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Ethereum Constantinople Date

Ethereum Blockchain's Future With Casper And Constantinople

Ethereum Blockchain's Future With Casper And Constantinople

Ethereum Blockchain's Future With Casper And Constantinople From Casper to Constantinople and from staking to sharding, Ethereums next set of upgrades are poised to change the platform like never before. As blockchain and cryptocurrency finally make their foray into wider public awareness, core comprehension of those technologies will begin to spread faster and farther and the hype surrounding them will begin to crescendo. Decentralized systems are by nature dependent upon the network they are comprised of, so when you use the technology, you become part of growing and improving that infrastructure. As Cornell University's Emin Gn Sirer told ETHNews: "What matters, first and foremost, is a healthy community ready to evolve the underlying technology according to scientific findings, and Ethereum has that going for it in spades." So what should the Ethereum ecosystem expect moving forward into 2018 and beyond? Speaking from Taipei late last November, Vitalik Buterin outlined a new development roadmap for what he calls "Ethereum 2.0." "There isn't really a precise conception of what goes into Ethereum 2.0 and what doesn't," said the blockchain's co-founder. "Ethereum isn't a product that gets released by a company ... This is more like something that's going to end up slowly evolving over time. Even still, though, there are very major changes to Ethereum's architecture that we do expect will come over the next few years." Buterin went on to explain, "There's generally three major categories of problems that I just keep talking about every year and the reason why I keep talking about them every year is because they are big problems and they are very important problems." Although there is a significant amount of work to be done by the Ethereum Foundation and the ecosystem a Continue reading >>

Ethereum Price Analysis - Buterin Reinvents The Ico

Ethereum Price Analysis - Buterin Reinvents The Ico

Ethereum Price Analysis - Buterin reinvents the ICO Josh Olszewicz , 18 Jan 2018 - Ethereum , Opinion , Price Analysis Having gained over 11,000% last year and making a new all time high, Ethereum ( ETH ) dropped sharply this week. The market cap currently stands at US$97.1 billion, with US$7.1 billion traded over the past 24 hours. The number of transactions per day on the networks continues to rise, with Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) and Decentralized Applications (dapps) continuing to bloom. Over US$1.35 billion was raised by ICOs last year, accounting for ~83% of all ICO funding ever raised. While ETH continues to hold a relatively low Network Value to Transaction ratio, suggesting the coin is undervalued, it seems doubtful the current pace can be sustained. In an effort to create more responsible ICOs, Ethereum founder Vitalik Buterin discussed a new ICO fundraising model which borrows properties from the DAO and is dubbed a Decentralized Autonomous Initial Coin Offering (DAICO). This new model allows users to determine how much the team receives over time, by voting on the tap. The team is therefore rewarded for their performance, and not immediately given access to millions of dollars before a project is worked on or completed. The Ethereum network Hash rate and difficulty continue to rise. The most recent hard fork decreased the block reward to 3 ETH from 5 ETH, and the difficulty was lowered accordingly. Block times are up slightly, at 15 seconds. With the lowered block reward and difficulty rising, mining profitability will begin to decrease substantially, should the price remain stagnant or decrease. Rising prices generally mean rising mining profitability, but also attracts more hashing power to the network. These protocol level changes are an attempt to re Continue reading >>

Beginner's Guide To Ethereum Casper Hardfork: What You Need To Know

Beginner's Guide To Ethereum Casper Hardfork: What You Need To Know

The Casper updates mission is straightforward, then: to shift ether from being a PoW coin to a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) coin . As opposed to the PoW consensus protocol, the PoS protocol achieves consensus through stakerssometimes referred to as minters, toowho stake their coins by locking them down in specialized wallets . With these stakers at work, mining will become redundant, meaning the Ethereum network post-Casper will rely on stakers and staking pools instead of miners for its operability. And, like miners, stakers will be rewarded for their service to the network. Minters will receive an annual dividend of ether (collected from network fees), so staking would be a lucrative endeavor for those with enough coins. Naturally, then, the more ETH you stake, the larger your annual dividends will be. For now, Ethereums developers havent arrived at a hard number for the amount of ETH that will be required to stake. What they have confirmed, though, is that the number will likely start out higher before gradually being brought considerably lower. For instance, Ethereum founder Vitalik Buterin has recently thrown around a guesstimate of needing approximately 1,000 ETH to be one of the networks inaugural stakers. He said that number could be dropped down to as low as 10 ETH over time. Whatever the number ends up being, users will still be able to band together and create staking pools, just like there are robust mining pools in the Bitcoin and Ethereum communities today. Youll simply pitch your desired amount of ether in, lock in down with your peers, and rake in the dividends together (to be shared proportionally, of course). Well, the Casper update is certainly a team effort, but its inarguable that top Ethereum researcher Vlad Zamfir has been at the vanguard of the updates Continue reading >>

Lightning Network For Ethereum? Eth Surges As Casper Approaches

Lightning Network For Ethereum? Eth Surges As Casper Approaches

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Ethereum Stepping Stones: Constantinople And Casper

Ethereum Stepping Stones: Constantinople And Casper

Ethereum Stepping Stones: Constantinople And Casper With the Byzantium fork successfully behind us, it is time for the Ethereum ecosystem to look ahead to our next big update. The second Metropolis hard fork might be coming sooner than expected. Ethereums Byzantium hard fork was only one half of a two-part process designed to transition the decentralized application platform to a new method for reaching consensus proof-of-stake. The next hard fork, called Constantinople, was recently discussed during an Ethereum core developer meeting and could include Vitalik Buterins Casper update. Theoretically, Casper may well be at the stage where we may actually just try doing it for the next fork, said Buterin, referring to Constantinople, even if that sounds ambitious. When moderator Hudson Jameson asked Buterin to elaborate on Casper, Buterin responded, Hybrid proof-of-stake. The finality gadget. Ethereum developers and researchers are currently exploring two flavors of Casper: Casper FFG and Casper CBC. Casper FFG (Friendly Finality Gadget) is Buterins iteration of a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm. Per the updated Casper FFG whitepaper, Casper is a partial consensus mechanism combining proof-of-stake algorithm research and Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus theory. This change will essentially be an overlay atop Ethereums current proof-of-work blockchain. In Buterins iteration, proof-of-work would propagate the blockchain as usual. However, every fifty blocks, a checkpoint will interrupt the chain and proof-of-stake will verify consensus through finality validators. This is why Buterins version of Casper is a hybrid proof-of-work/proof-of-stake partial consensus mechanism. Casper CBC (Correct By Construction) is the brainchild of Ethereums game theory phenom Vlad Zamfir. Continue reading >>

Simplifying The Ethereum Roadmap (byzantium To Constantinople) Game Theory Group

Simplifying The Ethereum Roadmap (byzantium To Constantinople) Game Theory Group

Ethereum is many things. A golden goose of 2017. An ICO enabler. A beautiful iteration on blockchain technology. It is indeed those things, and many more. But first let's talk a moment about what Ethereum is not:scalable. Ethereum can now process about 20 transactions per second . As we all know, that's actually quite slow compared to Paypal (500/s+) and Visa (50,000/s+). Below, I'll discuss where we are today, and take you through to where we're going next. Why is this important to you? Well, knowledge is power. And the knowledge is out there for the taking... First, why is transaction speed important? Well, because people, markets and digital cats are impatient -- and the deluge of ICOs means that Ethereum transaction volume is only set to increase. Remember, they all use the same blockchain network. As I have said before, running enterprise applications on 2018 Ethereum blockchain is like trying to play Call of Duty on a 28kbs modem from 1995. At the time of this writing, about 7,000 transactions are backlogged on the Ethereum blockchain, and it's ballooned far higher than that in the past. Ethereum runs across a whole bunch 'nodes' sitting on servers around the world. Like Bitcoin, every node stores every transaction that was ever made on the entire blockchain. As of today, it looks like we're at 411 gigabytes for a full node. And every transaction has to be cryptographically solved by every node on the network so that everycomputer has the entire chain. Rinse and repeat about a million times a day, and you can see why the highway can get clogged. I've been a longtime follower of the Ethereum product roadmap and I can tell you that it's been a crazy ride. For those who want to nail the specific details: we are currently on the Byzantiumrelease of Ethereum, the firs Continue reading >>

Ethereum Price Analysis - High Interest And Demand

Ethereum Price Analysis - High Interest And Demand

Ethereum Price Analysis - High interest and demand Josh Olszewicz , 09 Feb 2018 - Ethereum , Opinion , Price Analysis Ethereum ( ETH ) has essentially moved in lock-step with Bitcoin over the past week. Having retraced over 50%, the cryptocurrency is now recovering. The market cap stands at US$79.2 billion, with US$3.18 billion in trading volume over the last 24 hours. Research and development of Ethereum's move Proof of Work (PoW) to Proof of Stake (PoS) continues, although its currently in the first of many stages. The PoS consensus mechanism, Casper, will consist of two projects that are currently being hybridized; Buterins Friendly Finality Gadget (FFG) and Zamfirs Correct By Construction (CBC). A nascent form of Casper has been running on the testnet for the past few weeks but has run into several problems with node connections. These issues suggest that Casper may not be ready for the next protocol improvement harfork, Constantinople . However, Caspers ability to finalize blocks is working as intended. Also in development are Plasma , which addresses smart contract scalability, and Sharding , a type of database partitioning designed to facilitate the growing blockchain size. The Ethereum network hash rate has continued to march North, despite a decreased block reward from 5ETH to 3ETH. Difficulty is nearing levels not seen since October, when the Byzantine hard fork effecting the block reward change was released. These changes to the are designed to discourage PoW over time, with PoS taking over the network. While Buterinand his team of developers work on the Ethereum platform, developers that can use it are in high demand. There are currently over 1000 listings for ETH dev positions on the networking site LinkedIn. A study from consensys found that ETH has over Continue reading >>

Vlad Zamfir On Twitter: Casper Release Date

Vlad Zamfir On Twitter: Casper Release Date "soon" - Ethtrader

Vlad Zamfir on Twitter: Casper release date "soon" I like Vlad, he wished us all a Merry Christmas :) I was only exposed to him recently when kitties took our network under siege. Someone mentioned some FUD about ethereum scaling and attributed it to him. I then found the source and Vlad was well-written, clearly passionate, and very smart. The FUD ended up just being FUD of course Oh, when he literally said that ETH isn't secure or scalable. can you point out where he said that please? (I sold all my ETH for $16) Hmm... I rather wait for them to show a little bit more than just the numbers. They have an internal testnet and public testnet out this year. Ive never seen a more competent team as Zilliqa, ask them any technical question on Slack and theyll respond thoroughly. Zilliqa sold out in presale, there was a small community round but too late for that. Everyone are waiting to buy on exchange for those ICX gains. I hate ICOs like that. The polkadot ICO was the most honest and fair ICO I've ever seen so far. It tells a lot about a project. But I check Zilliqa once their tokens are out The reason it sold out was because eth suddenly doubled over a week. They planned to have 50% 50% presale/ico contribution. They used Bitcoinsuisse. But Polkadot lost all their eth...and collected so much as well. I really dont like reverse dutch auctions which is basically an uncapped raise. Zilliqa stuck to their 20m + 2mil community and i prefer that to deciding to raise an unlimited amount. You have a point on the Cap - it's a good thing. From my understanding: Named after the cartoon "Casper the friendly ghost" is an upgrade that will help change ethereum from proof of work (PoW) to proof of stake (PoS). PoW - is what we have now lots of graphics cards mining and confirming transa Continue reading >>

Releases Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

Releases Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

While still valid, the substance behind Ethereum has changed, and will continue to, but will avoid making any disruptions to the operation of the network, while maintaining backwards compatibility, with the exception of the transition to Casper proof of stake. For past and planned changes, refer to here , except for Olympic and Frontier. Refer to here within the previous link for past hard forks. The original development roadmap that was laid out before Ethereum went live specified some of the following milestones: Prerelease step 0: Olympic testnet - launched May 2015 as announced here . The Olympic testnet phase saw a lot of major improvements, followed by Frontier which was launched immediately after. Release step 1.0: Frontier, launched 30 July 2015, starting from block 1 . Here is an Ethereum blog post just before the launch, here and here is a wiki. More details are here . For a formal specification, refer to the Yellow Paper frontier branch here . Release step 2.0: Homestead, launched 14 March 2016 (Pi Day) at block number 1,150,000 as announced here . For changes in the Homestead release, see this EIP . Homestead marked the exit from a beta product to a stable release. Release step 2.2: Tangerine Whistle, aka Anti-DoS, EIP 150 Release step 2.3: Spurious Dragon, aka State-clearing, EIP 158/161, was released in Nov 2016. Spurious Dragon is aiming for Dapp developers as well as end users for limited categories of applications, and had a number of security enhancements. Release Step 3.0: Metropolis phase 1: Byzantium, October 16 2017 as announced here . Byzantium aims to introduce various privacy and functionality improvements. Details are here . For the Byzantium Hard Fork, refer to here , which is an archive link showing the Byzantium EIPs. Also, refer to here fo Continue reading >>

Metropolis Part 2: Constantinople And What It Brings To Ethereum

Metropolis Part 2: Constantinople And What It Brings To Ethereum

After a successful integration of the first part of the Metropolis Hard Fork, Byzantium, Ethereum has its eyes set on Constantinople. The second part of the Metropolis hard fork will introduce new features and may finally include the foundations for the Casper Proof-of-Stake . According to the most recent Ethereum Core Dev Meeting , Constantinople will be shedding light onto a new hybrid PoS/PoW blockchain. With this new update, transactions on the Ethereum network will continue to be mined using the current Proof of Work ( PoW ) Consensus Algorithm, but 1 out of every 100 blocks will be validated using the new Proof of Stake consensus algorithm. The difficulty time bomb or better known as the Ethereum Ice Age, was delayed in Byzantium due to the increase in block times coming up to the initial fork. With Constantinople, there will be no delay in the difficulty time bomb and we can expect to see the effects of the Ice Age in about ~12 months. The difficulty time bomb is a mechanism used to make mining less profitable and much harder in order to forcefully move network participants towards the Proof of Stake chain. Another EIP ( Ethereum Improvement Protocol ) which was set to be included in Byzantium, but later deferred to be included in Constantinople, is EIP-86 . EIP-86 brings account abstraction to the Ethereum network which will allow users to have more control over their private keys. EIP-86 will also allow for smart contracts to pay transaction fees rather than always having the sender settle the Gas payments. Overall, Constantinople will be introducing the much needed building blocks for Ethereums switch to the Casper Proof of Stake protocol. It will also be re-introducing some improvements that were meant to be included in Byzantium but were deferred to Constan Continue reading >>

When Will Ethereum Mining End?

When Will Ethereum Mining End?

In August of this year (2017), Vitalik Buterin, creator of Ethereum , released the implementation guide for the first version of Casper. As a hybrid proof-of-stake (PoS)/proof-of-work (PoW) algorithm, Casper v1 is going to decrease (and eventually end) the profitability for Ethereum miners . The release date is estimated to be sometime in 2018 as part of the Constantinople hard fork and theres a lot to learn before this happens: Casper is a PoS algorithm thats projected to be released on the Ethereum network sometime in 2018. Beginning as a hybrid with the current PoW algorithm, the first version of Casper will only use a PoS consensus to validate every 100th block, called checkpoints. Once a checkpoint is validated, theres no way to go back and use a chain without it. Even if 99% of miners support a chain that doesnt include a checkpoint block, all clients in the network will still continue to use the one with the checkpoints. This removes a lot of the power that miners currently have. The Ethereum community hypothesizes that the switch to PoS will help with the scaling issues that the network is currently facing. The algorithm should enable new blocks to be created more quickly while allowing the network to scale more efficiently through sharding. Sharding is a horizontal partitioning of a large database into smaller and more easily managed parts. Beyond that, PoS algorithms also use less energy to run the network, reduce centralization, and make 51% attacks more difficult. With the upcoming hard fork, there could potentially be three forks of Ethereum: And, if youre a miner, you may be thinking, No big deal, Ill just continue to mine and give support to the Ethereum PoW fork. The Ethereum developers have stated that theyll be releasing what they call the difficulty Continue reading >>

What The Ethereum Metropolis Update Means For The Eth Holder

What The Ethereum Metropolis Update Means For The Eth Holder

What the Ethereum Metropolis Update Means For the ETH Holder On the first day of the month of August, the Bitcoin blockchain got split and gave rise to a completely new currency bitcoin cash. The miners backing the bitcoin cash blockchain were successful in officially branching off and ultimately added blocks to a new and separate blockchain. The backers of bitcoin cash believe that an economy can be built around the new currency and its blockchain. In the light of this, there is an expected update of the Ethereum blockchain. Ethereum is currently the second most popular cryptocurrency after bitcoin. This update of the Ethereum blockchain is called the Metropolis and it will be the third of four planned stages of the blockchains development. In fact this Metropolis update of Ethereum is expected to be in two parts; two hard forks Byzantium and Constantinople. The fork is projected to occur between the 22nd of September and the 27th of October. To the regular ETH holder, a better experience with the blockchain will be a welcome development and this is exactly what the Ethereum update seeks to do. It is expected that with this update, the Ethereum blockchain will be more secure and also will be more robustly equipped against any potential hack attempt by quantum computers. Ethereums anonymity is expected to be enhanced through the integration of Zcashs cryptographic engine (zk-SNARKS). This will enable direct order and trade executions between the Ethereum and Zcash blockchains. Ethereum mining will be moved from proof-of-work to proof-of-stake which will help reduce the amount of electricity consumed in mining the cryptocurrency. The decision about mining difficulty was however been delayed but rewards to miners have been reduced. Additionally, it is expected that there Continue reading >>

Ethereum Constantinople - Crypto Mining Blog

Ethereum Constantinople - Crypto Mining Blog

All About BTC, LTC, ETH mining as well as other alternative crypto currencies Ethereums Byzantium Hard Fork is Happening Tomorrow The Ethereum (ETH) network will be undergoing a planned hard fork at block number 4.37 Million (4,370,000), which will likely occur between 12:00 UTC and 13:00 UTC on Monday, October 16, 2017. Ethereum users should update to the latest version of the Ethereum wallet/Mist if they are using it as well as any of the Ethereum clients Geth, Parity or Harmony prior to the hard fork in order to be ready. Ethereum websites and mobile applications that allow you to store ether and/or make transactions are running their own Ethereum client infrastructure to facilitate their services and they should be doing the update as well in order to support he hard fork as well. A hard fork is a change to the underlying Ethereum protocol, creating new rules to improve the system. The protocol changes are activated at a specific block number. All Ethereum clients need to upgrade, otherwise they will be stuck on an incompatible chain following the old rules. Metropolis is a planned Ethereum development phase that includes two hard forks: Byzantium and Constantinople. Byzantium is occurring at block number 4.37M (the hard fork happening tomorrow), while the second part Constantinople does not currently have a release date, but is expected to happen some time in 2018. Update: The hardfork has been successful, the new block reward is 3 ETH (down from 5), but also the effective block time and difficulty have pretty much halved, so in the end miners should still be able to get a better profit at the moment compared to before the fork. Continue reading >>

The Beginners Guide To Ethereums Roadmap

The Beginners Guide To Ethereums Roadmap

The Beginners Guide to Ethereums Roadmap Ethereums mission is to become a decentralized world computer that replaces server farms. Think of it as a single computer that the whole world can use. It cant be shut down or turned off. As an overview, heres a beginners guide to Ethereum and an explanation of how it technically works . If Ethereum is a computer, then each one of these updates can be looked at as an operating system (OS). Similar to Google launching Android Oreo or Apple launching iOS 10, Ethereum is launching in four stages. Each stage adds new features and improves the user friendliness and security of the platform, while allowing Ethereum to scale. Frontier (July 2015) First live release of the Ethereum network. It allowed developers to experiment, mine Ether, and begin building dApps and tools. Homestead (March 2016) First production release of Ethereum that brought many protocol improvements which lay the foundations to future upgrades and for speeding up transactions. Metropolis (Oct 2017) Lighter, faster and more secure Ethereum broken down into two releases: Byzantium (Oct 2017) and Constantinople (TBA) Serenity (TBA) Will bring us the long-awaited Proof of Stake using the Casper consensus algorithm. All of these updates will help Ethereum scale, which means faster transaction times and lower fees for everyone. As you can see, the Ethereum team has done a great job of scaling transactions. Metropolis promises to be a lighter, faster and more secure version of Etherem. It will also provide greater flexibility to smart contract developers. Metropolis will be split into two core releases: Byzantium and Constantinople. The first hard fork (Byzantium) took place in October . The second hard fork (Constantinople) does not have a set date yet but is expected Continue reading >>

Ethereum's Proof Of Stake Casper Testnet Nears Launch

Ethereum's Proof Of Stake Casper Testnet Nears Launch

One of the biggest upgrade in ethereum, and perhaps in the entire ecosystem, might be closer to implementation than previously thought, withLane Rettig, a researcher at the Ethereum Foundation, stating : Casper FFG testnet is coming. Weve got a three-node network working with two validators. Still a few bugs to work out. Whitepapers are cool and all but seeing this come to life is amazing. Casper Friendly Finality Gadget (FFG) is a hybrid Proof of Stake (PoS) and Proof of Work (PoW) implementation developed by Vitalik Buterin, ethereums inventor, and others. This implementation is apparently sufficiently advanced to the extent it could even be incorporated in the next ethereum upgrade, Constantinople Metropolis. According to Ethnews, Buterin said : Theoretically, Casper may well be at the stage where we may actually just try doing it for the next fork, even if that sounds ambitious. There is no estimated date for the second Metropolis fork as far as we are aware. Initially, the intention was to have just one Metropolis upgrade, but some aspects were taking far too long, while much else had been finalized. Developers therefore split it into Byzantium and Constantinople, with Byzantium going through just a few weeks ago. Constantinople is now expected next and might potentially incorporate Casper. The Casper testnet is, as the name says, an environment where they can test the first version of PoS. That means the code is not finalized, but has taken form rather than being at the theoretical design stage. The purpose of the testnet is to firstly ensure security and secondly to refine it fully as coders see how it works in a virtual lab environment. It is the last stage of any upgrade, before it goes to main-net, and indicates a live launch might be just months away. When e Continue reading >>

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