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Ethereum Casper Github

Proof Of Stake Faq Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

Proof Of Stake Faq Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

See A Proof of Stake Design Philosophy for a more long-form argument. No need to consume large quantities of electricity in order to secure a blockchain (eg. it's estimated that both Bitcoin and Ethereum burn over $1 million worth of electricity and hardware costs per day as part of their consensus mechanism). Because of the lack of high electricity consumption, there is not as much need to issue as many new coins in order to motivate participants to keep participating in the network. It may theoretically even be possible to have negative net issuance, where a portion of transaction fees is "burned" and so the supply goes down over time. Proof of stake opens the door to a wider array of techniques that use game-theoretic mechanism design in order to better discourage centralized cartels from forming and, if they do form, from acting in ways that are harmful to the network (eg. like selfish mining in proof of work). Reduced centralization risks, as economies of scale are much less of an issue. $10 million of coins will get you exactly 10 times higher returns than $1 million of coins, without any additional disproportionate gains because at the higher level you can afford better mass-production equipment. Ability to use economic penalties to make various forms of 51% attacks vastly more expensive to carry out than proof of work - to paraphrase Vlad Zamfir, "it's as though your ASIC farm burned down if you participated in a 51% attack". How does proof of stake fit into traditional Byzantine fault tolerance research? There are several fundamental results from Byzantine fault tolerance research that apply to all consensus algorithms, including traditional consensus algorithms like PBFT but also any proof of stake algorithm and, with the appropriate mathematical modeling, pr Continue reading >>

Eips/eip-1011.md At Master Ethereum/eips Github

Eips/eip-1011.md At Master Ethereum/eips Github

Specification of the first step to transition Ethereum main net from Proof of Work (PoW) to Proof of Stake (PoS). The resulting consensus model is a PoW/PoS hybrid. This EIP specifies a hybrid PoW/PoS consensus model for Ethereum main net. Existing PoW mechanics are used for new block creation, and a novel PoS mechanism called Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget (FFG) is layered on top using a smart contract. Through the use of Ether deposits, slashing conditions, and a modified fork choice, FFG allows the underlying PoW blockchain to be finalized. As network security is greatly shifted from PoW to PoS, PoW block rewards are reduced. This EIP does not contain safety and liveness proofs or validator implementation details, but these can be found in the Casper FFG paper and Validator Implementation Guide respectively. epoch: The span of blocks between checkpoints. Epochs are numbered starting at the hybrid casper fork, incrementing by one at the start of each epoch. finality: The point at which a block has been decided upon by a client to never revert. Proof of Work does not have the concept of finality, only of further deep block confirmations. checkpoint: The block/hash under consideration for finality for a given epoch. This block is the last block of the previous epoch. Rather than dealing with every block, Casper FFG only considers checkpoints for finalization. When a checkpoint is explicitly finalized, all ancestor blocks of the checkpoint are implicitly finalized. validator: A participant in the Casper FFG consensus that has deposited ether in the casper contract and has the responsibility to vote and finalize checkpoints. validator set: The set of validators in the casper contract at any given time. dynasty: The number of finalized checkpoints in the chain from r Continue reading >>

Casper/pos Based Solution For Actual Ethereum Inflation Problem (see Eip186) #189

Casper/pos Based Solution For Actual Ethereum Inflation Problem (see Eip186) #189

This EIP proposes another solution for high inflation problem targeted by @huntingisland in #EIP186. Ethereum should offer a special contract used as an additional future Casper/PoS deposit storage. Miners (and only miners) should be allowed to store their freshly mined block rewards (in full or partially). This storage should have extra voting power in PoS in order to incentivize miners sufficiently to store their rewards instead of sell it. After Ethereum transition to Casper/PoS it should be possibly to get back the stake from deposit as usual. It must be an official public offer from EF/Casper development group to miners. This offer should starts ASAP and ends with the Casper/PoS is running. Casper deposit will sterilize excessive money amount, that now hits the market and dumps the price. Ethereum market will recover. Nobody takes miners money away. It is solely miner's decision to accept the offer or not. No community consensus about the EIP is necessary. PoW Miners become a convenient transition path to Casper/PoS and can keep mining later even without hardware. The EIP will increase miner's long-term loyalty to Ethereum. Community of Ethereum/PoS miners become more heterogeneous (Whales + PoW-Miners). It should increase security. Just because Casper/PoS transition is the unique Ethereum feature, Ethereum will make best offer on the hashing power market. Especially big miners could be attracted. Other PoW chains like ETC/ZEC, competing on the of mining power will not be able to make a better offer. Hash power will drain to Ethereum. PoW miners become a transition path to PoS, even they are not ether whales. Extra voting power can be increased later to increase insentives if necessary. Reducing is not fair and should be avoided. This extra voting power is a bonus Continue reading >>

Casper V.0.1.0, The New Ethereums Proof-of-stake, Released On Github

Casper V.0.1.0, The New Ethereums Proof-of-stake, Released On Github

Casper V.0.1.0, The New Ethereums Proof-of-Stake, Released on Github The new Proof-of-Stake consensus mechanism of Ethereum was released on Github yesterday, marking the first stepping stone towards shifting away from the existing Proof-of-work based validation mechanism and its mining-related operations. On May 8th, 2018, Ethereum published the first version of Casper Friendly Finality Gadget (FFG), its new Proof of Stake algorithm on the Github coding repository. The release came as a huge step forward towards the anticipated transition of the way consensus is reached on the Ethereum Blockchain , from the existing Proof-of-Work (PoW) to a much less power consuming Proof-of-Stake (PoS). In fact, Danny Ryan, the Chief developer behind Casper FFG, announced on Reddit that the finalized source code is made available to the public in order to grant better coordination and versioning tracking, and for consultancy and testing purposes. Ryan himself commented on the release by saying: v0.1.0 marks us more clearly tagging releases to help clients and external auditors more easily track the contract and changes. Moving away from consensus towards PoS had already been discussed in the Ethereum Yellow Paper , since the launch of the protocol itself. The reasons behind itare associated with the lack of economic finality and energy-intensive aspects to PoW and the growing centralization of mining activities. In fact, PoW uses mining, a process that requires exuberant amounts of computing and electric power to verify and settle transactions, while PoS secures consensus in a less resource-demanding process. Network validators will be putting up a stakeof their Ether balance in return for a proportional (to the amount staked as compared to the total number of coins available across t Continue reading >>

First Impressions Of Ethereums Casperproof Of Stake(pos)

First Impressions Of Ethereums Casperproof Of Stake(pos)

Vitalik Buterin and Virgil Griffith have introduced a proof of stake-based finality system capable of overlaying an existing proof of work (PoW) blockchain. In their paper [1], entitled Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget, Buterin and Griffith explain that the first version of Casper (within Ethereum) could take on the form of a hybrid PoW/PoS system. The first available release of the alpha Casper Friendly Finality Gadget (FFG) testnet, built on pyethereum, achieves this. This hybrid PoW/PoS vision, albeit with only 14 listed nodes at the time of writing, can be observed on the following Ethereum Network Status Site [2]. Installing Casper FFG on Ubuntu 16.04LTS Thankfully, the process of installing Casper FFG on Ubuntu as documented here [3] is relatively straight forward. This succinct installation process is thanks to the docker approach provided by Karl Floersch [4]. Participating in the validation PoSprocess At present, my most significant hurdle to running a validating Casper FFG testnet node is not brought about by the installation process or commands. It is brought about by the fact that a validating Casper FFG node, on the testnet, must provide a minimum deposit of 1, 500 Casper FFG testnet ETH in order to participate in the validation process. As we mentioned previously, Casper FFG is a hybrid PoW/PoS system and therefore the Casper FFG node is able to be run in mining mode. The following gist contains a list of commands for mining Casper FFG testnet ETH using Ubuntu 16.04LTS. The following gist contains a list of commands for checking Casper FFG testnet ETH account balance (during/after mining). Of course, whilst mining is an option, it would be ideal if participants willing to try out the alpha Casper FFG testnet could have immediate access to the required Continue reading >>

Ethereum Founder Vitalik Buterin Helps Daniel Larimer Code, Says Eos Not Actually Safe

Ethereum Founder Vitalik Buterin Helps Daniel Larimer Code, Says Eos Not Actually Safe

Ethereum Founder Vitalik Buterin Helps Daniel Larimer Code, Says EOS Not Actually Safe Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Telegram Share on LinkedIn The EOS development team is currently working at high speed ahead of the scheduled mainnet launch on the 2nd of June when EOS will migrate from the Ethereum network onto its own blockchain over the course of 40 days. The dev team has had unexpected assistance, however, from Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin, who has taken to the EOS GitHub to critique the project. In a series of comments on a loss of consensus issue posted by EOS CTO Dan Larimer, Buterin expressed concerns regarding the safety of a solution presented by Larimer, critiquing Larimers now-closed resolution that is intended to ensure that EOSs Delegated Proof of Stake 3.0 protocol will not fall out of consensus. Buterin Weighs in on EOS: Just Use Casper Related Story: Ethereum Founder Vitalik Buterin: Sharding is Coming Buterins concerns with the development of the EOS project appear to stem from the similarities between Larimers solution to the consensus issue presented and Ethereums Casper FFG algorithm the conditions described are functionally equivalent to the no double vote and no surround vote slashing conditions present in Casper FFG. On May 15, Buterin commented on the solution, stating that the solution presented does not seem to actually be safe, advising Larimer: In general, its not possible to achieve BFT safety on a block without at least two messages from most nodes that directly or indirectly reference that block; this algo tries to do it in one round and its likely impossible to actually do that safely. If you want an intuitive and good way of doing this, I recommend just using the algorithm in our Casper FFG paper Buterins underhand Continue reading >>

The First Version Of Ethereum's Casper Upgrade Has Been Published

The First Version Of Ethereum's Casper Upgrade Has Been Published

The First Version of Ethereum's Casper Upgrade Has Been Published May 8, 2018 at 19:30 UTC|UpdatedMay 9, 2018 at 04:12 UTC A new version of the code behind Casper, a planned change to the way the ethereum network reaches consensus,has been published for wider scrutiny by auditors and client developers. Danny Ryan, the developer behind Casper FFG, posted a version 0.1.0 "first release" of the code to GitHub Tuesday, noting, "v0.1.0 marks us more clearly tagging releases to help clients and external auditors more easily track the contract and changes." (Short for "Friendly Finality Gadget," FFG is the first iteration of Casper, and will possibly be followed by others .) Ryan followed up with a reply to a Reddit post on the update, in which he wrote: "More than just the research team is using the contract now -- auditors, client devs, etc -- so we wanted to start issuing clearer versioning and changelogs to help everyone stay organized." The move signals that momentum is building behind the protocol change, as ethereumsoftware clients can begin scripting the software into their individual coding languages and testing the software. Vitalik Buterin, who created ethereum, addressed the Casper upgrade at a conference in Toronto last week, calling it "hopefully one of the more joyous experiences in ethereum in a fairly short time." Once implemented, Casper FFG will alter ethereum's software so that updating the blockchain involves a combination of proof-of-work - the electricity-intensive "mining" familiar from bitcoin - and proof-of-stake. The latter employs validators to update the ledger through a voting system within whichusers, sometimes called stakers, put down deposits of ether, which they risk losing if they attempt to cheat. In its initial stages, Casper will retain e Continue reading >>

Analysis Of Casper Pow Reward Reduction

Analysis Of Casper Pow Reward Reduction

EIP 1011 - Hybrid Casper FFG proposes further reducing PoW block reward from 3 ETH to 0.6 ETH. The EIP briefly mentions that this is "because the security of the chain is greatly shifted from PoW difficulty to PoS finality and because rewards are now issued to both validators and miners." This document is to serve as an addendum to that statement, providing additional data, analysis, and arguments. We aim to show that in Hybrid Casper FFG with an 80% reduction in block reward: a PoW attack on the finality enabled chain cannot do much in comparison to a pure PoW attack a pure PoW attack just as costly as other prominent PoW chains there are options in the event of an attack all of the above is a strong discouragement for an attack to be conducted in the meantime before full pos An attacker can do far less when attacking the Hybrid Casper Ethereum network than a standard PoW network because of economic finality from FFG. A successful PoW attack on Hybrid Casper chain can only revert blocks since the last finalized checkpoint which will normally be on the order of 50-100 blocks (10-20 minutes), whereas a 51% attacker on pure PoW chain can do much deeper chain reversions. Cost of 51% attack compared to top PoW networks The table below shows the hashrate and approximate cost to attack the top four PoW blockchains by marketcap/PoW security -- BTC, ETH, BCH, and LTC. "Casper ETH" is the post-Casper hybrid PoW/PoS chain with an assumed 80% reduction in hashrate. To conduct a 51% attack through owning hardware, an attacker must either double the hashrate of the current network by doubling the hardware on the network (Hardware Cost) or they must buy more than half of the existing hardware of the current network (51% Attack Cost). There are theoretically cheaper alternatives than Continue reading >>

Github - Ethereum/pyethereum: Next Generation Cryptocurrency Network

Github - Ethereum/pyethereum: Next Generation Cryptocurrency Network

This is the Python core library of the Ethereum project. For the python based command line client see: sudo apt-get install libssl-dev build-essential automake pkg-config libtool libffi-dev libgmp-devgit clone pyethereumpython setup.py install Contains the Chain class, which can be used to manage a blockchain. Main methods are: __init__(genesis=None, env=None, new_head_cb=None, reset_genesis=False, localtime=None) - initializes with the given genesis. env specifies the environment (including chain config and database), new_head_cb is a callback called when a new head is added, and localtime is what the chain assumes is the current timestamp. The genesis can be: None - in which case it assumes env is given, and creates a Chain object with the data saved in env.db. If reset_genesis is set, it re-initializes the chain. An allocation (ie. dict {address: {balance: 1, nonce: 2, code: b'\x03\x04\x05', storage: {"0x06": "0x07"}}}) add_block(block) - adds a block to the chain process_time_queue(timestamp) - tells the chain that the current time has increased to the new timestamp. The chain will then process any blocks that were unprocessed because they appeared too "early" get_blockhash_by_number(num) - get the block hash of a block at the given block number get_block(hash) - gets the block with the given blockhash get_block_by_number(num) - equivalent to get_block(get_blockhash_by_number(num)) get_parent(block) - gets the parent of a block get_children(block) - gets the children of a block head (property) - gets the block at the head of the chain state (property) - gets the state at the head of the chain mk_poststate_of_blockhash(hash) - creates a state object after a given block has_block(block) - is that block in the chain? Returns True/False get_chain(from, to) - roughly eq Continue reading >>

Eip-1011: Hybrid Casper Ffg / Ethash #7162

Eip-1011: Hybrid Casper Ffg / Ethash #7162

does a smart contract keep track of votes and justified checkpoints? Yes. The Casper contract basically keeps track of everything. How are light clients meant to track finality? Probably via a special-purpose protocol, like randomly selecting 50validator indices and verifying that valid votes for enough of thosevalidators exist. Engine needs to get a persistent data store to keep track of any votes targeting non-finalized checkpoints to avoid violating slashing conditions.You can simplify this by simply tracking the highest epoch you're used as atarget and the highest epoch you've used as a source; that way there's only2 variables that you need to figure out how to persist. On Mon, Jan 1, 2018 at 3:02 PM, Robert Habermeier ***@***.***> wrote: The paper is pretty good documentation for a start, but I haven't dug into how votes are broadcast/accumulated in practice -- does a smart contract keep track of votes and justified checkpoints? or does a full node have to track all justified checkpoints internally? How are light clients meant to track finality? Engineering concerns: - BlockChain currently holds the whole fork-choice decision, based only on total difficulty. Parts of this will need to be deferred to the Engine. - Engine needs to get a persistent data store to keep track of any votes targeting non-finalized checkpoints to avoid violating slashing conditions. This brings complication due to snapshot restoration replacing the DB in-place. You are receiving this because you commented. Reply to this email directly, view it on GitHub < #7162 (comment) >, or mute the thread < > . 5chdn referenced this issue from another issue Continue reading >>

Casper/validator_guide.md At Master Ethereum/casper Github

Casper/validator_guide.md At Master Ethereum/casper Github

Call casper.logout(logout_msg) passing in your newly generated logout message. Call casper.withdraw(validator_index) and your funds will be sent to your validator's withdrawal address specified in step (2). Validators are highly stateful. They must handle valcode creation, depositing, voting, and logging out. Each stage also requires waiting for transaction confirmations. Because of this complexity, a mapping of state to handler is used. The validator state mapping implemented in pyethapp is as follows: uninitiated: self.check_status,waiting_for_valcode: self.check_valcode,waiting_for_login: self.check_status,voting: self.vote,waiting_for_log_out: self.vote_then_logout,waiting_for_withdrawable: self.check_withdrawable,waiting_for_withdrawn: self.check_withdrawn,logged_out: self.check_status Arrows are the logic followed upon receiving a new block while in a given state. For example, if the validator is in state voting and receives a new block whose height is in_first_quarter_of_epoch, then the validator follows the arrow to remain in the state voting. Validators must deploy their own signature validation contract. This will be used to check the signatures attached to their votes. This validation code must be a pure function. This means no storage reads/writes, environment variable reads OR external calls (except to other contracts that have already been purity-verified, or to precompiles) allowed. For basic signature verification, ecdsa signatures are currently being used . The validation code for these ecdsa signatures can be found here . Note, this LLL code uses the elliptic curve public key recovery precompile. The validation code contract is currently being deployed as a part of the induct_validator() function found here : def induct_validator(chain, casper, key, v Continue reading >>

Ethereum Launches Casper Testnet, Paving The Way For Proof-of-stake

Ethereum Launches Casper Testnet, Paving The Way For Proof-of-stake

Ethereum Launches Casper Testnet, Paving the Way for Proof-of-Stake Ethereum developers have launched an alpha test network (testnet) for Casper, paving the way for the cryptocurrency to eventually transition to a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus algorithm. Like bitcoin, ethereum currently operates on a proof-of-work (PoW) consensus algorithm, meaning that the network is secured and new currency units are issued through mining, whereby participants solve cryptographic puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks. However, PoW has attracted criticism over the years, both for its tendency to centralize mining hardware into a few pools and for the amount of electricity it consumes. Ethereum aims to address these problems by transitioning to Casper , a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus algorithm. Under Casper, participants can become validators by locking up or staking ether. Validators will take turns proposing and voting on blocks, and both the weight of their votes and the size of their rewards will hinge on the size of their stakes. According to developers, moving to Casper will greatly reduce the amount of electricity wasted through PoW mining. In addition to limiting its environmental impact, PoS will allow ethereum to dramatically reduce its rate of currency inflation since validators will have much lower overhead and will thus require smaller rewards to incentivize them to continue to serve as validators. Moreover, PoS will also reduce the incentive that validators have to centralize their influence. With decreased centralization comes increased security and, importantly, resistance to dreaded 51 percent attacks. Ethereum is not the first project to attempt to integrate a PoS consensus algorithm. However, most previous PoS implementations have been criticized Continue reading >>

Ethereum Dev Roundup: Q1 (boring Edition)

Ethereum Dev Roundup: Q1 (boring Edition)

Ethereum Dev Roundup: Q1 (Boring Edition) Posted by Vitalik Buterin on April 7, 2017 The last one and a half months have seen great progress for Ethereum research, and we are excited that the protocol is moving closer and closer to the point where it is ready for mainstream adoption. Progress on consensus algorithms, privacy, zero knowledge proofs and formal verification is happening at increasing speed, and our research and development teams are expanding substantially. A large amount of progress has been made on Casper. You can find a few Medium posts describing the algorithm here: Casper contract, with test script: Some work on the daemon by Karl Floersch: More progresson Casper and sharding will continue to be published once it stabilizes to the point where it makes sense to write the ongoing work up in a document;the high-level details are now close to finalized, current discussions have more to do with the finer details of the design of the Casper contract. Dealing with Failure in Cryptocurrency: Simple model of an "internal" PoW attacker: A post agitating for smaller block rewards: ; see also Reddit thread and Carbonvote Some bugs were discovered in the ENS code leading to a delay of its launch. A security audit was commissioned, and the audit is now complete, bringing us a step closer to the final launch day: Continue reading >>

Ethereum [eth] Founder, Vitalik Buterins Announcement On Github

Ethereum [eth] Founder, Vitalik Buterins Announcement On Github

Ethereum [ETH] Founder, Vitalik Buterins announcement on GitHub The Founder of Ethereum, Vitalik Buterin came into the limelight on April 1st with no prior hint at all to propose a 120 million hard cap on Ethereums [ETH] native currency Ether. People started commenting and declaring it as a prank on the Fools day as the sudden proposal was a surprise. The Founder suggests the cap could be part of the next hard fork mostly in the first phase of the Casper update. He made this unexpected announcement on the developers forum, GitHub yesterday. The latest Ethereum Improvement Proposal [EIP], recommended by Buterin is to set a hard cap on the coin at 120,204,432 which is exactly twice the amount sold in the original sale in 2014. The proposal penned by him could lay the foundation for resolving one of the Ethereum networks biggest outstanding questions, that is, a limit on the amount of Ether that could be created. He foresees the implantation of the hard cap occurring with the next phase of the Casper update when all rewards in the sharding system would be predominated to reflect the hard cap as a finite supply of Ether. He explained the reasons for the hard cap suggestion as part of his announcement: In order to ensure the economic sustainability of the platform under the widest possible variety of circumstances, and in light of the fact that issuing new coins to proof of work miners is no longer an effective way of promoting an egalitarian coin distribution or any other significant policy goal, I propose that we agree on a hard cap for the total quantity of ETH. According to his statement, if it is too late before EIP is adapted to set a 120,000,000-hard cap, then the next logical cap will be 144,052,828 twice the amount of Ether sold in the Genesis block. There is curre Continue reading >>

Hybrid Casper Protocol For Ethereum Network Released On Github

Hybrid Casper Protocol For Ethereum Network Released On Github

Hybrid Casper Protocol For Ethereum Network Released on GitHub On May 7, we had detailed about the advantages of the hybrid Casper being developed for the Ethereum network. A day later, the Ethereum development team released the Casper FFG (Friendly Finality Gadget) on GitHub. The release marks the beginning of a gradual shift of the Ethereum network from Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus protocol to Proof-of-Stake (PoS) protocol. Danny Ryan, one of the lead developers in the Ethereum team, posted the version 0.1.0 first release of Casper FFG. The Ethereum community responded positively on GitHub and Reddit. The release also carried a message from Ryan saying tags releases to help clients and external auditors more easily track the contract and changes. As mentioned in our previous article about Casper, the Ethereum network would punish centralization through a complex crypto economics system. Once implemented, the network will use PoS model to confirm transactions, a process dubbed as minting. As the traditional mining is avoided, energy is saved considerably. The Casper FFG is the beginning of the number of changes that are going to be carried out on the Ethereum network in order to achieve scalability, without compromising on security. The changes will also ensure that Ethereum network remains decentralized and free from the clutches of centralized mining pools such as Bitmain. Ryan also commented about the update on Reddit as follows: More than just the research team is using the contract now auditors, client devs, etc. so we wanted to start issuing clearer versioning and changelogs to help everyone stay organized. Developers can test the code by adding Caspers code to their coding languages and make sure it runs without any glitches across Ethereums various software c Continue reading >>

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