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Ethereum Eip 100

Private Blockchain - How To Specify Eip100 In Parity Chain Spec? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Private Blockchain - How To Specify Eip100 In Parity Chain Spec? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

How to specify eip100 in Parity chain spec? In a Parity chain spec file, how can I include EIP100? I do not see it in the default file here to copy: Seems to be eip100bTransition in Parity. See here for where the calculation is implemented in the code. parity/ethcore/src/ethereum/ethash.rs line 369: Thank you. Now I also know a way of searching a Github codebase (without downloading and grep-ing) so thank you again. stone212 Nov 1 '17 at 12:05 For public networks, the eipxxx declarations are of the form (for example): "eip140Transition": 4370000,"eip211Transition": 4370000,"eip214Transition": 4370000,"eip658Transition": 4370000, That is, you declare the transition and the block at which the transition occurred. (Block 4370000 equates to the Byzantium hard fork.) In the code you can then use eipxxx in conditionals to execute code-paths that will change after the transitions (by comparing with the current block number). Back to eip100Transition. Firstly, it's not clear to me that the code for EIP-100 has actually been completed/committed. eip100Transition isn't used anywhere in either the Parity or Geth codebase. Secondly, in a private network, which won't have the hard forks that the public network did, there's no need to include the EIP transitions. You can just define the code the behave how you want it to behave. Also, I believe setting the eipxxx entries to 0 will cause your chain to work as if the transition has already happened. (i.e. The transition "occurred" at block 0, so all subsequent blocks are considered after the transition.) Continue reading >>

Metropolis: Byzantine, The First Part Of Ethereums Planned Hard Fork, Activates October 17

Metropolis: Byzantine, The First Part Of Ethereums Planned Hard Fork, Activates October 17

Recently the first part of the Metropolis hard fork launched on Ethereums Ropsten testnet. On October 17, the hard fork is scheduled to go live on main net. To stay part of the network, every user has to update their client. But what does Metropolis actually change? Is the hard fork a big hit or does it disappoint against the high expectations? On October 17, Ethereum will reach the third stage of its life cycle. After passing Frontier and Homestead, another hard fork will ring in the Metropolis era. The first part of the hard fork will activate some changes, which are not as fundamental as expected, but will significantly change Ethereum nevertheless. On the Ropsten testnet, the hard fork already happened on September 25. On main net, the upgrade is scheduled to activate at block 4,370,000. When this happens anticipated during the morning of October 17 every client must have upgraded. Those which havent will be cut off from the network. The original plan was to transform Ethereum from proof of work to proof of stake. Such a transition would have fired the miners with their graphic cards and replaced them with investors, which stake with their coins. A radical transformation of the basic design of Ethereum will not happen with Metropolis. The developers postponed it to the fourth and last phase of Ethereum, Serenity, to keep the Metropolis hard fork closer to the ground. To coordinate the fork better, it was split in two parts; Byzantine and Constantinople. The first part, Byzantine, is what is in line. But what will it have inside? We will take a look at the changes, one by one, and try to decrypt them. Currently the Ice Age algorithm still increases the mining difficulty exponentially. This can be seen in the statistics of the network; the minting of new ether decrea Continue reading >>

Ethereum Update Goes Live On October 17th

Ethereum Update Goes Live On October 17th

Ethereum Update Goes Live on October 17th The Byzantium hard fork opens the doors to moving to a proof-of-stake blockchain. The network will be in test mode until October 17, when the official update will come live. The next planned hard fork on the Ethereum blockchain has an official date- October 17th. Until then, the blockchain will run the Byzantium update on the Ropsten test net, where transactions can be tested without a gas price. Byzantium is the first part of the Metropolis stage on the Ethereum project. The updates were split, and the next hard fork, Constantinople, was delayed to achieve a smoother running of the blockchain. The Byzantium version has been running on Ropsten since September 18. The most prominent feature of the update would be the possibility for anonymous transactions based on the algorithm of ZCash. After October 17, users of MyEtherWallet will be safe with an automatic update. Users of Geth or Parity would have to update. There will be only one Ethereum network after the hard fork- it is a planned update, and not a split off where two chains are supported. The Byzantium update will benefit miners, at least for the next 18 months. There was a visible uptick in mining difficulty for Ethereum starting from September 21. The update will delay the difficulty time bomb and prevent those difficulty spikes. The change is based on the EIP-649 , which is only a part of the changes related to the hard fork. The lower difficulty will also come with a block reward of 3ETH instead of 5ETH, as it is now. Other mining changes include a more equitable reward when two miners discover a block at the same time. The so-called "uncle" blocks also receive a reward, but do not continue to exist as a separate blockchain- only one valid block remains. Also, new blo Continue reading >>

Change Difficulty Adjustment To Target Mean Block Time Including Uncles #100

Change Difficulty Adjustment To Target Mean Block Time Including Uncles #100

Currently, the formula to compute the difficulty of a block includes the following logic: adj_factor = max(1 - ((timestamp - parent.timestamp) // 10), -99)child_diff = int(max(parent.difficulty + (parent.difficulty // BLOCK_DIFF_FACTOR) * adj_factor, min(parent.difficulty, MIN_DIFF)))... If block.number >= METROPOLIS_FORK_BLKNUM, we change the first line to the following: adj_factor = max(1 + len(parent.uncles) - ((timestamp - parent.timestamp) // 9), -99) adj_factor = max((2 if len(parent.uncles) else 1) - ((timestamp - parent.timestamp) // 9), -99) This new formula ensures that the difficulty adjustment algorithm targets a constant average rate of blocks produced including uncles, and so ensures a highly predictable issuance rate that cannot be manipulated upward by manipulating the uncle rate. The formula can be fairly easily seen to be (to within a tolerance of ~3/4194304) mathematically equivalent to assuming that a block with k uncles is equivalent to a sequence of k+1 blocks that all appear with the exact same timestamp, and this is likely the simplest possible way to accomplish the desired effect. Changing the denominator from 10 to 9 ensures that the block time remains roughly the same (in fact, it should decrease by ~3% given the current uncle rate of 7%). (1b) accomplishes almost the same effect but has the benefit that it depends only on the block header (as you can check the uncle hash against the blank hash) and not the entire block. Continue reading >>

Geth 1.7 - Megara - Ethereum Blog

Geth 1.7 - Megara - Ethereum Blog

The Go Ethereum team is proud to announce the next release family of Geth, the first incarnation focusing on laying the groundwork for the upcoming Metropolis hard forks (Byzantium and Constantinople), consisting of 125+ code contributions forvarious parts of the project. The current incarnation of Geth contains all the Byzantium EIPs implemented and also features the fork block number 1,700,000 for the Ropsten testnet transition. The block numbers for Rinkeby and the main Ethereum network will be finalized when Ropsten is deemed stable. You can find details about individual protocol updates at the following locations: EIP 98 : Removal of intermediate state roots from receipts ( #14750 ). Expanded by EIP 658 : Embedding transaction return data in receipts ( #15014 ). EIP 100 : Change difficulty adjustment to target mean block time including uncles ( #14733 ). EIP 214 (116) : Expanding the EVM with static contract calls ( #14978 ). EIP 211 : Expanding the EVM with dynamically sized return data ( #14981 ). EIP 206 (140) : Expanding the EVM with cheap state revertals ( #14983 ). EIP 649 : Delaying the difficulty bomb and reducing the block reward ( #15028 ). EIP 684 : Preventing overwriting contracts (Byzantium prep) ( #15039 ). Aside from the Byzantium hard fork, the 1.7 release series of Geth is aimed to focus primarily on performance improvements. The first release of the family already packs a heavy punch with two database schema modifications resulting in significant optimizations: Transaction and receipt storage was completely reworked, cutting the data storage requirements of a fast synced node in half, from 26.3GB to 14.9GB at the time of the implementation ( #14801 ). EVM log storage and indexing was completely reworked, cutting the filtering time of the entire c Continue reading >>

Notes On Ethereum Hard Fork Procedures

Notes On Ethereum Hard Fork Procedures

A countdown timer can be seen at fork.codetract.io Below are the official notes from the Ethereum team regarding the start of the Byzantium hard fork, which is a two part series of upgrades to the network. While there were some Ethereum and ERC20 deposit and withdrawal suspensions lasting up to 5 hours to 24 hours on some exchanges, many companies such as Coinbase and others are only bumping up the number of confirmations before a transaction is confirmed, thus causing some temporary delays. The Ethereum network hard fork will be in progress atblock number 4.37mil (4,370,000), approximately occurring between 12:00 UTC and 13:00 UTC today, MondayOctober 16, 2017. The Ropsten test network underwent a hard fork on September 19th (UTC) at block number 1.7mil (1,700,000). What is Metropolis, Byzantium, and Constantinople? Metropolis is a planned Ethereum development phase that includes two hard forks: Byzantium and Constantinople. Byzantium is occurring at block number 4.37mil. Constantinople does not currently have a release date, but is expected in 2018. Download the latest version of your Ethereum client: What if I am using a web or mobile Ethereum wallet like MyEtherWallet or Jaxx? Ethereum websites and mobile applications that allow you to store ether and/or make transactions are running their own Ethereum client infrastructure to facilitate their services. If you use a third-party web-based or mobile Ethereum wallet, your wallet provider may need to update for the hard fork. It is recommended that you check with them to see what actions they are taking to update for the hard fork and if they are asking their users to take other steps. A hard fork is a change to the underlying Ethereum protocol, creating new rules to improve the system. The protocol changes are activat Continue reading >>

High Stakes: Ethereum's Fight Over Lost Funds Explained

High Stakes: Ethereum's Fight Over Lost Funds Explained

High Stakes: Ethereum's Fight Over Lost Funds Explained Feb 23, 2018 at 13:30 UTC|UpdatedFeb 25, 2018 at 10:31 UTC The "world computer" is ensnared again in a heated debate. Sparked by a controversial code proposal called EIP 867 , ethereum's development forums have become something of a battleground, crowded with bitter commentary, snide pull-requests and coordinated attempts to erase the idea from the platform's repository. For those unfamiliar, the conflict surrounds an effort to make it easier for ethereum users to reclaim lost ether (ETH), the network's cryptocurrency (now valued at $870), outlining a process by which such requests could be submitted in a clear and executable format to those who maintain the technology. No small problem, fund losses on ethereum have become frequent. High-profile cases, such as the deletion of a code library from leading software company Parity Technologies saw 513,774.16 ETH or $421 million rendered inaccessible last year . And just months before, the same company lost 150,000 ether, or $123 million, due to a code error. But it's not just Parity. Last year, a faulty ethereum address generator saw Kraken exchange and wallet provider MyEtherWallet lose hundreds of thousands of customer funds. And many more, whether due to glitchy software or simple typos, have lost money on platform -- one address even holds a total of $6.3 million in ether because it too closely mirrors a call code that automatically locks up funds. But while some users think refunding the lost ether is acceptable, a side effect of enabling digital fund ownership and the accountability that entails, others are vehemently opposed, believing that such efforts threaten the integrity of the ethereum platform, while raising potential legal liabilities. Indeed, one core Continue reading >>

Metropolis: Upcoming Ethereum Hard Fork | Finance World

Metropolis: Upcoming Ethereum Hard Fork | Finance World

Metropolis is the next, already partially implemented, major update of the Ethereum project, the second-last one actually. Metropolis implementation requires two hard forks which are named Bizantium (this one has already been implemented) and Constantinople (the upcoming one, which will probably be implemented in a few months). The EIPs (Ethereum Improvement Proposals) included in Bizantium were: EIP 140: It permits to handle errors without consuming all the GAS EIP 658: The success or failures of transactions are now indicated in transaction receipts EIP 196 & EIP 197: Some mathemagic permitting ZK-Snarks and other cryptographic goodies EIP 198: Some math implementation that enables RSA signature verification and other cryptographic sweets EIP 211: Support for variable length return values EIP 214: Adds a function that permits to call another contract (or itself) while disallowing any modifications to the state during the call EIP 100: The uncle blocks are now taken into account by the difficulty adjustment formula (which impedes difficulty manipulation by uncle blocks manipulation) EIP 649: Delayed the difficulty bomb by 1 year and reduces the block reward from 5 to 3 Improved the ways errors are handled by lowering their GAS price. Made possible ZK-Snarks, which render possible anonymity on a level that wasnt possible on Ethereum before. Lowered the block reward and postponed the difficulty bomb Made Ethereum more secure in some ways (most of which need implementation by smart contract developers) What will be implemented by the means of the Constantinople hard fork? We still dont know all about the changes that Constantinople will bring to Ethereum but we know some that will definitely be a part of it and some that could. What will (definitely) be brought by Consta Continue reading >>

Understanding Byzantium & What It Represents To The Ethereum Network

Understanding Byzantium & What It Represents To The Ethereum Network

Today, at 1:22AM ET, Byzantium was activated on the Ethereum Network. Byzantium is the first version of Metropolis, Ethereums second major update. Given the breadth of changes proposed by Metropolis, the update was split into two distinct hard forks, Byzantium and Constantinople. A hard fork requires all participants of the network to update the software that they use to interact with the Ethereum blockchain. If a percentage of these participants refuses to update, two Blockchains are created and the network is split. Thankfully, as of 11:30AM ET, the Ethereum blockchain remains unified, and the majority of the network is using the update. Although activation appears to have been successful, there still seems to be some confusion as to what Byzantium represents. Below we will attempt to explain this update, and give our perspective on what it represents to the Ethereum Network. The main goal of the Byzantium update is to remove inefficiencies identified in the current version, incorporate improvements identified since the release of Homestead, and lay the foundational infrastructure for major projects currently being researched by the core development team. The update has been highly anticipated as it incorporates multiple Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) that have been developed and tested following the release of Homestead, Ethereums current version. Some of the changes being introduced by Byzantium include: 1) Instituting a Blockchain difficulty delay and a reduction in block rewards (EIP 649) Since the launch of the Ethereum Network, it was clear to the core development team that, for Ethereum to truly scale, it would have to change its consensus mechanism from Proof of Work to Proof of Stake. Because Ethereum has thousands of nodes that reach consensus via Pr Continue reading >>

Ethereum's Metropolis Hard Fork Is Finally Here

Ethereum's Metropolis Hard Fork Is Finally Here

Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based, distributed, computing platform featuring smart contract functionality. Since its creation, Ethereum has undergone some hardforking. The DAO hardfork subsequently led to other Ethereum forks two times in the fourth quarter of 2016, to deal with other attacks. By the end of November 2016, Ethereum had increased its DDoS protection, distended the blockchain, and prevented further spam attacks by hackers. Ethereums change into Metropolis is a case study into the multidisciplinary, dynamic, inner workings of how the decentralized application platform functions. Ethereums developers informed the world regarding the upcoming changes to the Ethereum ecosystem, which is the next milestone release for the Ethereum Platform. The two separate hard forks making up the Metropolis changes will be Byzantium and Constantinople respectively. Both hard forks will gradually introduce major updates to the greater Ethereum ecosystem. The hard-fork is highly awaited, ever since the Ethereumroadmapfor 2017 was released within the first past five months of this year. People active in the ETH world are anxiously anticipating the activation of this hard fork. Metropolis will hit Ropsten testnet for private testing of its scalability solution. First, per the latest information from the Ethereum Foundation , when the Ethereum network reaches block number 1,700,000, the Byzantium hard fork will go live on Ethereums Ropsten testnet. The actual network upgrade to Metropolis proper is slated for early October 9, depending on how Ropsten testing goes. The new zk-SNARKs , zero-knowledge proofs, will allow users to perform transactions which are anonymous in new and more powerful ways across the platform. Additionally, smart contracts will be helped Continue reading >>

Ethereums Vitalik Buterin Gives Keynote On Metropolis

Ethereums Vitalik Buterin Gives Keynote On Metropolis

Ethereums Vitalik Buterin Gives Keynote On Metropolis Vitalik Buterin went to an Ethereum meetup in Singapore and gave a keynote presentation on the planned Metropolis hard fork. Vitalik Buterin was recently at an Ethereum meetup in Singapore. He was there to give a keynote presentation on Metropolis, the upcoming planned hard fork of the network. Metropolis has been on the Ethereum roadmap for some time now. Due to unforeseen events, like The DAO hack, Ethereum developers were forced to deviate from their original plans. That detour led the software engineers to work on improving core client efficiency and to focus on increasing security of the system overall. Now that things have calmed down, and the Ethereum platform is that much more secure, the core developers are able to focus on improving the protocol and moving towards Metropolis. In his keynote, Vitalik touched on some of the more exciting improvements currently being worked on for Ethereum. He spoke about progress made regarding light clients and mobile implementations, and listed out all the Ethereum Improvement Protocols (EIP) that would be rolled out in a Metropolis release. Those EIPs are: Make the protocol as simple as possible Any account in the call execution chain can pay for gas Instead of only the account that sent the transaction A recipient, or middle account, could pay the gas cost Helps anonymization, instead of needing to use only one account to pay for gas EIP 98 (removal of intermediate state roots) Goal: Make it easier to process transactions in parallel EIP 100 (target block time including uncles) Make it easier to verify certain types of cryptography Ethereum supports elliptic curve cryptography RSA encryption is used by others, and is currently computationally inefficient to verify in Eth Continue reading >>

Metropolis Part 2: Constantinople And What It Brings To Ethereum

Metropolis Part 2: Constantinople And What It Brings To Ethereum

After a successful integration of the first part of the Metropolis Hard Fork, Byzantium, Ethereum has its eyes set on Constantinople. The second part of the Metropolis hard fork will introduce new features and may finally include the foundations for the Casper Proof-of-Stake . According to the most recent Ethereum Core Dev Meeting , Constantinople will be shedding light onto a new hybrid PoS/PoW blockchain. With this new update, transactions on the Ethereum network will continue to be mined using the current Proof of Work ( PoW ) Consensus Algorithm, but 1 out of every 100 blocks will be validated using the new Proof of Stake consensus algorithm. The difficulty time bomb or better known as the Ethereum Ice Age, was delayed in Byzantium due to the increase in block times coming up to the initial fork. With Constantinople, there will be no delay in the difficulty time bomb and we can expect to see the effects of the Ice Age in about ~12 months. The difficulty time bomb is a mechanism used to make mining less profitable and much harder in order to forcefully move network participants towards the Proof of Stake chain. Another EIP ( Ethereum Improvement Protocol ) which was set to be included in Byzantium, but later deferred to be included in Constantinople, is EIP-86 . EIP-86 brings account abstraction to the Ethereum network which will allow users to have more control over their private keys. EIP-86 will also allow for smart contracts to pay transaction fees rather than always having the sender settle the Gas payments. Overall, Constantinople will be introducing the much needed building blocks for Ethereums switch to the Casper Proof of Stake protocol. It will also be re-introducing some improvements that were meant to be included in Byzantium but were deferred to Constan Continue reading >>

Ethereum Byzantium Hard Fork: So Far So Good, So What?

Ethereum Byzantium Hard Fork: So Far So Good, So What?

Ethereum Byzantium hard fork: So far so good, so what? The Ethereum network completed the planned hard fork, Byzantium, at block number 4,370,000 at 05.22 UTC. What changes did Byzantium bring to Ethereum? Byzantium, the fifth hard fork on Ethereum network so far, is a change to the protocol with new rules which improve the system. For instance, the fork brought increased block mining speed (estimated to be ~14.1 sec in the end) which means lower transaction times for Ethereum users. Before Byzantium, the block generation speed was ~30 secs. Thus the decrease will be almost 50%. It remains to be seen, how much this can affect the actual transaction verification times. Byzantium also decreased the reward to miners, which was 5 Eth per block before the hard fork. The mining reward from is now 3 Eth per mined block, meaning a 40% revenue decrease for miners. At the time of writing this article, the block times were well below the 20s , while the difficulty has fallen almost 50% from 3,000T to 1,634T. All Ethereum clients needed to upgrade, otherwise, they would be stuck on an incompatible chain following the old rules. At the time of writing, mining on the old chain has ceased. The developers celebrated as everything went smoothly. Hard fork celebration! pic.twitter.com/mL1ZyJOYeA Vitalik "No I'm not giving away ETH" Buterin (@VitalikButerin) October 16, 2017 The fork of the second largest cryptocurrency by market cap also means that there is now a 'hard' EOL limit for mining GPUs with 3GB . These GPUs will stop mining Eth next year. Continue reading >>

Ethereum Price Analysis: Eth/usd Stays Above 100-sma; Ethereum Developers Close Security Black Hole

Ethereum Price Analysis: Eth/usd Stays Above 100-sma; Ethereum Developers Close Security Black Hole

Ethereum price analysis: ETH/USD stays above 100-SMA; Ethereum developers close security black hole Ethereum developers fixed "eclipse attack" flaw. Ethereum climbed above 50% Fibo, but bullish momentum is weak. ETH/USD is locked in a tight range, though the coin managed to climb above the long-term downside trendline, which is a bullish sign that needs further confirmation. If compared to Bitcoin, Ethereum is underperforming grossly, as it has lost 0.24% during the week, while the competing coin gained over 12% for the same period. Meanwhile, quarrels about EIP 867 protocol are not the only thing Ethereum developers indulge themselves with. According to the latest news report, they released the patch that closes a severe security vulnerability that allowed Internet users easily manipulate the access to the publicly accessible ledger. The vulnerability is known as eclipse attacks; it prevents a cryptocurrency user from connecting to honest peers. According to Bleepingcomputer, eclipse attacks are possible even on Bitcoin network, though Ethereum architecture makes them easier on ETH blockchain. Ethereum price stays above both 100-SMA and 50-SMA on the hourly chart ($860.00 and $857.00 respectively). While the general sentiment remains positive as long as ETH/USD stays above 50% Fibonacci retracement level at $856.00, the bullish momentum is fading as the price failed to get to $870.00 resistance. Information on these pages contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Markets and instruments profiled on this page are for informational purposes only and should not in any way come across as a recommendation to buy or sell in these securities. You should do your own thorough research before making any investment decisions. FXStreet does not in Continue reading >>

Explaining Eip 150 : Ethereum

Explaining Eip 150 : Ethereum

This covers all opcodes that access a piece of the state that has not already been accessed before (eg. CODECOPY copies the code that is currently being called, but that code has already been loaded so it doesn't count). SLOAD gets a 5x cost increase, most other opcodes in the 10-20x range. This accounts for the fact that IO operations were underpriced in the original gas cost table, with their gas cost not reflecting the high amount of time needed to access the opcodes. SUICIDE gets a uniquely high 5000 gas cost because SUICIDE isn't just a state-reading operation - it's a state-chaging operation. This fork aims to preserve the invariant that all state changes consume at least 5000 gas. An additional rule is added that if a call tries to ask for too much gas, instead of failing the child simply gets the maximum allowed gas. This is necessary because currently most calls are hardcoded to ask for msg.gas - 40 gas, and any increase in the gas cost of a call would break every call; this solves that problem. (1b) adds a rule that the child of a call cannot consume more than 63/64 of the gas of the parent. This has two purposes: Supersede the "hard limit" max call stack depth with a softer limit, where creating a deep call tower would require an exponentially growing amount of gas. This completely removes call stack depth limit attacks as a category of issue that contract developers should have to worry about, as well as slightly reducing the risk of future consensus failures due to off-by-one errors. Reduce the maximum de-facto call stack depth to ~300, somewhat alleviating any future clients that end up being vulnerable to quadratic attacks. Now is arguably a very good time to do this, as both this 63/64 change and the CALL gas cost increase is something that incompatibly Continue reading >>

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