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Ethereum Architecture

Augur Documentation

Augur Documentation

Please Note: These docs are currently being updated as we approach the launch of Augur. The Augur development team plans to have these docs fully updated prior to launching Augur. Please bear with us as we update this document and be advised that some of this information may be out-of-date or could change prior to launch. Thank you for your patience. Augur is a decentralized prediction market platform that runs on Ethereum . For a detailed, high-level explanation of how Augur works, please refer to the Augur whitepaper . The stable Augur application is built and hosted at . If you want to use or help test Augur, you do not need to download or install anything! Just go to and start using it. (If you want to use our cutting-edge development client, this is maintained at warning, we push changes to augur-dev.firebaseapp.com pretty rapidly, so it can be a bit buggy! We suggest simply using for a more stable experience.) Augur has its own dedicated Stack Exchange , which allows anyone to ask questions about Augur and get answers to those questions. Its a great resource to find the answers for questions you might have that arent answered directly in these documents. Additionally, you can chat with us on Discord . If youd like to join the conversation, just go to invite.augur.net and sign up. Most questions are best asked in the #dev or #general channels. If you would like to help develop Augur, youll need to build the client from source. To do this, first install Node.js , and Git . Next, clone the Augur GitHub repository by opening a terminal window and typing: $ git clone Navigate to the newly created augur folder by running: Once this has been done, Augurs dependencies will need to be installed. This can be done using npm or yarn. Both methods are detailed in the next sec Continue reading >>

How Ethereum Works - Coindesk

How Ethereum Works - Coindesk

CoinDesk Launches 2017 Year in Review Opinion and Analysis Series Now that we've covered what ethereum is, let's dive deeper into how the platform functions under the hood. Consider the online notebook application described in " What is Ethereum? " Using ethereum, the appdoesn't require one entityto store and control its data. To accomplish this, ethereum borrows heavily from bitcoin's protocol and its blockchain design, but tweaks it to support applications beyond money. Ethereum aims to abstract away bitcoin's design, however, so that developers can create applications or agreements that have additional steps, new rules of ownership, alternative transaction formats or different ways to transfer state. The goal of ethereum's 'Turing-complete' programming language is to allow developers to write more programs in which blockchain transactions could govern and automate specific outcomes. This flexibility is perhaps ethereum's primary innovation, as explained in the guide " How Ethereum Smart Contracts Work ". The structure of the ethereum blockchain is very similar to bitcoin's, in that it is a shared record of the entire transaction history. Every node on the network stores a copy of this history. The big difference withethereum is that its nodes store the most recent state of each smart contract, in addition to all of the ether transactions. (This is much more complicated than described, but the text below should help you get your feet wet.) For each ethereum application, the network needs to keep track of the 'state', or the current information of all of these applications, including each user's balance, all the smart contract code and where it's all stored. Bitcoin uses unspent transaction outputs to track who has how muchbitcoin. While it sounds more complex, the id Continue reading >>

A Gentle Introduction To Ethereum

A Gentle Introduction To Ethereum

Ethereum builds on blockchain and cryptocurrency concepts, so if you are not familiar with these, its worth reading a gentle introduction to bitcoin and a gentle introduction to blockchain technology first. This article assumes the reader has a basic familiarity with how Bitcoin works. Ethereum is software running on a network of computers that ensures that data and small computer programs called smart contracts are replicated and processed on all the computers on the network, without a central coordinator. The vision is to create an unstoppable censorship-resistant self-sustaining decentralised world computer. The officialwebsite is Itextends the blockchain concepts from Bitcoin which validates, stores, and replicates transaction data on many computers around the world (hence the term distributed ledger). Ethereum takes this one step further, and also runs computer code equivalently on many computers around the world. What Bitcoin does for distributed data storage, Ethereum does for distributed data storage plus computations. The small computer programsbeing run are called smart contracts, and the contractsare run by participants on their machines using asort ofoperating system called a Ethereum Virtual Machine. To run Ethereum, you can download (or write yourself if you have the patience) some software called an Ethereum client. Just like BitTorrent or Bitcoin, the Ethereum client will connect over the internet to other peoples computers running similar client softwareand start downloading the Ethereum blockchain from them to catch up. It will also independently validate that each block conforms to the Ethereum rules. What does the Ethereum client software do? You can use itto: Create new transactions and smart contracts Your computer becomes a node on the network, r Continue reading >>

Designing The Architecture For Your Ethereum Application

Designing The Architecture For Your Ethereum Application

Developer and Security Researcher at Zeppelin Solutions. Designing the architecture for your Ethereum application As you are beginning with Ethereum development, and after going through some of the many excellent tutorial posts out there, you are faced with the challenge of building your first Ethereum-based app. This brings up a set of new challenges around designing the architecture and layout of your application: traditional client-server applications now have a third new component in the mix, the blockchain. In this article Ill cover some of the most traditional scenarios for Ethereum applications, which arise from the different interactions between these three components. Ill discuss serverless apps, browser plugins, private nodes, offline signing, and other issues that play a role when designing the layout of your solutions. The canonical flavour of an Ethereum app is a serverless one, where the entire flow of your app happens entirely between the client and the blockchain. The first step here is to actually distribute the client code to your users. The easiest way is to set up a static page that contains a web3-enabled web app. Such page can be hosted anywhere: AWS S3 , Google Cloud , Github pages , other cloud providers, or your own server. Furthermore, if you can count on your clients having either bzz or ipfs protocol support, you can even disitribute it via Swarm or IPFS for total decentralization. Next step is for the app to be able to read information from the blockchain, which, as you already know, requires a connection to an active Ethereum node. This will be set by your web3 provider , which is the piece that handles the actual web3 connection to a node. Now, some of your users may already have an established connection to a node, for instance, via the Continue reading >>

Introduction Ens 0.1 Documentation

Introduction Ens 0.1 Documentation

ENS is the Ethereum Name Service, a distributed, open, and extensible naming system based on the Ethereum blockchain. ENS can be used to resolve a wide variety of resources. The initial standard for ENS defines resolution for Ethereum addresses, but the system is extensible by design, allowing more resource types to be resolved in future without the core components of ENS requiring upgrades. The primary goal of ENS is to resolve human-readable names, like myname.eth, into machine-readable identifiers, including Ethereum addresses, Swarm and IPFS content hashes, and other identifiers. A secondary purpose is to provide metadata about names, such as ABIs for contracts, and whois information for users. ENS has similar goals to DNS, the Internets Domain Name Service, but has significantly different architecture, due to the capabilities and constraints provided by the Ethereum blockchain. Like DNS, ENS operates on a system of dot-separated hierarchial names called domains, with the owner of a domain having full control over the distribution of subdomains. Top-level domains, like .eth and .test are owned by smart contracts called registrars, which specify rules governing the allocation of their subdomains. Anyone may, by following the rules imposed by these registrar contracts, obtain ownership of a second-level domain for their own use. ENS has two principal components: the registry, and resolvers. The ENS registry consists of a single central contract that maintains a list of all domains and subdomains, and stores three critical pieces of information about each: The time-to-live for all records under the domain The owner of a domain may be either an external account (a user) or a smart contract. A registrar is simply a smart contract that owns a domain, and issues subdomain Continue reading >>

Crossing Over To Web3an Introduction To Decentralised Development

Crossing Over To Web3an Introduction To Decentralised Development

Crossing Over to Web3 An Introduction to Decentralised Development Issue #1 in the definitive developers guide for the journey from web2 toweb3 Originally posted as part of JAAKs developing blog series Welcome to the first in a series of blog posts that aims to get web developers building decentralised applications and smart contracts on Ethereum in the simplest way possible. Well work through an example project and look at how to build, test, secure and deploy decentralised applications backed by smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. In January 2017, on a routine web surf for the latest craze, I came across this weird thing called Ethereum. My mind could not understand much of what it read but my cool shit sense was ringing off the hook. By March 2017, I began to comprehend this mythical decentralised Nirvana and took a job at JAAK to work on transitioning the music industry onto this new stack . Two things have become apparent in the past six months: There are plenty of complex tutorials and bad advice out there There is a scarcity of quality web developers necessary to advance the ecosystem My motivation for writing this series is clear: decentralisation holds huge potential for the web and beyond. By lowering the barrier to entry, the ecosystem can be filled with developers, causing a proliferation of innovative ideas, rapid iteration of tools and high-quality products. A recent poll revealed a lack of tutorials is hindering web3 developers If youre a web/JavaScript developer who has heard the hype of a decentralised future and wants to actively learn how to build on web3 architecture this is for you. Also, anyone who has been confused by existing tutorials or Truffle/Meteor boilerplates and is looking for a simpler entry point. Before diving in, lets start w Continue reading >>

What Are Ethereum Nodes And Sharding?

What Are Ethereum Nodes And Sharding?

Angel Investors, Startups & Blockchain developers... In this guide, you will learnWhat are Ethereum Nodes And Sharding? If you have been active in one form or another in cryptocurrency for the last 1 year then you would know that there has been one issue which has plagued both bitcoin and Ethereum: Scalability. Bitcoin has somewhat addressed this issue by activating Segwit and by hard forking into Bitcoin Cash . Ethereum, however, is trying to solve this issue in a different way. One of the many protocols that they are looking to activate, as they go into the next phase of their growth, is sharding. Before we understand what that means, we need to have a thorough understanding of networks and nodes. What are nodes, networks, and parameters? Lets understand what the concept means by using simple day-to-day activities. (Before we begin, credit to 3dBuzz for the wonderful explanation.) This box takes in inputs, performs some sort of operations on them, and then gives an output. This box is a node. Keep in mind, nodes are not exactly boxes, we are just using a hypothetical case here. A network is a collection of these nodes which are interlinked to one another. Parameters are the rules that the nodes are bound by. That, in essence, is what nodes and networks are. Now lets check out some simple day-to-day activities explained via nodes and networks. Lets see how a simple paper shredder works. You are using three nodes: The paper the shredder and the.well shredded stuff. These three nodes make up the Shredding network. Lets have some more fun with this. Till now, we have assumed that nodes take in only one input. What if they take more than that? Lets take the example of a toaster. A toaster takes in two inputs: Remember one thing, a toaster cant work if even one of its inpu Continue reading >>

Tools And Technologies In The Ethereum Ecosystem

Tools And Technologies In The Ethereum Ecosystem

Techie, Foodie, Traveler, Tinkering with Blockchain at www.zastrin.com Tools and Technologies in the Ethereum Ecosystem If you are a developer new to Ethereum/blockchain, it is possible you are overwhelmed (at least I was) trying to understand all the tools and technologies in the Ethereum ecosystem. So I decided to briefly describe the various components you come across frequently while starting to learn Ethereum. Hopefully this will help you get a big picture of the Ethereum ecosystem and how all the pieces fit together. Ethereum is a smart contract blockchain on which you can build decentralized applications (called smart contracts). If you are a technologist, this white paper is worth reading: . If you have built web applications before, I wrote a post comparing Ethereum blockchain and web application architecture which might help understand Ethereum at a high level. Geth is the official client software provided by the Ethereum Foundation . It is written in the Go programming language. This software packages a few components which is worth understanding: When you start this client daemon, it connects to other clients (also called nodes) in the network and downloads a copy of the blockchain. It will constantly communicate with other nodes to keep its copy of the blockchain up to date. It also has the ability to mine blocks and add transactions to the blockchain, validate the transactions in the block and also execute the transactions. It also acts as a server by exposing APIs you can interact with through RPC. This is a command line tool which lets you connect to your running node and perform various actions like create and manage accounts, query the blockchain, sign and submit transactions to the blockchain and so on. This is a desktop application used to communica Continue reading >>

Architecture Of Azure Ethereum Consortium Network - Simplified

Architecture Of Azure Ethereum Consortium Network - Simplified

Architecture Of Azure Ethereum Consortium Network - Simplified In the Getting started with Azure Consortium Blockchain article, we discussed how to configure private blockchain network on Azure. In this article, we are going to look into the architecture of Azure Consortium Blockchain network. The network created using Azure ConsortiumBlockchain template consists of shared transaction nodes and mining nodes. User application will interact with transaction nodes for any operation like submit transaction etc. For each consortium member (the number of members is specified while configuring), and a specified number of mining nodes are created. Mining nodes record all the transactions being executed within the network. Mining nodes assigned to a member are kept in a separate subnet. Nodes in individual subnets communicate with each other by application gateways. As members need to record transactions, mining subnet is also facilitated with storage. As it is a private network, inbound traffic (only public internet traffic) is not allowed on mining nodes. Nodes communicate with each other using Ethereums Discovery Protocol. The default VM in a subnet is configured as a boot node for discoverability of the subnet nodes. "Go Ethereum" client software (Geth) is installed on each mining node. Software is configured to enable these nodes to be mining nodes. These nodes use the Ethereum address of the default account, termed as coinbase. When mining nodes mine the block, mining reward is added to this account. Mining nodes communicate with other mining nodes to come to the consensus on the state of the underlying distributed ledger. If the network size (number of users in the network) is more, then the number of mining nodes also should be more to avoid approximately 51% issues. Cu Continue reading >>

White Paper Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

White Paper Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

Introduction to Bitcoin and Existing Concepts The concept of decentralized digital currency, as well as alternative applications like property registries, has been around for decades. The anonymous e-cash protocols of the 1980s and the 1990s were mostly reliant on a cryptographic primitive known as Chaumian Blinding. [8] Chaumian Blinding provided these new currencies with high degrees of privacy, but their underlying protocols largely failed to gain traction because of their reliance on a centralized intermediary. In 1998, Wei Dai's b-money [9] became the first proposal to introduce the idea of creating money through solving computational puzzles as well as decentralized consensus, but the proposal was scant on details as to how decentralized consensus could actually be implemented. In 2005, Hal Finney introduced a concept of reusable proofs of work, [10] a system which uses ideas from b-money together with Adam Back's computationally difficult Hashcash [11] puzzles to create a concept for a cryptocurrency, but once again fell short of the ideal by relying on trusted computing as a backend. In 2009, a decentralized currency was for the first time implemented in practice by Satoshi Nakamoto, [1c] [1d] combining established primitives for managing ownership through public key cryptography with a consensus algorithm for keeping track of who owns coins, known as "proof of work." The mechanism behind proof of work was a breakthrough because it simultaneously solved two problems. First, it provided a simple and moderately effective consensus algorithm, allowing nodes in the network to collectively agree on a set of updates to the state of the Bitcoin ledger. Second, it provided a mechanism for allowing free entry into the consensus process, solving the political problem of Continue reading >>

Blockchain - Ethereum Block Architecture - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Blockchain - Ethereum Block Architecture - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Where can I find a description (preferably a diagram like below) showing the block structure in an Ethereum blockchain? Lets first start with my adaptation adaptation of this figure illustrating the Bitcoin block structure: Enter Ethereum and things get a wee bit more complex. After reading through this and this , and as per @ eth 's recommendation this , my best interpretation is the figure below: The header field definitions are available in section 4.3 of the yellow paper . Uncles is a hash (of a list of uncles), Yellow Paper has: "The Keccak 256-bit hash of the ommers list portion of this block". Codehash is just a hash since contracts are immutable. The pointers point to "hash of whole block header" (the Keccak-256 hash of all the bytes in the block header). To have a full diagram, should really consult the Yellow Paper... eth Jan 29 '16 at 22:53 Updated response after consulting the YP. Starting to get clearer now. Thanks! zanzu Feb 1 '16 at 12:34 Why are the transactions from block N linked to those of block N+1? Sebi Jun 10 '16 at 8:31 These links correspond to contract state that has not changed in between blocks. Referencing the state from the previous blocks instead of replicating is more efficient from a block size perspective. zanzu Jun 10 '16 at 9:49 Continue reading >>

Introduction To Blockchain Technology And Ethereum Recorded At:

Introduction To Blockchain Technology And Ethereum Recorded At:

Introduction to Blockchain Technology and Ethereum 1Followers on Nov 26, 2017 | A note to our readers: You asked so we have developed a set of features that allow you to reduce the noise: you can get email and web notifications for topics you are interested in. Learn more about our new features . Laurence Kirk introduces blockchain and Ethereum, the most popular blockchain framework. Laurence Kirk is a senior Blockchain Developer. After a successful career writing low latency financial applications in the City of London, Laurence was captivated by the potential of Blockchain Technology, and in particular smart contracts. He set up Extropy.io, a consultancy working with start-ups in the UK and overseas, developing applications on the Ethereum platform. It's all about Containers, Serverless and Reactive Programming right now! ProgSCon London will explore these trends through engaging talks delivered by leading industry experts. Several talks will also feature various aspect of Blockchain, Microservices and Big Data. If you are a software developer looking to sharpen your skills and learn from the best in the industry, then ProgSCon London 2017 is the place you need to be at! This content is in the Architecture & Design topic Continue reading >>

Dapp Architecture Designs

Dapp Architecture Designs

The Hub and Spoke pattern uses modular, stateful Spoke contracts for long-term storage and a Hub contract for access control to methods interacting with Spokes. The Spoke contracts should contain only app storage and methods for accessing and mutating that storage. Private Spoke modules should have a pointer to an owner or admin contract (initialized on creation) that points to a Hub contract, and stop execution when called from any other address. A hub contract contains pointers to these Spoke contracts and may include some configurable properties that require some vote or permission or other logic to set. For upgradeability, private Spoke contracts may want to include a chown method, callable only by the current hub, so the original Hub contract can be swapped for a new contract. For a clean upgrade, the Hub contract could include an upgrade method that when passed the address of the new Hub, will send that to the chown method of all its Spoke contracts, then auto-unregister itself from any registries, and finally suicide itself or set a pointer to the new contract indicating its obsolescence. A potential use case for this pattern is to have contract factories spawn new Hub and Spoke contracts with some predictable makeup (e.g. only a limited set of configurable elements) and optionally let the spawned contracts be added to a set of registries with data structures to efficiently support operations like search and/or sorting. Therefore these registries will contain only contracts with storage meeting some expected pattern. And by using an upgrade method that unregisters the hub contract from that set of registries, those registries can be guaranteed to list only valid contract addresses at any time. A Hub and Spokes pattern can also be supported by a core Spoke contra Continue reading >>

Ethereum - Wikipedia

Ethereum - Wikipedia

This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . This article relies too much on references to primary sources . Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources . Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable . Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. The Ethereum Project's logo, first used in 2014 Ethereum is an open-source , public, blockchain -based distributed computing platform featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality. [2] It provides a decentralized Turing-complete virtual machine , the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes. Ethereum also provides a cryptocurrency token called "ether", which can be transferred between accounts and used to compensate participant nodes for computations performed. [3] "Gas", an internal transaction pricing mechanism, is used to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network. [2] [4] Ethereum was proposed in late 2013 by Vitalik Buterin , a cryptocurrency researcher and programmer. Development was funded by an online crowdsale between July and August 2014. [5] The system went live on 30 July 2015, with 11.9 million coins "premined" for the crowdsale. [6] This accounts for approximately 13 percent of the total circulating supply. In 2016, as a result of the collapse of The DAO project, Ethereum was forked into two separate blockchains - the new forked version became Ethereum (ETH), and the original continued as Ethereum Classic (ETC). [7] [8] [9] Ethereum was initially described in a white paper by Vitalik Buterin , [10] a programmer involved with Bitcoin Magazine , in late 2013 with a goal of buildin Continue reading >>

Architecture Ethereum Homestead 0.1 Documentation

Architecture Ethereum Homestead 0.1 Documentation

cmake: cmake files for build system, contains specification of inter-dependencies eth A command-line Ethereum full-node that can be controlled via RPC. evmjit: library for the EVM just-in-time compiler libdevcore: data structures, utilities, rlp, trie, memory db libdevcrypto: crypto primitives. Depends on libsecp256k1 and libcrypto++. libp2p: core peer to peer networking implementation (excluding specific sub-protocols) libethash: ethash mining POW algorithm implementation libethash-cl: ethash mining code for GPU mining (OpenCL) libethashseal: generic wrapper around the POW block seal engine. Also contains the genesis states for all ethash-based chains. libethcore: collection of core data structures and concepts libethereum: main consensus engine (minus EVM). Includes the State and BlockChain classes. libevm: Ethereum Virtual Machine implementation (interpreter). libevmasm: EVM assembly tools, also contains the optimizer. libevmcore: elementary data structures of the EVM, opcodes, gas costs, ... libweb3jsonrpc: json-rpc server-side endpoint, provides http and IPC (unix socket, windows pipe) connectors libwebthree: service connectors for ethereum, swarm/ipfs and whisper. testeth: tests for the modules formerly within the libethereum repo testweb3core: tests for the modules formerly within the libweb3core repo testweb3: tests for the modules formerly within the webthree repo utils/json_spirit: JSON parser written for Boosts Spirit library. Continue reading >>

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