CryptoCoinsInfoClub.com

Ethereum Algorithm Name

Cryptography - Which Cryptographic Hash Function Does Ethereum Use? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Cryptography - Which Cryptographic Hash Function Does Ethereum Use? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Which cryptographic hash function does Ethereum use? Many sources refer to the use of the "SHA3" cryptographic hash function within Ethereum, but the Ethereum project began before the SHA3 standard was finalised, and there was some confusion/controversy around the final parameters selected for the standard. Which function specifically did Ethereum actually end up with? Is it the same as the actual SHA3 standard, or one of the variants within the standard? Or is it a parameterisation of Keccak that doesn't match any of the variants? Ethereum uses KECCAK-256 . It should be noted that it does not follow the FIPS-202 based standard (a.k.a SHA-3), which was finalized in August 2015. According to this , NIST changed the padding to SHA3-256(M) = KECCAK [512] (M || 01, 256);which was different than the original padding proposed by the Keccak team. It seems that now people are calling the "original" SHA3 Keccak hashing "Keccak" and the new NIST SHA3 standard as "SHA-3". Using this online generator and the Solidity Online Compiler , I tested the difference between Keccak-256 and SHA3-256. I hashed the word testing using Ethereum and the 2 SHA3 hashing algorithms: Continue reading >>

An Idiots Guide To Building An Ethereum Mining Rig

An Idiots Guide To Building An Ethereum Mining Rig

An Idiots Guide to Building an Ethereum Mining Rig In March, the price of an Ether cryptocurrency token rose to an all-time high of around $25. This was good news for investors in Ethereumthe blockchain-based distributed computing platform that uses Ether as its currencywho had watched the cryptocurrency's price stagnate at under $10 since its launch in July 2015. But it also had another profound effect on shaping the network: For the first time ever, it was truly profitable to mine Ether. I had been entertaining the idea of building an Ethereum mining rig for months and the price surge in May made it seem like as good a time as any to begin the process. So I sold some of my Ether, bought some computer hardware, and set to work learning about building PCs and the art of Linux. But before I dive into the unnecessarily painful process of setting up an Ethereum mining rig as a complete n00b, let's brush up on some Ethereum basics. Mining is the term used to describe the process of extracting cryptocurrency tokens from a blockchain network. In the case of Ethereum, this involves having computers continuously run a hashing algorithm, which takes an arbitrarily large amount of information and condenses it to a string of letters and numbers of a fixed length. The hashing algorithm used by Ethereum called ethashhashes metadata from the most recent block using something called a nonce: a binary number that produces a unique hash value. For each new block in the blockchain, the network sets a target hash value and all the miners on the network try to guess the nonce that will result in that value. Due to the way cryptographic hashing works, trying to guess the nonce that will result in the target value is practically impossible. This means that the only way of finding the correc Continue reading >>

Ethereum - Wikipedia

Ethereum - Wikipedia

This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . This article relies too much on references to primary sources . Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources . Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable . Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. The Ethereum Project's logo, first used in 2014 Ethereum is an open-source , public, blockchain -based distributed computing platform featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality. [2] It provides a decentralized Turing-complete virtual machine , the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes. Ethereum also provides a cryptocurrency token called "ether", which can be transferred between accounts and used to compensate participant nodes for computations performed. [3] "Gas", an internal transaction pricing mechanism, is used to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network. [2] [4] Ethereum was proposed in late 2013 by Vitalik Buterin , a cryptocurrency researcher and programmer. Development was funded by an online crowdsale between July and August 2014. [5] The system went live on 30 July 2015, with 11.9 million coins "premined" for the crowdsale. [6] This accounts for approximately 13 percent of the total circulating supply. In 2016, as a result of the collapse of The DAO project, Ethereum was forked into two separate blockchains - the new forked version became Ethereum (ETH), and the original continued as Ethereum Classic (ETC). [7] [8] [9] Ethereum was initially described in a white paper by Vitalik Buterin , [10] a programmer involved with Bitcoin Magazine , in late 2013 with a goal of buildin Continue reading >>

Is Ethereum Sha-256? : Ethereum

Is Ethereum Sha-256? : Ethereum

Welcome to r/Ethereum , the front page of the Web 3. No inappropriate behavior. This includes, but is not limited to: personal attacks, threats of violence, gossip, slurs of any kind, posting people's private information. Keep price discussion and market talk, memes & exchanges to subreddits such as /r/ethtrader Keep plain ICO advertisements to subreddits such as r/ethinvestor . Keep mining discussion to subreddits such as /r/EtherMining . No creating multiple accounts to get around Reddit rules. English language only. Please provide accurate translations where appropriate. Posts and comments must be made from an account at least 10 days old with a minimum of 20 comment karma. Exceptions may be made on a discretionary basis. Continue reading >>

Nanopool | Ethereum | Help

Nanopool | Ethereum | Help

YOUR_ETH/ETC_ADDRESS - your valid eth address YOUR_WORKER - simple short worker name (like worker01). Optional. YOUR_EMAIL - your email address for notifications. Optional. Don`t forget to set wallet, worker and email address to correct values. You must use failovers. If you want to enable Nanopool's failover servers, add these lines to epools.txt and change your wallet, worker and email address to correct values: POOL: eth-eu1.nanopool.org:9999, WALLET: YOUR_ETH_WALLET.YOUR_WORKER/YOUR_EMAIL, PSW: x, WORKER: , ESM: 0, ALLPOOLS: 0 POOL: eth-eu2.nanopool.org:9999, WALLET: YOUR_ETH_WALLET.YOUR_WORKER/YOUR_EMAIL, PSW: x, WORKER: , ESM: 0, ALLPOOLS: 0 POOL: eth-us-east1.nanopool.org:9999, WALLET: YOUR_ETH_WALLET.YOUR_WORKER/YOUR_EMAIL, PSW: x, WORKER: , ESM: 0, ALLPOOLS: 0 POOL: eth-us-west1.nanopool.org:9999, WALLET: YOUR_ETH_WALLET.YOUR_WORKER/YOUR_EMAIL, PSW: x, WORKER: , ESM: 0, ALLPOOLS: 0 POOL: eth-asia1.nanopool.org:9999, WALLET: YOUR_ETH_WALLET.YOUR_WORKER/YOUR_EMAIL, PSW: x, WORKER: , ESM: 0, ALLPOOLS: 0 Don`t forget to set wallet, worker and email address for Ethereum to correct values. Dual miner supports mining Ethereum/Ethereum Classic and SiaCoin/PascalCoin at the same time. To control second algorithm intensity use -dcri option. Claymore miner takes additional 1% fee(2% for dual mode). More information about Claymore Dual Miner configuration can be found on bitcointalk.org YOUR_ETH/ETC_ADDRESS - your valid eth address YOUR_WORKER - simple short worker name (like worker01). Optional. YOUR_EMAIL - your email address for notifications. Optional. Don`t forget to set wallet, worker and email address to correct values. You must use failovers. If you want to enable Nanopool's failover servers, add these lines to epools.txt and change your wallet, worker and email a Continue reading >>

Ethereum Mining 101: Your Complete Guide

Ethereum Mining 101: Your Complete Guide

The world has gone digital, from the development of smart homes to the development of innovations that promote seamless transactions. Every industry is feeling the impact of technology now more than ever. In every part of the world, the technologically driven goals remain the same: the maximization of profit and the promotion of sustainable development in all spheres of life. It is this yearning to make life as easy as possible that brought about the birth of cryptocurrency . Ethereum seeks to make these aspirations come true. The platform boasts of several applications that help users carry out everyday tasks in a simple fashion. What is Mining, Ethereum Mining and Where Does Ether Come From? Mining is a computationally intensive work that requires a lot of processing power and time. Mining is the act of participating in a given peer distributed cryptocurrency network in consensus. The miner is subsequently rewarded for providing solutions to challenging math problems. It is done by putting the computer's hardware to use with mining applications. All the information on cryptocurrency transactions must be embedded in data blocks. Each block is linked internally to several other blocks. This creates the blockchain . These blocks must be analyzed as fast as possible to ensure a smooth running of transactions on the platform. However, the issuers of such currencies do not have the processing capabilities to handle this alone. It is where miners come in. A miner is an investor that devotes time, computer space and energy to sorting through blocks. When the mining process hits the right harsh, they will submit their solutions to the issuer. After verification, the issuer of the currency offers rewards which are portions of the transactions they helped in verifying. They als Continue reading >>

Ethash Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

Ethash Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

This spec is REVISION 23. Whenever you substantively (ie. not clarifications) update the algorithm, please update the revision number in this sentence. Also, in all implementations please include a spec revision number Ethash is the planned PoW algorithm for Ethereum 1.0. It is the latest version of Dagger-Hashimoto, although it can no longer appropriately be called that since many of the original features of both algorithms have been drastically changed in the last month of research and development. See for the original version. The general route that the algorithm takes is as follows: There exists a seed which can be computed for each block by scanning through the block headers up until that point. From the seed, one can compute a 16 MB pseudorandom cache. Light clients store the cache. From the cache, we can generate a 1 GB dataset, with the property that each item in the dataset depends on only a small number of items from the cache. Full clients and miners store the dataset. The dataset grows linearly with time. Mining involves grabbing random slices of the dataset and hashing them together. Verification can be done with low memory by using the cache to regenerate the specific pieces of the dataset that you need, so you only need to store the cache. The large dataset is updated once every 30000 blocks, so the vast majority of a miner's effort will be reading the dataset, not making changes to it. See for design rationale considerations for this algorithm. WORD_BYTES = 4 # bytes in wordDATASET_BYTES_INIT = 2**30 # bytes in dataset at genesisDATASET_BYTES_GROWTH = 2**23 # dataset growth per epochCACHE_BYTES_INIT = 2**24 # bytes in cache at genesisCACHE_BYTES_GROWTH = 2**17 # cache growth per epochCACHE_MULTIPLIER=1024 # Size of the DAG relative to the cacheEPOCH_LEN Continue reading >>

Mining Ethereum Classic 0.1 Documentation

Mining Ethereum Classic 0.1 Documentation

Mining success depends on the set block difficulty. Block difficulty dynamically adjusts each block in order to regulate the network hashing power to produce a 12 second blocktime. Your chances of finding a block therefore follows from your hashrate relative to difficulty. Ethash uses a DAG (directed acyclic graph) for the proof of work algorithm, this is generated for each epoch, i.e., every 30000 blocks (125 hours, ca. 5.2 days). The DAG takes a long time to generate. If clients only generate it on demand, you may see a long wait at each epoch transition before the first block of the new epoch is found. However, the DAG only depends on the block number, so it can and should be calculated in advance to avoid long wait times at each epoch transition. Both geth and ethminer implement automatic DAG generation and maintains two DAGs at a time for smooth epoch transitions. Automatic DAG generation is turned on and off when mining is controlled from the console. It is also turned on by default if geth is launched with the --mine option. Note that clients share a DAG resource, so if you are running multiple instances of any client, make sure automatic dag generation is switched off in all but one instance. To generate the DAG for an arbitrary epoch: For instance geth makedag 360000 ~/.ethash. Note that ethash uses~/.ethash (Mac/Linux) or ~/AppData/Ethash (Windows) for the DAGso that it can shared between different client implementations as well as multiple running instances. Our algorithm, Ethash (previously known as Dagger-Hashimoto), is based around the provision of a large, transient, randomly generated dataset which forms a DAG (the Dagger-part), and attempting to solve a particular constraint on it, partly determined through a blocks header-hash. It is designed to hash Continue reading >>

Ethash - Wikipedia

Ethash - Wikipedia

This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . This article relies too much on references to primary sources . Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources . ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) The topic of this article may not meet Wikipedia's general notability guideline . Please help to establish notability by citing reliable secondary sources that are independent of the topic and provide significant coverage of it beyond its mere trivial mention. If notability cannot be established, the article is likely to be merged , redirected , or deleted . Continue reading >>

Erc20 Token Standard

Erc20 Token Standard

The ERC20 token standard describes the functions and events that an Ethereum token contract has to implement. Following is an interface contract declaring the required functions and events to meet the ERC20 standard: 1 // 2 contract ERC20 { 3 function totalSupply() constant returns (uint totalSupply); 4 function balanceOf(address _owner) constant returns (uint balance); 5 function transfer(address _to, uint _value) returns (bool success); 6 function transferFrom(address _from, address _to, uint _value) returns (bool success); 7 function approve(address _spender, uint _value) returns (bool success); 8 function allowance(address _owner, address _spender) constant returns (uint remaining); 9 event Transfer(address indexed _from, address indexed _to, uint _value);10 event Approval(address indexed _owner, address indexed _spender, uint _value);11 } Most of the major tokens on the Ethereum blockchain are ERC20-compliant. The GNT Golem Network Token is only partially-ERC20-compliant as it does not implement the approve(...), allowance(..) and transferFrom(...) functions, and the Approval(...) event. Some of the tokens include further information describing the token contract: 1 string public constant name = "Token Name";2 string public constant symbol = "SYM";3 uint8 public constant decimals = 18; // 18 is the most common number of decimal places Following is a fragment of a token contract to demonstrate how a token contract maintains the token balance of Ethereum accounts: 1 contract TokenContractFragment { 2 3 // Balances for each account 4 mapping(address => uint256) balances; 5 6 // Owner of account approves the transfer of an amount to another account 7 mapping(address => mapping (address => uint256)) allowed; 8 9 // What is the balance of a particular account?10 functio Continue reading >>

Ethereum's Big Switch: The New Roadmap To Proof-of-stake - Coindesk

Ethereum's Big Switch: The New Roadmap To Proof-of-stake - Coindesk

Ethereum's Big Switch: The New Roadmap to Proof-of-Stake After years of development, ethereum has a new planto update the algorithm that keeps its entire network in sync. Vitalik Buterin, ethereum's creator , recently released a rough implementation guide that reveals the network's developers will first start with a 'hybrid' system that merges bitcoin-style proof-of-work mining with itsmuch-anticipated and still-experimental proof-of-stake system called Casper, created by Buterin. The planeffectively meansethereum will begin alternating between the two systems, so that some transaction blocks (one out of 100) are secured viaproof-of-stake and the rest remain on proof-of-work. Buterin has notably been working on his implementationin parallel with ethereum developer Vlad Zamfir, "cross-pollinating" their ideas. According toKarl Floersch, blockchain engineer for ethereum startup ConsenSysand a coder working with Buterin on Casper's development, the result is that the network is choosing the more conservative of two potential paths forward. "What Vitalik has come up with is a get-it-out-the-door, working version, that works, but might be less theoretically revolutionary than Vlad's." Because Buterin's implementation of Casper can, he thinks, get to production faster, it will be used in the first stage of ethereum's evolution. If implemented, this would be the first time proof-of-stake would be employed on the live ethereum platform, albeit playing a minor role. It also would a largereal-world test of proof-of-stake, enabling the cryptocurrency community to determine whether the proof algorithm is asuperior one, as proponents have argued. To advocates, the goal of this potentially revolutionary change to proof-of-stake is to reduce the electricityethereum requires to reacha Continue reading >>

Ethereum Classic Community

Ethereum Classic Community

Vitalik Buterin and The Ethereum Foundation create the first blockchain-based turing-complete smart contract platform Slock.it construct TheDAO Ethereum Contract; a security audit is completed by Dejavu TheDAO smart contract is deployed; members of the public send it value in return for DAO tokens Slock.it announce a $1.5 Million USD proposal, paid in Ether by the crowdfund, 'to guarantee the integrity of The DAO' On the last day of the crowdsale, DAO curator Vlad Zamfir calls for a moratorium on TheDAO, citing many game-theoretical security issues The crowdsale completes to become the world's largest and raising an incredible $150 Million USD Peter Vessenes publicly discloses the existence of a critical security vulnerability overlooked in many Solidiy contracts Stephan Tual publicly claims that TheDAO funds are safe despite the newly-discovered critical security flaw Ether is slowly and silently drained from TheDAO as the re-entry bug is applied The price of Ether is slashed in half as Griff Green announces that TheDAO has been hacked TheDAO's splitting mechanism gives around a month for a solution to be found that recovers the funds; Foundation and community developers race to implement a soft fork A group of 'white-hat' hackers secure 70% of TheDAO funds but protocol-level action is required to save the remaining 30% split by the hacker The Ethereum Foundation releases a 'Soft Fork' client to censor transactions coming from the hacker; mining pools vote to enable it by lowering gas limit Critical Denial of Service flaws are found in the Soft Fork implementation, miners quickly decide not to use it Many days of intense arguing goes on in the Ethereum community about the pros and cons of implementing a Hard Fork The only remaining option is a controversial Hard Fork. Continue reading >>

Mining Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

Mining Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

The word mining originates in the context of the gold analogy for crypto currencies. Gold or precious metals are scarce, so are digital tokens, and the only way to increase the total volume is through mining it. This is appropriate to the extent that in Ethereum too, the only mode of issuance post launch is via the mining. Unlike these examples however, mining is also the way to secure the network by creating, verifying, publishing and propagating blocks in the blockchain. Mining Ether = Securing the network = verify computation Ethereum Frontier like all blockchain technologies uses an incentive-driven model of security. Consensus is based on choosing the block with the highest total difficulty.Miners produce blocks which the others check for validity. Among other well-formedness criteria, a block is only valid if it contains proof of work (PoW) of a given difficulty.Note that in Ethereum 1.1, this is likely going to be replaced by a proof of stake model. The proof of work algorithm used is called Ethash (a modified version of Dagger-Hashimoto ) involves finding a nonce input to the algorithm so that the result is below a certain threshold depending on the difficulty. The point in PoW algorithms is that there is no better strategy to find such a nonce than enumerating the possibilities while verification of a solution is trivial and cheap. If outputs have a uniform distribution, then we can guarantee that on average the time needed to find a nonce depends on the difficulty threshold, making it possible to control the time of finding a new block just by manipulating difficulty. The difficulty dynamically adjusts so that on average one block is produced by the entire network every 12 seconds (ie., 12 s block time). This heartbeat basically punctuates the synchronisation Continue reading >>

How Difficulty Adjustment Algorithm Works In Ethereum

How Difficulty Adjustment Algorithm Works In Ethereum

How Difficulty Adjustment Algorithm Works in Ethereum In order to explain the logic of difficulty adjustment, we will use the go implementation of Ethereum which is generally called Geth. Source code of Geth can be found here. Difficulty adjustment algorithm is coded inin block_validator.go file, which can be found here. By difficulty adjustment we mean the logic in Ethereum using which Ethereum tries to keep mining time of the blocks between 10 to 19 sec. If difference in mining time is between 0 to 9 sec. then Geth tries to increase the difficulty to mine the block and if difference is 20 sec. or more, then Geth tries to reduce the mining difficulty of the system. In block_validator.go file, function CalcDifficulty is called to adjust the difficulty of the system and it returns the difficulty of the next block when it will be created. This function, in return, calls calcDifficultyHomestead or calcDifficultyFrontier depending on the configuration parameters. Latest version of Ethereum uses calcDifficultyHomestead function, therefore we will be reviewing calcDifficultyHomestead function. In order to calculate the difficulty of the new block, this function needs following input parameters: time Proposed time of formation of new block parentTime Time of formation of parent Block parentNumber Parent block, block number. Below is step by step process how difficulty of new block gets created. 1. First, difference between time of formation of parent block and new block is calculated. 2. Output of step 1 is then divided by 10 and integer of it is stored. This is done to create ranges. If output of step 1 is between 1 9 then output of this step will be 0. If output of step 1 is between 10 19 then output of this step will be 1. If output of step 1 is between 20 29 then output o Continue reading >>

Ethereum (ether) Mining

Ethereum (ether) Mining

Blocks are generated on average every 12 seconds. The block reward is 5 ETH. Genesis Mining is the largest Ether cloud mining provider. Ethereum cloud mining contracts are available for purchase and the prices are as follows: You can also read this cloud mining guide to learn how to mine Ether using Amazons cloud servers. As with any cryptocurrency, Ethereum mining profitability depends on many factors. The hash rate of your miners in relation to the total network hash rate will determine your share of earnings. Your earnings can also vary depending on Ethers price relative to fiat currencies like the US dollar. More efficient mining hardware will also increase profitability. The more efficient your hardware can convert electricity to Ether, the higher your profit margins. An Ethereum mining profitability calculator can be used to determine a rough estimate of your earnings based on your hash rate, the network hash rate, block time, and the price of one ETH. Two examples of calculators can be found at EtherScan and Badmofo . Although Ethereum has only recently gained popularity, there are already a few Ethereum mining pools. The two most popular pools are: Continue reading >>

More in ethereum