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Ethereum Frontier

Ethereum Blockchain Project Launches First Production Release - Coindesk

Ethereum Blockchain Project Launches First Production Release - Coindesk

Ethereum Blockchain Project Launches First Production Release Next-generation blockchain platform Ethereum has released 'Homestead' the first production release of its software, which was implemented at block 1,150,000 today. The introduction follows Frontier , Ethereum 's inaugural release, which was released to developers in July 2015. Further, it comes on the heels of escalating interest in the open, public platform, which is attracting the interest of major financial institutions, in part due to its support for self-executing smart contracts. For example, a private version of the Ethereum network served as the platform for the first major test conducted by blockchain consortium startup R3CEV in January, with the trial uniting 11 major banks in a high-profile proof-of-concept. Andrew Keys, co-founder of decentralized application development firm ConsenSys Enterprise, explained that whereas Frontier featured only command-line interfaces, Homestead will expand what users will be able to build on the platform and the ease with which they'll be able to build proof-of-concepts and minimum viable products. "Homestead's arrival will begin to demonstrate the next generation of blockchain technology, whereby anything we can dream of, can be accomplished in a decentralized manner using Ethereum." Elsewhere, early members of the platform sought to stress the recent benchmarks that they believe point to the success of the project at a time when financial incumbents are increasingly focused on alternatives to the bitcoin network. "We’ve seen Microsoft and IBM doing projects on Ethereum. There’s a lot of coders. It’s exciting to see something you were in on in the early stages growing and bearing fruit," Anthony Di Iorio, one of Ethereum's founders and a Chief Digital Continue reading >>

Ethereum Project

Ethereum Project

You are responsible for your own computer security. If your machine is compromised you will lose your ether, access to any contracts and possibly more. You are responsible for your own actions. If you mess something up or break any laws while using this software, it's your fault, and your fault only. You are responsible for your own karma. Don't be a jerk and respect the rights of others. What goes around comes around. The user expressly knows and agrees that the user is using the Ethereum platform at the users sole risk. The user acknowledges that the user has an adequate understanding of the risks, usage and intricacies of cryptographic tokens and blockchain-based open source software, eth platform and ethereum The user acknowledges and agrees that, to the fullest extent permitted by any applicable law, the disclaimers of liability contained herein apply to any and all damages or injury whatsoever caused by or related to risks of, use of, or inability to use, ethereum or the Ethereum platform under any cause or action whatsoever of any kind in any jurisdiction, including, without limitation, actions for breach of warranty, breach of contract or tort (including negligence) and that neither Stiftung Ethereum (i.e. Ethereum Foundation) nor Ethereum team shall be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, exemplary or consequential damages, including for loss of profits, goodwill or data that occurs as a result. Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion of certain warranties or the limitation or exclusion of liability for certain types of damages. Therefore, some of the above limitations in this section may not apply to a user. In particular, nothing in these terms shall affect the statutory rights of any user or exclude injury arising from any willful misconduct Continue reading >>

History Of Ethereum Ethereum Homestead 0.1 Documentation

History Of Ethereum Ethereum Homestead 0.1 Documentation

DEVgrants talk at DEVCON-1 by Wendell Davis on YouTube Olympic testnet, bug bounty and security audit Throughout 2014 and 2015 development went through a series of proof of concept releases leading to the 9th POC open testnet, called Olympic. The developer community was invited to test the limits of the network and a substantial prize fund was allocated to award those holding various records or having success in breaking the system in some way or other. The rewards were announced officially a month after the live release. In early 2015, an Ethereum Bounty Program was launched, offering BTC rewards for finding vulnerabilities in any part of the Ethereum software stack. This has undoubtedly contributed to the reliability and security of Ethereum and the confidence of the Ethereum community in the technology. The bounty program is currently still active and there is no end date planned. The Ethereum security audit began at the end of 2014 and continued through the first half of 2015. Ethereum engaged multiple third party software security firms to conduct an end-to-end audit of all protocol-critical components (Ethereum VM, networking, Proof of Work). The audits uncovered security issues that were addressed and tested again and as a result ultimately led to a more secure platform. The second developers conference DEVCON-1 took place in the city of London at the beginning of November 2015. The 5-day event featured more than 100 presentations, panel discussions and lightning talks, attracted more than 400 participants, a mix of developers, entrepreneurs, thinkers, and business executives.The talks were all recorded and are freely available The presence of large companies like UBS, IBM and Microsoft clearly indicated enterprise interest in the technology. Microsoft announced Continue reading >>

The Frontier Release | Ethereum Frontier Guide

The Frontier Release | Ethereum Frontier Guide

Frontier is the first in a series of releases that punctuate the roadmap for the development of Ethereum. Frontier will be followed by Homestead, Metropolis and Serenity throughout the coming year, each adding new features and improving the user friendliness and security of the platform. Ethereum is special and different from other software projects in that its release also involves launching a live network. After a year and a half of development the Proof of Concept series completed 9 cycles. The 10th iteration resulted in the Olympic testnet, which gradually led to the Release Candidate client for Frontier. The Ethereum network goes live when the clients consent on the genesis block and start mining transactions on it. The genesis block will reference an initial system state where all the accounts set up by the presale exist with the correct amount of pre-issued ether allocated. Initially, the network will be in a "thawing" state allowing only blocks to be mined, but not transactions to be processed. This allows for users to have a break-in period to connect to the network while also building up its security. In conjunction with the Frontier launch several exchanges will likely start enabling trade of Ether, which will provide necessary liquidity to the marketplace, allowing users and miners to transfer their holdings to other users requiring more or less Ether. As opposed to an earlier strategy, there is no plan to remove any contracts from the blockchain or otherwise alter the network to carry balances over to Homestead. In other words, the state in Homestead will be a direct and unmodified continuation of the state in Frontier. Mining reward is the full amount of 5 ether per block (as opposed to our earlier proposal of a reduced amount). Mining rewards are discuss Continue reading >>

Ethereum - Wikipedia

Ethereum - Wikipedia

This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . This article relies too much on references to primary sources . Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources . Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable . Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. The Ethereum Project's logo, first used in 2014 Ethereum is an open-source , public, blockchain -based distributed computing platform featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality. [2] It provides a decentralized Turing-complete virtual machine , the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes. Ethereum also provides a cryptocurrency token called "ether", which can be transferred between accounts and used to compensate participant nodes for computations performed. [3] "Gas", an internal transaction pricing mechanism, is used to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network. [2] [4] Ethereum was proposed in late 2013 by Vitalik Buterin , a cryptocurrency researcher and programmer. Development was funded by an online crowdsale between July and August 2014. [5] The system went live on 30 July 2015, with 11.9 million coins "premined" for the crowdsale. [6] This accounts for approximately 13 percent of the total circulating supply. In 2016, as a result of the collapse of The DAO project, Ethereum was forked into two separate blockchains - the new forked version became Ethereum (ETH), and the original continued as Ethereum Classic (ETC). [7] [8] [9] Ethereum was initially described in a white paper by Vitalik Buterin , [10] a programmer involved with Bitcoin Magazine , in late 2013 with a goal of buildin Continue reading >>

Frontier Is Coming - What To Expect, And How To Prepare - Ethereum Blog

Frontier Is Coming - What To Expect, And How To Prepare - Ethereum Blog

Initial Thawing: Gas limits during the first few days The first software release of Frontier will have a hardcoded Gas limit per block of 5,000 Gas. Unlike the normal Gas per block parameter, this special limit will not grow proportionally to the network usage effectively preventing transacting during the first few days. This thawing period will enable miners to start their operations and early adopters to install their clients without having to rush. After a few days (likely 3-4, but this could change), well release a small software update which all clients will have to install. This update will see the Gas limit per block raised to 3 million, an initial number from which it will expand or contract as per the default miner settings. Were very happy with how the Olympic testing phase of the Ethereum Testnet took shape. That said, the work on the Frontier software is far from over. Expect weekly updates which will give you access to better, more stable clients. Many of the planned Frontier gotchas (which included a chain reset at Homestead, limiting mining rewards to 10%, and centralized checkpointing) were deemed unnecessary. However, there are still big differences between Frontier and Homestead. In Frontier, were going to have issues, were going to have updates, and there will be bugs users are taking their chances when using the software. There will be big (BIG) warning messages before developers are able to even install it. In Frontier, documentation is limited, and the tools provided require advanced technical skills. The Canary contracts are simple switches holding a value equal to 0 or 1. Each contract is controlled by a different member of the Eth/Dev team and will be updated to 1 if the internal Frontier Disaster Recovery Team flags up a consensus issue, such Continue reading >>

Github - Ethereum/homestead-guide

Github - Ethereum/homestead-guide

It doesn't matter if you are a beginner or an expert, there are many ways to help. Help transfer and update content from the Ethereum Wiki, Ethereum Frontier Guide, the Ethereum Stack Exchange, or any other reputable source to relevant pages of the Homestead guide. Alternatively, write your own content for the guide based on experience. Make sure the documentation you are porting over is still accurate and follows our guidelines for the Homestead docs ( ). Have a look at our guide ( ) and give us feedback by visiting our Gitter Chatroom ( ) or submit a pull request or issue to this repo. Too EZ. Your name will forever be immortalized, both in my heart and on the Contributors page in the guide.As a side effect, you may also get those good feels that you get when you help improve documentation :-) This project uses Sphinx ( ) to build html that is published to Read the Docs. To run this documentation on your computer, you should do the following: For OSX/Linux users (based on instructions here: ). Sphinx as of 1.4.0 no longer automatically installs sphinx_rtd_theme, hence its addition below. From command line: sudo pip install sphinx sphinx_rtd_theme In a terminal window, go to your homestead-guide directory. Continue reading >>

Why Isn't Ethereum Frontier A Safe Platform?

Why Isn't Ethereum Frontier A Safe Platform?

The primary reason Frontier is not "safe" is because: In short, were doing everything possible to make Frontier a safe place to test Ethereum with real value, but we are also strongly discouraging people from using Ether on the Frontier network which they are unwilling to lose. Frontier is intended largely for people who are writing and testing tooling for mining and exchanges, and perhaps a few of the more hardy dApp developers. It is not a general release that we expect ordinary users to interact with at all, although you might download a client and mine a little Ether just because you can. The show really starts at Homestead, and well have more news about Homesteads features later. For developers, the Ethereum blog post that introduced Frontier , also left open the question that "state in contracts is will likely be erased". Frontier has performed well to the extent that this open question appears to be resolved in the direction that the state of contracts will be safe and preserved. EDIT: Indeed there will be no chain reset . Many of the planned Frontier gotchas (which included a chain reset at Homestead, limiting mining rewards to 10%, and centralized checkpointing) were deemed unnecessary. Currently Ethereum Frontier is still undergoing massive changes, and there are a lot of bugs and features left unimplemented. For example, scalability is a concern and there is the possibility of changing that via the consensus algorithm (see Casper). Also Solidity is still being fully implemented and not fully there as of yet. Point being, it works, it's just not very user friendly ATM. There are still a lot of bugs left to fix and features needed to implement and even changes to the protocol itself. So I'd say if you know what you're doing (you know your way around the termin Continue reading >>

Phases Of Ethereum - Ether Basics

Phases Of Ethereum - Ether Basics

The launch process of Ethereum is divided into 4 milestonesphases (the release steps) in order to give the development a structure and thus to proceed as quickly as possible. You can find the original plan in English here: Ethereum Launch Process . We have summarized the four main milestones for you: Frontier is the Ethereum network in its most minimalistic form. An interface in the form of a command line (command line) for merging ethers and for uploading and executing Ether Contracts. Miners can configure and start their mining rigs. Trade exchanges may include ether to trade. With the Frontier release, people can test Dapps for the first time and purchase Ether to upload their own software in Ethereum. Ethereum is referred to herein as A SAFE DECENTRALIZED SOFTWARE PLATFORM wherein the word SAFE is red-crossed. The Homestead Phase was initiated after Frontier was extensively tested and classified by the core developers as stable and safe. In this phase, the red SAFE was removed. Ethereum is now considered safe. The development stage of Ethereum remains beta in this phase. From the Homestead release, the first major projects in Ethereum are being developed and implemented. The Metropolis phase will be reached as soon as an official interface is released for technically inexperienced users. Similarly, Mist is to be introduced and its own dapp store. This is expected to include some fully functional programs designed to demonstrate the strength of the Ethereum network. Between the Homestead and the Metropolis release, there will probably be one or more intermediate steps. Metropolis will be implemented in two steps: Serenity is the fourth and final phase of Ethereum. Because PoW (Proof of Work) entails an enormous waste of energy, the developers want to find an alterna Continue reading >>

The Ethereum Releases Of Frontier, Homestead, Metropolis And Serenity.

The Ethereum Releases Of Frontier, Homestead, Metropolis And Serenity.

The Ethereum releases of Frontier, Homestead, Metropolis and Serenity. The Ethereum release process has seen the usual delays - as of course it's software and never going to be ready on time - as there are always going to be be multiple unknowns that aren't factored into the build. This is especially true of such an ambitious build as Ethereum. Also with the ethereum launch process there have been numerous changes of plan that have led to a myriad of conflicting reports that are still out there as to exactly the roadmap is. The blocktime was changes, the block reward was changed and a few other key planned developments were kicked down the road. Again this is all to be expected as that is the nature of development. The other mitigating factor is that after raising money in Bitcoin from the ether crowdsale, there was a huge drop in price - and rumours of rather liberal distributions of cash instead of budgetry discipline by the Ethereum foundation. This led to the foundation having to cut costs and send of their programmers to run their own projects build on the ethereum blockchain. this has doubled the time the ethereum foundations cash reserves will last. Frontier was the initial release of the ethereum network pushed live in July 2015. It was a bare bones release planning to allow the more technically minded to release their own apps, allow people to mine, and get exchanges up and running. Homestead was planned to be released after a month of frontier going live as a best case scenario. As of January 2016 the Homestead release is about 80% complete - but the goals have been altered somewhat as frontier took in a large part of its projected development pipeline - for example the block reward was set to the full 5 ether. In its new form Homestead has become more of a p Continue reading >>

What Is Ethereum? | Ethereum Frontier Guide

What Is Ethereum? | Ethereum Frontier Guide

Ethereum, like any advanced system, will mean different things to different people. As you read this section, some bits may not resonate with you or even make sense. That is fine, just skip to the next paragraph and hopefully that one will be more enlightening. If you reach the end of this section and still feel confused, then jump on a forum and start asking questions. "It is very possible that ... one machine would suffice to solve all the problems ... of the whole [world]" - Sir Charles Darwin, 1946* In a technical sense, Ethereum is a "world computer". Harking back to the days of the mainframe, and probably about as fast, Ethereum can be viewed as a single computer that the whole world can use. It notionally has only a single processor (no multi-threading or parallel execution), but as much memory as required. Anybody can upload programs to the Ethereum World Computer and anybody can request that a program that has been uploaded be executed. This does not mean that anyone can ask any program to do anything; on the contrary: the author of the program can specify that requests from anyone but themselves be ignored, for example. Also, in a very strong sense, every program has its own permanent storage that persists between executions. Furthermore, as long as it is in demand, the Ethereum World Computer will always be there: it can't be shut down or turned off. You may ask, "why would anyone use such a system?" and again there are many reasons. The main reason is because it makes what you want to do cheaper and easier. This statement needs to be broken down somewhat, which is what the following paragraphs explore. "Technology gives us the facilities that lessen the barriers of time and distance - the telegraph and cable, the telephone, radio, and the rest." - Emily Gre Continue reading >>

Ethereum Frontier - Crypto Mining Blog

Ethereum Frontier - Crypto Mining Blog

All About BTC, LTC, ETH mining as well as other alternative crypto currencies Some Updates and Additional Tips for Mining Ethereum Mining for Ethereums Ether (ETH) coins is turning out to be a problem as it is still in its very early stages, it is still hard for non-advanced users to get started with it. Evven when you follow a guide like our guide on How to Mine Ethereum on Windows yuo can get to another challenge like the mining pool refusing your connections. This has happened today with the ethpool stopping to accept new miners resulting in connections for users trying to use new wallet addresses getting refused while all older miners can still continue to use the pool. The problem here is that ethpool is still the only Ethereum mining pool, so now the only alternative for new users is to solo mine we have prepared a guide on getting started with Solo GPU Mining Ethereum on Windows . With solo mining however the risks are higher, but the rewards can also be higher if you turn up lucky, there is however no point in solo mining with CPU as the hashrate will be pretty low and you will need a lot of luck to hit a block. We have updated our mining package that includes the geth client for generating a local Ethereum wallet and also needed for solo mining to the latest version, it is compiled for 64-bit Windows. The package also includes two versions of ethminer (also 64-bit only), the standard one with CPU and OpenCL mining as a part of cpp-ethereum and a second one forked to support CUDA as well. Note that the CUDA version can be used to mine with the CPU, OpenCL and CUDA and you should be are able to use OpenCL on Nvidia GPUs as well. The CUDA miner should work on GPUs with Compute 2.0 or later, but if you are having trouble running the CUDA miner you can try with the Continue reading >>

Ethereum Announces The Launch Of Homestead

Ethereum Announces The Launch Of Homestead

Ethereum Announces the Launch of Homestead Ethereum team announced the release of the second major version of the Ethereum platform, called Homestead. On February 29, the Ethereum team announced the release of the second major version of the Ethereum platform, called Homestead. Its first version called Frontier attracted attention of leading financial institutions and banks worldwide. Homestead features several protocol changes including the EIP-2, EIP-7 and EIP-8. The newly released client (1.3.4) will soon be followed by release 1.4 which will finish introducing the new features and functions developed in the past few months. Amid the development and distribution of the remaining features, the teams at Ethereum will collaborate to create a roadmap for its clients and sub-protocols, such as the Bitcoin crowdfunding platform Swarm and Whisper. The Ethereum team launched their first beta version of Ethereum, called Frontier, on July 30, 2015, after closing their Proof-of-Concept series with the PoC hackathon on March 5. The decentralized smart contract-enabled network attracted the likes of leading financial establishments and multi-billion dollar banks worldwide, increasing the value of Ethereum as a cryptocurrency dramatically. Frontier’s highly anticipated debut was a success, with miners from all over the world connecting to the network free of technical glitches or any other complications. A few months after its launch, the Ethereum team and the community dealt with consensus bugs and network issues, which surfaced on the Frontier network, collaborating in an efficient manner to solve issues experienced by its users and miners. With most of the major issues and technical difficulties now resolved, the Ethereum team announced that they are ready to launch Homestea Continue reading >>

The Homestead Release

The Homestead Release

cost for creating contracts via a transaction is increased from 21000 to 53000. Contract creation from a contract using the CREATE opcode is unaffected. transaction signatures whose s-value is greater than secp256k1n/2 are now considered invalid If contract creation does not have enough gas to pay for the final gas fee for adding the contract code to the state, the contract creation fails (ie. goes out-of-gas) rather than leaving an empty contract. Change the difficulty adjustment algorithm EIP 7: DELEGATECALL : Add a new opcode, DELEGATECALL at 0xf4, which is similar in idea to CALLCODE, except that it propagates the sender and value from the parent scope to the child scope, ie. the call created has the same sender and value as the original call. This means contracts can store pass through information while following msg.sender and msg.value from its parent contract. Great for contracts which create contracts but don’t repeat additional information which saves gas. See comments on EIP 7 EIP 8: devp2p Forward Compatibility compliance with the Robustness Principle Changes to the RLPx Discovery Protocol and RLPx TCP transfer protocol to ensure that all client software in use on the Ethereum network can cope with future network protocol upgrades. For older versions of an Ethereum client, updates to the network protocol weren’t being accepted by older clients and would refuse communication if the hello packets didn’t meet expectations. This update means all future versions of the client will accept incoming network upgrades and handshakes. EIP-2/1 eliminates the excess incentive to create contracts via transactions, where the cost is 21000, rather than contracts, where the cost is 32000. EIP-2/1 also fixes the protocol “bug” that with the help of suicide refunds, Continue reading >>

Introduction | Ethereum Frontier Guide

Introduction | Ethereum Frontier Guide

The word mining originates in the context of the gold analogy for crypto currencies. Gold or precious metals are scarce, so are digital tokens, and the only way to increase the total volume is through mining it. This is appropriate to the extent that in Ethereum too, the only mode of issuance post launch is via the mining. Unlike these examples however, mining is also the way to secure the network by creating, verifying, publishing and propagating blocks in the blockchain. Mining Ether = Securing the network = verify computation Ethereum Frontier like all blockchain technologies uses an incentive-driven model of security. Consensus is based on choosing the block with the highest total difficulty. Miners produce blocks which the others check for validity. Among other well-formedness criteria, a block is only valid if it contains proof of work (PoW) of a given difficulty. Note that in Ethereum 1.1, this is likely gonna be replaced by a proof of stake model. [The proof of work algorithm used is called Ethash (a modified version of Dagger-Hashimoto involves finding a nonce input to the algorithm so that the result is below a certain threshold depending on the difficulty. The point in PoW algorithms is that there is no better strategy to find such a nonce than enumerating the possibilities while verification of a solution is trivial and cheap. If outputs have a uniform distribution, then we can guarantee that on average the time needed to find a nonce depends on the difficulty threshold, making it possible to control the time of finding a new block just by manipulating difficulty. The difficulty dynamically adjusts so that on average one block is produced by the entire network every 12 seconds (ie., 12 s block time). This heartbeat basically punctuates the synchronisation o Continue reading >>

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