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Ethereum In Depth

Ethereum And Smart Contracts: In Depth

Ethereum And Smart Contracts: In Depth

The emerging smart contract platform and alternative cryptocurrency system is gaining attention though many still wonder how it exactly works. To make things clearer, CoinFox carries on looking into Ethereum. The name of the cryptocurrency running within the Ethereum system is ether (and not Ethereum, as many mistakenly think). The currency is the means of paying for computations done by Ethereum Virtual Machine. The cost of said computations is expressed in Gas (a constant which keeps the price of the network resources unchangeable notwithstanding the volatility of the actual currency unit). Gas has its static value (Gas Cost) which is always stable over time. Its price, on the other hand, measured in ether (Gas Price), changes accordingly to the cryptocurrency's fluctuations: once the price of ether goes up, the Gas Price should go down to make sure the real cost of Gas remains the same. The Gas Cost dynamic calculation based on the volume and complexity of a request (the pattern is known as gasUsed) is multiplied by the current Gas Price, and the total price is expressed in ether. The maximum amount of Gas intended for using per block is subject to so-called Gas Limit which is considered as the maximum computational load, transaction volume, or block size of a block. These figures can be slowly changed by miners over time. To run a particular transaction or program (called contract), one has to pay an amount of Gas (called Gas Fee) to miners. There is a list of fixed default fees for particular operations (see the table: ). Gas is paid for exclusively in ether, its price being currently equivalent to 10 szabo, or 0.00001 ether, in accordance with the Ethereums metric system of denominations . Within this system, each denomination has its own unique name (some were t Continue reading >>

Miners Aren't Your Friends + In-depth Blockchain Analytics

Miners Aren't Your Friends + In-depth Blockchain Analytics

Miners Aren't Your Friends + In-Depth Blockchain Analytics Talk 1: Understanding The Ethereum Network In-Depth Blockchain Metrics and Analytics (Joanes Espanol, Amberdata) Talk 2: Miners Aren't Your Friends Issues at the Mining and Consensus Layer (James Prestwich, Integral) This in-depth look at data in the blockchain is being done in conjunction with our friends at SF Data Engineering meetup and DataEngConf SF (April 17-18). See below for details on the conference. The food for this event is sponsored by Orchid Labs. The Orchid protocol is the decentralized, open-source technology for an Internet free from surveillance and censorship. Check them out at Talk 1 Understanding The Ethereum Network In-Depth Blockchain Metrics and Analytics Shawn Douglass from Amberdata will provide an analysis and share insights into the Ethereum Network with specific emphasis on network integrity, limitations, transaction throughput, and the most active DApps. Joanes Espanol is CTO of Amberdata, a platform for monitoring, searching, and analyzing public and private blockchain. Prior to founding Amberdata, Mr. Espanol has built several large scale ingestion pipelines and analytics platforms, with a focus on infrastructure automation and highly available systems. He is passionate about information retrieval and extracting meaning from data. ( ) Talk 2 Miners Aren't Your Friends Issues at the Mining and Consensus Layer James Prestwich from Integral will provide an in-depth look at how the consensus layer and miners actions and motivations in particular can adversely affect decentralized applications. Developers like to believe in a consensus layer that takes care of all the hard distributed systems problems and lets them write applications. Miners live in the consensus layer, doing whatever Continue reading >>

Introduction To Smart Contracts

Introduction To Smart Contracts

Let us begin with the most basic example. It is fine if you do not understand everythingright now, we will go into more detail later. pragma solidity ^0.4.0;contract SimpleStorage { uint storedData; function set(uint x) { storedData = x; } function get() constant returns (uint) { return storedData; }} The first line simply tells that the source code is written forSolidity version 0.4.0 or anything newer that does not break functionality(up to, but not including, version 0.5.0). This is to ensure that thecontract does not suddenly behave differently with a new compiler version. The keyword pragma is called that way because, in general,pragmas are instructions for the compiler about how to treat thesource code (e.g. pragma once ). A contract in the sense of Solidity is a collection of code (its functions) anddata (its state) that resides at a specific address on the Ethereumblockchain. The line uint storedData; declares a state variable called storedData oftype uint (unsigned integer of 256 bits). You can think of it as a single slotin a database that can be queried and altered by calling functions of thecode that manages the database. In the case of Ethereum, this is always the owningcontract. And in this case, the functions set and get can be used to modifyor retrieve the value of the variable. To access a state variable, you do not need the prefix this. as is common inother languages. This contract does not do much yet (due to the infrastructurebuilt by Ethereum) apart from allowing anyone to store a single number that is accessible byanyone in the world without a (feasible) way to prevent you from publishingthis number. Of course, anyone could just call set again with a different valueand overwrite your number, but the number will still be stored in the historyof the Continue reading >>

R/ethereum - I Wrote This To Explain Ethereum In Depth To Newbies. Please Check For Accuracy! : Ethereum

R/ethereum - I Wrote This To Explain Ethereum In Depth To Newbies. Please Check For Accuracy! : Ethereum

r/Ethereum - I wrote this to explain Ethereum in depth to newbies. Please check for accuracy! Hello r/ethereum - I'm currently in Singapore exploring all of the cool blockchain tech that's going on here. I'm also writing a blog that aims to explain blockchain technology simply to anyone whose interested. www.cryptoambit.com If you guys could spot check my Ethereum post for accuracy, I'd appreciate it. If you like it, would also appreciate some subscribers! Thanks By now, most people know Ethereum as the second most valuable cryptocurrency, currently valued at over $60 billion dollars. Well, it turns out that Ethereum isn't actually a cryptocurrency - it's a software platform that let's programmers build applications on top of blockchain technology. Within the ethereum platform, is a cryptocurrency called ether that is used to power applications built on the Ethereum blockchain. Bitcoin uses a global network of computers that maintain a shared ledger called a blockchain that keeps track of who owns bitcoin. Once blockchain technology was introduced to the world, people realized that blockchains could be used to keep track of anything of value. In 2013, a 19 year old named Vitalik Buterin introduced the Ethereum white paper, which proposed an open source platform that would let programmers build blockchain applications that could facilitate the exchange of money, content, property, shares or anything of value. Much like with Satoshi Nakamoto's paper, Buterin's was met with widespread excitement from software developers around the world who began building toward the vision Buterin laid laid out. Much like Bitcoin, Ethereum isn't owned or controlled by any one person. Unlike Bitcoin, whose creator remains anonymous, Ethereum has a leader in Vitalik Buterin (pictured below) Continue reading >>

What Is Ethereum? A Step-by-step Beginners Guide

What Is Ethereum? A Step-by-step Beginners Guide

If you want to know what is Ethereum and how it works and what it can be used for, without going deep into the technical abyss, this guide is perfect for you. Important Note: This guide assumes a basic understanding of blockchain technology. If youre unfamiliar with blockchain, check out this step by step introduction for beginners . Beyond Bitcoin & first generation decentralized applications Although commonly associated with Bitcoin , blockchain technology has many other applications that go way beyond digital currencies. In fact, Bitcoin is only one of several hundred applications that use blockchain technology today. [Blockchain] is to Bitcoin, what the internet is to email. A big electronic system, on top of which you can build applications. Currency is just one. Sally Davies, FT Technology Reporter Until relatively recently, building blockchain applications has required a complex background in coding, cryptography, mathematics as well as significant resources. But times have changed. Previously unimagined applications, from electronic voting & digitally recorded property assets to regulatory compliance & trading are now actively being developed and deployed faster than ever before. By providing developers with the tools to build decentralized applications, Ethereum is making all of this possible. At its simplest, Ethereum is an open software platform based on blockchain technology that enables developers to build and deploy decentralized applications. Is Ethereum similar to Bitcoin? Well, sort of, but not really. Like Bitcoin , Ethereum is a distributed public blockchain network. Although there are some significant technical differences between the two, the most important distinction to note is that Bitcoin and Ethereum differ substantially in purpose and capabil Continue reading >>

How Ethereum Works - Coindesk

How Ethereum Works - Coindesk

CoinDesk Launches 2017 Year in Review Opinion and Analysis Series Now that we've covered what ethereum is, let's dive deeper into how the platform functions under the hood. Consider the online notebook application described in " What is Ethereum? " Using ethereum, the appdoesn't require one entityto store and control its data. To accomplish this, ethereum borrows heavily from bitcoin's protocol and its blockchain design, but tweaks it to support applications beyond money. Ethereum aims to abstract away bitcoin's design, however, so that developers can create applications or agreements that have additional steps, new rules of ownership, alternative transaction formats or different ways to transfer state. The goal of ethereum's 'Turing-complete' programming language is to allow developers to write more programs in which blockchain transactions could govern and automate specific outcomes. This flexibility is perhaps ethereum's primary innovation, as explained in the guide " How Ethereum Smart Contracts Work ". The structure of the ethereum blockchain is very similar to bitcoin's, in that it is a shared record of the entire transaction history. Every node on the network stores a copy of this history. The big difference withethereum is that its nodes store the most recent state of each smart contract, in addition to all of the ether transactions. (This is much more complicated than described, but the text below should help you get your feet wet.) For each ethereum application, the network needs to keep track of the 'state', or the current information of all of these applications, including each user's balance, all the smart contract code and where it's all stored. Bitcoin uses unspent transaction outputs to track who has how muchbitcoin. While it sounds more complex, the id Continue reading >>

Known Attacks - Ethereum Smart Contract Best Practices

Known Attacks - Ethereum Smart Contract Best Practices

The following is a list of known attacks which you should be aware of, and defend against when writing smart contracts. One of the major dangers of calling external contracts is that they can take over the control flow, and make changes to your data that the calling function wasn't expecting. This class of bug can take many forms, and both of the major bugs that led to the DAO's collapse were bugs of this sort. The first version of this bug to be noticed involved functions that could be called repeatedly, before the first invocation of the function was finished. This may cause the different invocations of the function to interact in destructive ways. // INSECUREmapping (address => uint) private userBalances;function withdrawBalance() public { uint amountToWithdraw = userBalances[msg.sender]; require(msg.sender.call.value(amountToWithdraw)()); // At this point, the caller's code is executed, and can call withdrawBalance again userBalances[msg.sender] = 0;} Since the user's balance is not set to 0 until the very end of the function, the second (and later) invocations will still succeed, and will withdraw the balance over and over again. A very similar bug was one of the vulnerabilities in the DAO attack. In the example given, the best way to avoid the problem is to use send() instead of call.value()() . This will prevent any external code from being executed. However, if you can't remove the external call, the next simplest way to prevent this attack is to make sure you don't call an external function until you've done all the internal work you need to do: mapping (address => uint) private userBalances;function withdrawBalance() public { uint amountToWithdraw = userBalances[msg.sender]; userBalances[msg.sender] = 0; require(msg.sender.call.value(amountToWithdraw)()); // Continue reading >>

An In-depth Look At The Parity Multisig Bug

An In-depth Look At The Parity Multisig Bug

An In-Depth Look at the Parity Multisig Bug This years IC3-Ethereum bootcamp brought together the Ethereum Foundations top developers, IC3 students and faculty, and dozens of others from industry and academia. We worked together over the course of a week on ten exciting, intensive development projects, and ended with a bang on the last day. The Ethereum wallet rescue group (with a little help from a couple of IC3ers) scrambled to respond when 153,037 Ether (worth $30+ million) was stolen from three large Ethereum multisig wallet contracts. The MultisigExploit-Hacker (MEH), as he, she, or they are known, exploited a vulnerability in the Parity 1.5 clients multisig wallet contract. A fairly straightforward attack allowed the hacker to take ownership of a victims wallet with a single transaction. The attacker could then drain the victims funds, as happened in these three transactions once the wallets were compromised. The victims were three ICO projects:Edgeless Casino, Swarm City, and ternity. In the following we will give an in-depth technical explanation of the hack, describe the white-hat response, and draw some lessons about how such breaches might be prevented in the future. There are many reports that the vulnerability was due to the simple omission of an internal modifier that made it possible for anyone anywhere to take ownership of an existing wallet due to Soliditys default-public policy. While it is true that the addition of the right modifiers would have prevented the attack, the attack is a little more clever than this would suggest. The vulnerable MultiSig wallet was split into two contracts to reduce the size of each wallet and save gas: A library contract called WalletLibrary and an actual Wallet contract consuming the library. Here is a toy version of Wa Continue reading >>

Certified Ethereum Expert (cee)

Certified Ethereum Expert (cee)

The Certified Ethereum Expert is a skilled professional who understands and knows in-depth what is Ethereum and how Ethereum works and also uses the same knowledge to build Ethereum-based applications for enterprises and businesses. The CEE credential certifies individuals in theEthereum discipline of Distributed Ledger Technology from a vendor-neutral perspective. Certified Ethereum Expert is an exhaustive training, lab & exam based program aims to provide a proof-of-knowledge of the certificate holder in Blockchain space. The Ethereum is evolving very fast & enabling businesses to build compelling solutions at a lesser cost. Enterprises are struggling to identify the right talent to deploy in-house Ethereum-based projects. This certification will work as a bridge between resources & businesses (employees, consultants & advisers) to give enterprises confidence in the quick hire. To establish and govern minimum standards for credentialing professional Ethereum expert as it specializes in enterprise development measures. To inform the public that credentialed individuals meet or exceed the minimum standards. To reinforce Ethereum expertise as a unique and self-regulating profession Grasp the in-depthunderstanding ofEthereum & how it is implemented Implement your skills in any applications Build your ownEthereum enterprise with acquired knowledge Awareness about Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, Ethereum, etc. Must be motivated enough to learnEthereum in-depth There are no such recommended experience required for getting this certification Training can be consumed as per candidates availability & speed. There will be an online training followed by a multiple choice exam of 100 marks. You need to acquire 60+ marks to clear the exam. If you fail the exam, you can retake the e Continue reading >>

Ethereum Guide |

Ethereum Guide |

Everything you need to know about Ethereum Disclaimer: This Ethereum guide is not investment advice. It serves only an informational purpose. The decision whether to invest or not rests with the individual. Although, Bitcoin often steals the limelight Ethereum is considered to be developers favourite.This guide is intended to give an introduction to Ethereum. The most detailed explanation is found in their whitepaper . If you are just starting with cryptocurrency, our Bitcoin Guide provides a more simple introduction. The topics discussed in this part apply to all digital currencies not only Ethereum. If you are interested only in the specifics of Ethereum, skip directly to the next sections. Wallets have the same function as bank accounts and are not much different. The major distinction is that bank accounts, due to law regulation, need to have an identity assigned to them. With wallets, there is no such need. Anyone with the password (private key) can use the wallet. A hot wallet actively communicates with the blockchain. Think of them as current accounts. They are suitable for people who frequently trade or complete numerous transactions. A cold wallet is more like a savings account. Bear in mind though, no interest is earned. Cold wallets are not connected to the virtual world. All of their information is stored locally off the blockchain. Usually, on a physical carrier like a hard drive or a ledger USB. This prevents hackers any access to the funds or information in these wallets. It is why they are considered safer than hot wallets. They are suitable for people who want to hold long-term. Just like with bank accounts, a person can have many wallets. In fact, with the rising number of DDoS attacks, it is advised to spread your digital wealth into wallets of diffe Continue reading >>

What Is An Ethereum Network? Guide About Ethereum And Ether

What Is An Ethereum Network? Guide About Ethereum And Ether

What is an Ethereum Network? Guide about Ethereum and Ether Today, our personal data, passwords and financial information are all largely stored on other peoples computers so it helps to first understand the internet before you can understand ethereum. This setup has a number of conveniences. These companies deploy teams of specialists to help store and secure this data, and remove the costs that come with hosting and uptime. However, there is also vulnerability with this convenience. As weve seen, a hacker or a government can influence or attack a third-party service and gain unwelcome access to your files without your knowledge. This means that they can steal, leak or change important information. Brian Behlendorf is the creator of the Apache Web Server. He has gone so far as to label this centralized design the original sin of the Internet. Some like Behlendorf argue the Internet was always meant to be decentralized, and a splintered movement has sprung up around using new tools. This includes blockchain technology and Ethereum is one of the newest technologies to join this movement. The entire concept of Ethereum and Ethereum token can get very confusing very fast to a beginner. Ethereum not only has its own currency (Ether) it also has tokens on top of that. These tokens can act as currency themselves. Its very important that I grasp some basic concepts before we even begin understanding what Ethereum tokens are all about. The entire Ethereum network is a giant mass of nodes (computers) connected to one another that enforce, execute and validate programs in a decentralized manner. The best thing is that they dont require a server, memory, CPU power, or any other computing function to do it, as it is all provided by thousands of ethereum nodes scattered across the Continue reading >>

Bitcoin Exchange Forum Ethereum Depth Chart

Bitcoin Exchange Forum Ethereum Depth Chart

Bitcoin Exchange Forum Ethereum Depth Chart Instead, the order was Buy Usdt Poloniex Android Crypto Trading App before placing it, because I prefer Limit orders for all buys. Many leaders seek to regulate cryptocurrenciesbut if we study the consequences of the Chinese regulations, we find Highest Profit Cloud Mining Pool Cloud Mining Contracts they have been ineffective. Here you can discuss Ethereum news, memes, investing, trading, miscellaneous market-related subjects and other relevant technology. Please note this guide is not intended as advice on buying or selling cryptocurrency. This caused some turbulence in the markets until Binance made an official announcement that they were going to be moving operations to the crypto-friendly island of Malta in Europe, stating:. All buy-back transactions will be announced on the blockchain. Nerman Full Member Offline Activity: Here is their fee schedule page. Phil December 23, at 8: Just Meeh March 3, at I feel as if I have been hacked Reply. Serban January 13, at 5: In order for prices to move up or down, these walls of orders must first be filled or get canceled. Iwa3 January 3, at 1: You must first have Bitcoin Exchange Forum Ethereum Depth Chart Coinbase account fully verified and linked to a bank account. The bulls are attempting to break out of the down trendline, which continues to Is It Illegal To Buy Cryptocurrency Capital Review major resistance. The charts for the analysis are provided by TradingView. What might be worth considering is the fact that the bulls are not able to push prices higher. The market data is provided by the HitBTC exchange. I bought some Ripple on Binance. Those are actual orders that have been placed by buyers and sellers. The price chart is set to show LTC prices for the previous 7 days wit Continue reading >>

What Is Ethereum? An In-depth Review - Coinpickings

What Is Ethereum? An In-depth Review - Coinpickings

(2) ERC20 Tokens and a Booming ICO (initial coin offering) Market The value of Ethereum is much easier to understand when compared to Bitcoin. Bitcoin is used as an alternative currency. Ethereum is a platform for creating decentralized applications on the blockchain. The use cases for Bitcoin are as a superior medium of exchange compared to fiat currency (i.e. USD or Euro). The use cases for Ethereum are as far-reaching as your imagination. According to the Ethereum website, it can be used to codify, decentralize, secure and trade just about anything. Heres just a few use cases of Ethereum and smart contracts: (2) As a financial contract between any # of parties (3) As a means of decentralized governance and voting (4) As a means of sharing information under certain conditions (2) ERC20 Tokens and a Booming ICO Market: ERC20 tokens are standard for Ethereum smart contracts. This means that ICOs and other cryptocurrencies that are created on the Ethereum platform are classified as ERC20 tokens. Over 50% of all ICOs in 2017 are ERC20 tokens! To say the ICO market is booming is an understatement. YTD (year-to-date) in 2017, ICOs have surpassed VC (venture capital) investing in blockchains. In fact, just over the summer of 2017, startups raised over $1 billion through ICOs alone. Before ICOs, startups had to seek investment from capital raises with private groups of very wealthy accredited investors.. Now they can turn towards a much bigger pool of money: public crowdfunding. The best part is that Ethereum is the leading platform for creating an ICOand therefore, right at the center of all this ICO craze. As I mentioned earlier, the more people who interact with and create smart contracts on Ethereum, the greater its value will be. Ethereum and all cryptos are still in th Continue reading >>

Thinking About Smart Contract Security

Thinking About Smart Contract Security

Over the last day with the communitys help we have crowdsourced alist of all of the major bugs with smart contracts on Ethereum so far, including both the DAO as well as various smaller 100-10000 ETH thefts and losses in games and token contracts. This list (original source here ) is as follows: Governmental (1100 ETH stuck because payout exceeds gas limit) 5800 ETH swiped (by whitehats) from an ETH-backed ERC20 token Rubixi : Fees stolen because the constructor function had an incorrect name, allowing anyone to become the owner Rock paper scissors trivially cheatable because the first to move shows their hand Various instances of funds lost because a recipient contained a fallback function that consumed more than 2300 gas, causing sends to them to fail. Various instances of call stack limit exceptions. We can categorize the list by categories of bugs: Variable/function naming mixups:FirePonzi, Rubixi Public data that should not have been public: the public RNG seed casino, cheatable RPS Re-entrancy (A calling B calling A): the DAO, Makers ETH-backed token Sends failing due to 2300 gas limit: King of the Ether Arrays/loops and gas limits: Governmental Much more subtle game-theoretic weaknesseswhere at the limit people even debate whether or not theyre bugs: the DAO There have been many solutions proposed to smart contract safety, ranging from better development environments to better programming languages to formal verification and symbolic execution, and researchers have started developing such tools . My personal opinion regardingthe topic is that an important primary conclusion is the following: progress in smart contract safety is necessarily going to be layered, incremental, and necessarily dependent on defense-in-depth. There will be further bugs, and we will lea Continue reading >>

Ethereum: Mastering The Basics: An In-depth Look At Ethereum

Ethereum: Mastering The Basics: An In-depth Look At Ethereum

An in-depth look beyond the basics. The basics are everywhere. Depth...isn't. Skills, mastery, or having an expertise requires depth. Learn the basics needed as a beginner here, while simultaneously developing depth.The depth covered in this book will reach a beginner with zero knowledge of Ethereum without scratching your head over the technical look-at-me-using-big-words type jargon. If you (1) have trouble finding a book on Ethereum that actually goes beyond what you can do a quick Google search on, or watch a quick YouTube video about, or (2) find books to be either too technical or too basic, you don't have to raise your blood pressure in frustration. Master the basics, by improving your depth of knowledge with this book. Whats the best way out of a minefield of confusion? Behind someone who's made it out alive, and has a map. Let this book be your map. 2017 Juste Causerie (P)2017 Juste Causerie I'm really impressed by the depth and coverage The book covers lot of concepts at a high level. It does not go in to the details. For example book does not take you through how ethash works and in step by step technically how transactions are validated and smart contracts are executed. Lot of internal technical details are missing and I had to surf the web to get things more clarified. This is a good source that contains all the information that we need to know about more Ethereum. This guide is in compact and in to the point format! A perfect book to learn about bitcoin platform Eth It turns out that the book is well written and easy to understand. Moreover, its informative. A perfect book to learn about bitcoin platform Ethereal. The author did quite an outstanding job of explaining the real deal about Ethereum is and how I can maximize its potential. This books useful a Continue reading >>

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