereum isn't actually a cryptocurrency - it's a software platform that let's programmers build applications on top of blockchain technology. Within the ethereum platform, is a cryptocurrency called ether that is used to power applications built on the Ethereum blockchain. Bitcoin uses a global network of computers that maintain a shared ledger called a blockchain that keeps track of who owns bitcoin. Once blockchain technology was introduced to the world, people realized that blockchains could be used to keep track of anything of value. In 2013, a 19 year old named Vitalik Buterin introduced the Ethereum white paper, which proposed an open source platform that would let programmers build blockchain applications that could facilitate the exchange of money, content, property, shares or anything of value. Much like with Satoshi Nakamoto's paper, Buterin's was met with widespread excitement from software developers around the world who began building toward the vision Buterin laid out. Much like Bitcoin, Ethereum isn't owned or controlled by any one person. Unlike Bitcoin, whose creator remains anonymous, Ethereum has a leader in Vitalik Buterin (pictured below). While Buterin doesn't control Ethereum in the way that a CEO does, his word carries tremendous we Continue reading >>

Ripple Vs Ethereum | An In-depth Comparison Of Bitcoins Biggest Competitors

Ripple Vs Ethereum | An In-depth Comparison Of Bitcoins Biggest Competitors

Ripple Vs Ethereum | An In-Depth Comparison of Bitcoins Biggest Competitors Home Coin Comparison Ripple Vs Ethereum | An In-Depth Comparison of Bitcoins Biggest Competitors The cryptocurrency industry has become a war zone for new and old coins alike. Thus far, three have emerged as the leaders of the coin market: Bitcoin, Ethereum and Ripple. Bitcoin, of course, remains the undisputed king, but Ethereum and Ripple coming in at number two and number three respectively could someday be in position to call Bitcoins supremacy into question. Aside from their shared competition for the crypto market cap and their use of blockchain technology, Ripple and Ethereum have very little in common. The two platforms have completely disparate goals: Ripple is a global, cross-currency payment system, while Ethereum is a software platform for decentralized applications and smart contracts. This, along with the platforms numerous other differences, will be explored in the following topics: Ripple is a real-time gross payment system first-conceived in 2004 by Ryan Fugger and officially launched in 2012. Its goal is to eliminate the high transaction fees and processing delays of online payments by providing a frictionless experience when sending money globally with the power of blockchain technology. According to Ripples chief cryptographer, David Schwartz, Payment systems today are where email was in the early 80s. Every provider built their own system for their customers, and if people used different systems, they couldnt easily interact with each other. Ripple is designed to connect different payment systems together. Unlike other digital currencies, Ripple is intended to act as a complement to traditional financial institutions rather than as a direct competitor. This is accomplished Continue reading >>

What Is Ethereum? A Step-by-step Beginners Guide

What Is Ethereum? A Step-by-step Beginners Guide

If you want to know what is Ethereum and how it works and what it can be used for, without going deep into the technical abyss, this guide is perfect for you. Important Note: This guide assumes a basic understanding of blockchain technology. If youre unfamiliar with blockchain, check out this step by step introduction for beginners . Beyond Bitcoin & first generation decentralized applications Although commonly associated with Bitcoin , blockchain technology has many other applications that go way beyond digital currencies. In fact, Bitcoin is only one of several hundred applications that use blockchain technology today. [Blockchain] is to Bitcoin, what the internet is to email. A big electronic system, on top of which you can build applications. Currency is just one. Sally Davies, FT Technology Reporter Until relatively recently, building blockchain applications has required a complex background in coding, cryptography, mathematics as well as significant resources. But times have changed. Previously unimagined applications, from electronic voting & digitally recorded property assets to regulatory compliance & trading are now actively being developed and deployed faster than ever before. By providing developers with the tools to build decentralized applications, Ethereum is making all of this possible. At its simplest, Ethereum is an open software platform based on blockchain technology that enables developers to build and deploy decentralized applications. Is Ethereum similar to Bitcoin? Well, sort of, but not really. Like Bitcoin , Ethereum is a distributed public blockchain network. Although there are some significant technical differences between the two, the most important distinction to note is that Bitcoin and Ethereum differ substantially in purpose and capabil Continue reading >>

Certified Ethereum Expert (cee)

Certified Ethereum Expert (cee)

The Certified Ethereum Expert is a skilled professional who understands and knows in-depth what is Ethereum and how Ethereum works and also uses the same knowledge to build Ethereum-based applications for enterprises and businesses. The CEE credential certifies individuals in theEthereum discipline of Distributed Ledger Technology from a vendor-neutral perspective. Certified Ethereum Expert is an exhaustive training, lab & exam based program aims to provide a proof-of-knowledge of the certificate holder in Blockchain space. The Ethereum is evolving very fast & enabling businesses to build compelling solutions at a lesser cost. Enterprises are struggling to identify the right talent to deploy in-house Ethereum-based projects. This certification will work as a bridge between resources & businesses (employees, consultants & advisers) to give enterprises confidence in the quick hire. To establish and govern minimum standards for credentialing professional Ethereum expert as it specializes in enterprise development measures. To inform the public that credentialed individuals meet or exceed the minimum standards. To reinforce Ethereum expertise as a unique and self-regulating profession Grasp the in-depthunderstanding ofEthereum & how it is implemented Implement your skills in any applications Build your ownEthereum enterprise with acquired knowledge Awareness about Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, Ethereum, etc. Must be motivated enough to learnEthereum in-depth There are no such recommended experience required for getting this certification Training can be consumed as per candidates availability & speed. There will be an online training followed by a multiple choice exam of 100 marks. You need to acquire 60+ marks to clear the exam. If you fail the exam, you can retake the e Continue reading >>

What Is An Ethereum Network? Guide About Ethereum And Ether

What Is An Ethereum Network? Guide About Ethereum And Ether

What is an Ethereum Network? Guide about Ethereum and Ether Today, our personal data, passwords and financial information are all largely stored on other peoples computers so it helps to first understand the internet before you can understand ethereum. This setup has a number of conveniences. These companies deploy teams of specialists to help store and secure this data, and remove the costs that come with hosting and uptime. However, there is also vulnerability with this convenience. As weve seen, a hacker or a government can influence or attack a third-party service and gain unwelcome access to your files without your knowledge. This means that they can steal, leak or change important information. Brian Behlendorf is the creator of the Apache Web Server. He has gone so far as to label this centralized design the original sin of the Internet. Some like Behlendorf argue the Internet was always meant to be decentralized, and a splintered movement has sprung up around using new tools. This includes blockchain technology and Ethereum is one of the newest technologies to join this movement. The entire concept of Ethereum and Ethereum token can get very confusing very fast to a beginner. Ethereum not only has its own currency (Ether) it also has tokens on top of that. These tokens can act as currency themselves. Its very important that I grasp some basic concepts before we even begin understanding what Ethereum tokens are all about. The entire Ethereum network is a giant mass of nodes (computers) connected to one another that enforce, execute and validate programs in a decentralized manner. The best thing is that they dont require a server, memory, CPU power, or any other computing function to do it, as it is all provided by thousands of ethereum nodes scattered across the Continue reading >>

Ethereum And Smart Contracts: In Depth

Ethereum And Smart Contracts: In Depth

The emerging smart contract platform and alternative cryptocurrency system is gaining attention though many still wonder how it exactly works. To make things clearer, CoinFox carries on looking into Ethereum. The name of the cryptocurrency running within the Ethereum system is ether (and not Ethereum, as many mistakenly think). The currency is the means of paying for computations done by Ethereum Virtual Machine. The cost of said computations is expressed in Gas (a constant which keeps the price of the network resources unchangeable notwithstanding the volatility of the actual currency unit). Gas has its static value (Gas Cost) which is always stable over time. Its price, on the other hand, measured in ether (Gas Price), changes accordingly to the cryptocurrency's fluctuations: once the price of ether goes up, the Gas Price should go down to make sure the real cost of Gas remains the same. The Gas Cost dynamic calculation based on the volume and complexity of a request (the pattern is known as gasUsed) is multiplied by the current Gas Price, and the total price is expressed in ether. The maximum amount of Gas intended for using per block is subject to so-called Gas Limit which is considered as the maximum computational load, transaction volume, or block size of a block. These figures can be slowly changed by miners over time. To run a particular transaction or program (called contract), one has to pay an amount of Gas (called Gas Fee) to miners. There is a list of fixed default fees for particular operations (see the table: ). Gas is paid for exclusively in ether, its price being currently equivalent to 10 szabo, or 0.00001 ether, in accordance with the Ethereums metric system of denominations . Within this system, each denomination has its own unique name (some were t Continue reading >>

R/ethereum - I Wrote This To Explain Ethereum In Depth To Newbies. Please Check For Accuracy! : Ethereum

R/ethereum - I Wrote This To Explain Ethereum In Depth To Newbies. Please Check For Accuracy! : Ethereum

r/Ethereum - I wrote this to explain Ethereum in depth to newbies. Please check for accuracy! Hello r/ethereum - I'm currently in Singapore exploring all of the cool blockchain tech that's going on here. I'm also writing a blog that aims to explain blockchain technology simply to anyone whose interested. www.cryptoambit.com If you guys could spot check my Ethereum post for accuracy, I'd appreciate it. If you like it, would also appreciate some subscribers! Thanks By now, most people know Ethereum as the second most valuable cryptocurrency, currently valued at over $60 billion dollars. Well, it turns out that Ethereum isn't actually a cryptocurrency - it's a software platform that let's programmers build applications on top of blockchain technology. Within the ethereum platform, is a cryptocurrency called ether that is used to power applications built on the Ethereum blockchain. Bitcoin uses a global network of computers that maintain a shared ledger called a blockchain that keeps track of who owns bitcoin. Once blockchain technology was introduced to the world, people realized that blockchains could be used to keep track of anything of value. In 2013, a 19 year old named Vitalik Buterin introduced the Ethereum white paper, which proposed an open source platform that would let programmers build blockchain applications that could facilitate the exchange of money, content, property, shares or anything of value. Much like with Satoshi Nakamoto's paper, Buterin's was met with widespread excitement from software developers around the world who began building toward the vision Buterin laid laid out. Much like Bitcoin, Ethereum isn't owned or controlled by any one person. Unlike Bitcoin, whose creator remains anonymous, Ethereum has a leader in Vitalik Buterin (pictured below) Continue reading >>

How To Participate In The Fabric Token Launch In-depth Guide

How To Participate In The Fabric Token Launch In-depth Guide

This article will walk you through the steps you need to take in order to participate in the Fabric Token launch. There are a few ways to do so and they will all be listed below. Keep in mind that you first need to be whitelisted ( follow this guide ) in order to participate in the Fabric Token ICO. Probably the most popular method for participating in an Ethereum-based token launch is by using MyEtherWallet a free, open source interface, which allows people to generate Ethereum wallets and interact with the ETH blockchain: In order to create a wallet you will need to enter a password for it. Make sure to remember and preferably write this one down, because there is no forgot your password? option in MyEtherWallet. Once you have entered your password and created your new wallet, you will be asked to save your keystore file. Again, this data is very sensitive so make sure you do not lose it. Click the Download Keystore File (UTC / JSON) button and save the file somewhere secure on your computer. Next, click I understand. Continue. The last thing you need to do in order to create your wallet is to save the private key of your brand new Ethereum wallet. Just like the password, theres no way to recover this once you lose it. So, either write it down, or print it in order to make sure you dont lose it. On the next screen, you will be asked to unlock your wallet. As you can see, there are many ways of doing so ( detailed guides can be found here ), though the private key is the most straightforward route. Simply paste it in the text area and click Unlock. And there you have it you have full access to your Ethereum wallet. Now, in order to participate in the FT launch, you need to have some Ethereum in it. In order to get some, you can use one of the many cryptocurrency excha Continue reading >>

Getting Up To Speed Onethereum

Getting Up To Speed Onethereum

Go from zero to without all the nonsense. You want to have a deep working understanding of Ethereum and the related ecosystem. You understand the concept of a blockchain and how Bitcoin uses it to create a trustless digital currency. No? Watch this short video or watch this long video . Hint, you should probably watch the long one. Youre a professional software engineer. Seriously, I mean, nontrivial amounts of real-world software engineering experience. Understanding systems/architecture/math is a learning efficiency multiplier. Like a week of your free time. I told you were skipping the nonsense. You understand the basic concept of a merkle tree and how it can be used to quickly verify information correctness. Note: you dont need to read the whitepapers, but you need to understand them. But it turns out that reading them is the fastest way to understand them. I recommend reading the entirety of this post, absorbing the contents at a high level, and then diving into each link individually, over the course of a few days. Youll be surprised at how little of this technology is magic (read: none of it), despite the severe case of buzzword-itis the ecosystem has. Everyone is building off of the shoulders of giants; if you make a living as a professional software engineer you have the ability to understand all of these projects and technologies at a deep level. Just dont get distracted by the bullshit. Ethereum is a distributed computer; each node in the network executes some bytecode (hint: Smart Contracts), and then stores the resulting state in a blockchain. Due to the properties of the blockchain representing application state, this results in applications that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third party interference. Continue reading >>

Thinking About Smart Contract Security

Thinking About Smart Contract Security

Over the last day with the communitys help we have crowdsourced alist of all of the major bugs with smart contracts on Ethereum so far, including both the DAO as well as various smaller 100-10000 ETH thefts and losses in games and token contracts. This list (original source here ) is as follows: Governmental (1100 ETH stuck because payout exceeds gas limit) 5800 ETH swiped (by whitehats) from an ETH-backed ERC20 token Rubixi : Fees stolen because the constructor function had an incorrect name, allowing anyone to become the owner Rock paper scissors trivially cheatable because the first to move shows their hand Various instances of funds lost because a recipient contained a fallback function that consumed more than 2300 gas, causing sends to them to fail. Various instances of call stack limit exceptions. We can categorize the list by categories of bugs: Variable/function naming mixups:FirePonzi, Rubixi Public data that should not have been public: the public RNG seed casino, cheatable RPS Re-entrancy (A calling B calling A): the DAO, Makers ETH-backed token Sends failing due to 2300 gas limit: King of the Ether Arrays/loops and gas limits: Governmental Much more subtle game-theoretic weaknesseswhere at the limit people even debate whether or not theyre bugs: the DAO There have been many solutions proposed to smart contract safety, ranging from better development environments to better programming languages to formal verification and symbolic execution, and researchers have started developing such tools . My personal opinion regardingthe topic is that an important primary conclusion is the following: progress in smart contract safety is necessarily going to be layered, incremental, and necessarily dependent on defense-in-depth. There will be further bugs, and we will lea Continue reading >>

Ethereum: Mastering The Basics: An In-depth Look At Ethereum

Ethereum: Mastering The Basics: An In-depth Look At Ethereum

An in-depth look beyond the basics. The basics are everywhere. Depth...isn't. Skills, mastery, or having an expertise requires depth. Learn the basics needed as a beginner here, while simultaneously developing depth.The depth covered in this book will reach a beginner with zero knowledge of Ethereum without scratching your head over the technical look-at-me-using-big-words type jargon. If you (1) have trouble finding a book on Ethereum that actually goes beyond what you can do a quick Google search on, or watch a quick YouTube video about, or (2) find books to be either too technical or too basic, you don't have to raise your blood pressure in frustration. Master the basics, by improving your depth of knowledge with this book. Whats the best way out of a minefield of confusion? Behind someone who's made it out alive, and has a map. Let this book be your map. 2017 Juste Causerie (P)2017 Juste Causerie I'm really impressed by the depth and coverage The book covers lot of concepts at a high level. It does not go in to the details. For example book does not take you through how ethash works and in step by step technically how transactions are validated and smart contracts are executed. Lot of internal technical details are missing and I had to surf the web to get things more clarified. This is a good source that contains all the information that we need to know about more Ethereum. This guide is in compact and in to the point format! A perfect book to learn about bitcoin platform Eth It turns out that the book is well written and easy to understand. Moreover, its informative. A perfect book to learn about bitcoin platform Ethereal. The author did quite an outstanding job of explaining the real deal about Ethereum is and how I can maximize its potential. This books useful a Continue reading >>

More in ethereum