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Cryptokitties Smart Contract Code

A Guide To Developing An Ethereum Decentralized Voting Application

A Guide To Developing An Ethereum Decentralized Voting Application

A guide to developing an Ethereum decentralized voting application After the entire cryptocurrency market passed 700 billion dollars in market cap, the cryptocurrency space exploded over these last couple months. But this is just the beginning. As blockchain systems continue to evolve and scale, one great way to dip into this new space and leverage this technology is with decentralized applications, otherwise known as dApps. CryptoKitties , famous for its congestion of the Ethereum Blockchain, is a great example of a dApp, uniquely combining concepts of breedable and collectible cats with the blockchain. This sensational game is just one creative example out of a virtually unlimited number of opportunities. Although seemingly very complicated, certain frameworks and tools have been developed to abstract your interactions with the blockchain and smart contracts. In this blog post, I will go over one way to create a decentralized voting app on Ethereum. I will briefly go over Ethereum, but you probably should have an understanding of it to use this guide to the fullest. In addition, I do expect you to know Javascript. Essentially, a great decentralized application utilizing blockchain technology allows you perform the same actions you would today (like transferring money) without a trusted third party. The best dApps have a specific real world use-case that leverages the unique characteristics of blockchain. In essence, the blockchain is a shared, programmable, cryptographically secure and therefore trusted ledger which no single user controls and which can be inspected by anyone.- KlausSchwab Even though a voting app might not be a great app for consumers, Ive chosen to use it for this guide because the main issues blockchain solves transparency, security, accessibility Continue reading >>

This Man Has Made More Money Trading Cryptokitties Than Investing In His Ira

This Man Has Made More Money Trading Cryptokitties Than Investing In His Ira

This man has made more money trading cryptokitties than investing in his IRA CryptoKitties, a game where users breed and trade digital kitties using Ethereum-based smart contracts, has emerged as the latest mark of societys obsession with rising cryptocurrency values. In some ways, the popularity of the game reflects the skyrocketing values of digital currencies like Bitcoin and Ether. Total sales on the platform created by Canadian startup Axiom Zen have reportedly hit $12 million, according to Coin Telegraph , as some cats with rare attributes have been sold for upwards of $80,000 . Cryptokitties are generated by code, and bred by spending Ether tokens on smart contracts that use two base cats to create a new one. Each resulting cat is unique and persistent, recorded on Ethereums public ledger. While the game has proven wildly popular, CryptoKitties has also been plagued by network slowdowns, little game progression and automated bots that snipe deals. Its also placing a new load on the currency itself. The game has slowed down the Ethereum network by as much as 11 percent, Motherboard reported last week. But as the first successful game built on the Ethereum network, CryptoKitties success has hinted at the greater potential of apps powered by blockchain technology and given rise to a new wave of cryptocurrency speculation. Like Bitcoin and Ethereum, CryptoKitties allowed speculators to make a lot of money if they got in at the right time. One of those speculators is Todd, who wished to remain anonymous in order to disclose personal financial details. While we talked, the CryptoKitties site dipped in and out of commission. Todd is a 30-year-old entrepreneur and software designer from Austin, Texas. Hes also been the owner of 35 cryptokitties , an extension of his bro Continue reading >>

What Is Ethereum, And What Are Smart Contracts?

What Is Ethereum, And What Are Smart Contracts?

What is Ethereum, and What Are Smart Contracts? Ethereum is a decentralized computing platform. It generates a crytocurrency token known as Ether. Programmers can write smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, and these contracts are automatically executed according to their code. Ethereum is often mentioned in the same breath as Bitcoin , but its rather different. Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency and decentralized payment network that allows Bitcoin tokens to be transferred between users. RELATED: What Is Bitcoin, and How Does it Work? The Ethereum project has larger goals. As the Ethereum website puts it, Ethereum is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts. These contracts run on the Ethereum Virtual Machine, a distributed computing network made up of all the devices running Ethereum nodes. The decentralized platform part means that anyone can set up and run an Ethereum node, the same way anyone can run a Bitcoin node. Anyone who wants to run a smart contract on the nodes has to pay the operators of those nodes in Ether, which is a cryptocurrency token tied to Ethereum. Thus, people who run Ether nodes provide computing power and are paid in Ether, in a similar way to how people who run Bitcoin nodes provide hashing power and are paid in Bitcoin. In other words, while Bitcoin is just a blockchain and payment network, Ethereum is a distributed computing network with a blockchain that can be used for many other things. Detailed information is available in the Ethereum white paper . Ether is the digital token (or cryptocurrency) associated with the Ethereum blockchain. In other words, Ether is the coin and Ethereum is the platform. However, people now often use these terms interchangeably. For example, Coinbase allows you to buy Ethereum by which it means Ether Continue reading >>

How Does Cryptokitties Work With Smart Contracts And Is There A Random Element To It?

How Does Cryptokitties Work With Smart Contracts And Is There A Random Element To It?

I'm totally new to cryptokitties, but my understanding of cryptokitties so far is: It's a smart contract that generates new kitties according to your ethereum address. If you are breeding kitties, how does it handle randomness to "breed" different attributes of kitties? Can we see how the kitties smart contract is made? Can the crypto kitties website run as a standalone app (dapp) to interact with the ethereum blockchain? A large chunk of the contract can be seen here: The breeding algorithm is "sooper-sekret" and is handled by a contract that implements GeneScienceInterface. As not-an-Ethereum-developer, I don't know where that contract lives. But @comodoro does! it's at 0xf97e0A5b616dfFC913e72455Fde9eA8bBe946a2B Presumably, the source isn't published and you'd have to reverse engineer how the pseudorandomness is implemented. Also presumably why people from the cryptokitties creators aren't allowed to own the cryptokitties (at least, I read that somewhere): they'd get all the fancy cats! Continue reading >>

How To Code Your Own Cryptokitties-style Game Onethereum

How To Code Your Own Cryptokitties-style Game Onethereum

Co-founder at Loom Network. Building scalable blockchains for large-scale online games and social apps Creators of CryptoZombies.io How to Code Your Own CryptoKitties-Style Game onEthereum CryptoKitties has done a great job of demonstrating what blockchains can be used for beyond just simple financial transactions. Im hoping well start to see a lot more innovative uses of the blockchain for games like this in the future, so I wanted to write a quick walkthrough of the code behind CryptoKitties to show how it was implemented beneath the surface. This article is written for developers, and while its not an absolute-beginners introduction to Solidity, I tried to include links to documentation to make it as accessible as possible to developers of all levels. Almost all of the CryptoKitties code is open source, so the best way to figure out how it works is to read through the source code. Its around 2,000 lines total, so in this article Im going to be walking through only the sections I think are most important. But heres a copy of the full contract code on EthFiddle if you want to read through it on your own: Powered by EthFiddle, the #1 Solidity code-sharing siteethfiddle.com If youre not familiar with what CryptoKitties is, its basically a game for buying, selling, and breeding digital cats. Each cat has a unique appearance that is defined by its genes, and when you breed 2 cats together, their genes combine in a unique way to produce an offspring, which you can then breed or sell. The code for CryptoKitties is split into a number of smaller contracts in order to keep related code bundled together without having one single giant file with everything in it. The subcontract inheritance for the main kitty contract looks like this: contract KittyOwnership is KittyBase, ERC72 Continue reading >>

Scratch That: Cryptokitties Isn't Quite Ethereum's Vision For Apps - Coindesk

Scratch That: Cryptokitties Isn't Quite Ethereum's Vision For Apps - Coindesk

Scratch That: CryptoKitties Isn't Quite Ethereum's Vision for Apps Ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin cried himself to sleep the night "World of Warcraft" maker Blizzard Entertainment altered his "belovedwarlock's Siphon Life spell." According to Buterin, the online role-playing game forever changed his outlook toward app development."On that day, I realized what horrors centralized services can bring," he writes on his official "About.me." Aspiring to offer a "world computer," ethereum has sought to stop similar occurrences by providing a platform on which decentralized applications (dapps) can run. But while a whole slew of startups is developing ethereum solutions for everything from social media to file sharing, none have yet to see a large, mainstream audience. An internet-based game for buying, selling and breeding adorable digital kittens, CryptoKitties has found itself in the center of a pop culture storm. Many have lauded the app for giving new users an easy, fun way to learn about cryptocurrency protocols, but others are strongly opposed to the app, which has been the cause of serious backlogs and rising transaction fees on the network. But there's another issue with CryptoKitties that's being increasing called to attention: namely, your kitty isn't as decentralized as you think. As least, that's the contention of some critics , who claim CryptoKitties, like World of Warcraft before it, is under the control of a central authority. Widely heralded as an unprecedented success for ethereum, questions have now begun to emerge about whether it's at the sacrifice of the fundamental concept of the project. What's to stop the owner of the CryptoKitties smart contract, Kitty Core, from editing the algorithm and mutating a kitty against the will of its owner? According t Continue reading >>

Ethereum Accounts, Address And Contracts

Ethereum Accounts, Address And Contracts

pragma solidity ^0.4.11;/** * @title Ownable * @dev The Ownable contract has an owner address, and provides basic authorization control * functions, this simplifies the implementation of "user permissions". */contract Ownable { address public owner; /** * @dev The Ownable constructor sets the original `owner` of the contract to the sender * account. */ function Ownable() { owner = msg.sender; } /** * @dev Throws if called by any account other than the owner. */ modifier onlyOwner() { require(msg.sender == owner); _; } /** * @dev Allows the current owner to transfer control of the contract to a newOwner. * @param newOwner The address to transfer ownership to. */ function transferOwnership(address newOwner) onlyOwner { if (newOwner != address(0)) { owner = newOwner; } }}/// @title Interface for contracts conforming to ERC-721: Non-Fungible Tokens/// @author Dieter Shirley < [emailprotected] > (ERC721 { // Required methods function totalSupply() public view returns (uint256 total); function balanceOf(address _owner) public view returns (uint256 balance); function ownerOf(uint256 _tokenId) external view returns (address owner); function approve(address _to, uint256 _tokenId) external; function transfer(address _to, uint256 _tokenId) external; function transferFrom(address _from, address _to, uint256 _tokenId) external; // Events event Transfer(address from, address to, uint256 tokenId); event Approval(address owner, address approved, uint256 tokenId); // Optional // function name() public view returns (string name); // function symbol() public view returns (string symbol); // function tokensOfOwner(address _owner) external view returns (uint256[] tokenIds); // function tokenMetadata(uint256 _tokenId, string _preferredTransport) public view returns (string infoUrl); // ERC- Continue reading >>

The Big Business Of Cryptokitties Is Being Automated

The Big Business Of Cryptokitties Is Being Automated

The Big Business of CryptoKitties Is Being Automated Great, now digital kitten mills are a thing. The most popular use of Ethereum right now isnt startup fundraising or anything even remotely useful. Instead, people are sucking up Ethereums resources to breed and trade digital cats called CryptoKitties. Theyre basically Beanie Babies, except they dont physically exist, and so far the Ethereum community has collectively spent over $2 million USD on them. With so much money on the line, some CryptoKitty players are coding tools to automate parts of their digital kitten mills, mostly with apps that scan for high-value kitties. At least one tool on GitHub, an online repository for open source code, purports to be a trading bot. Organic CryptoKitty traffic is already clogging up the entire Ethereum network , and the specter of bots has made some manual users understandably frustrated . Read More: 11% of Traffic on the Ethereum Blockchain Is Being Used to Breed Digital Cats CryptoKitties is an app by Canadian startup Axiom Zen, and it was introduced to the world at an Ethereum hackathon at the University of Waterloo in October. The game works like this: the CryptoKitty code continually generates new, basic cats (called gen0 kitties), which the community then breeds and trades. Breeding two kitties involves sending some ether, Ethereums in-house cryptocurrency, to smart contracts that use the two base values to create a new one: a brand new kitty! Its all on the blockchain, in public view, which means that every CryptoKitty is provably unique. Some kitties have sold for as much as $75,000 USD . One Reddit user, who posted that they (manually) buy cheap gen0 cats just to breed and sell, told me in a private message that they are considering canceling a vacation to the Grand Ca Continue reading >>

Cryptozombies - Learn To Code Games On Ethereum. Powered By Loom Network

Cryptozombies - Learn To Code Games On Ethereum. Powered By Loom Network

CryptoZombies is a free, interactive code school that teaches you to build games on Ethereum. The course is designed for beginners to Solidity and starts off with the absolute basics. So if you've never coded with Solidity before, don't worry we'll walk you through step by step. In-browser step-by-step lessons take you from the very basics of Solidity to creating your own fully-functional blockchain-based game. Even by the end of Lesson 1 (which can be completed in one sitting), you'll know enough to officially call yourself a Solidity developer! In Lesson 1, you will build a Zombie Factory to build your army. Every Zombie you create will have randomly generated DNA and have his own unique appearance. Further lessons (1 released each week) will add more functionality to your game, like the ability to battle other people's zombies! Earn crypto-collectible Zombies and bonuses by completing coding lessons. After completing all lessons and deploying your DApp, pit your zombie army against other players' zombies in one of the world's first blockchain-based games! Half code-school, half MMO crypto-collectible strategy game. What are you waiting for? Click the button below to dive into lesson 1 and build your first DApp. It's free! Who Made CryptoZombies and Why Is It Free? Loom Network . We're building a platform for running large-scale applications on Ethereum sidechains. We think blockchains are capable of a lot more than just payments, and we want to get more developers thinking outside the box and trying to build large-scale DApps. Games are one of the areas where we think blockchain will really revolutionize things. So we built CryptoZombies to help educate and inspire the next generation of blockchain game devs. Aside from CryptoZombies, we're working on some really co Continue reading >>

Dharma Code School #1: Cat-lateralized Loans

Dharma Code School #1: Cat-lateralized Loans

Dharma Code School #1: Cat-lateralized Loans A series of interactive code school tutorials on how to create lending instruments and credit derivatives of various types using Dharma protocol. At Dharma , were building the infrastructure for the blockchain-based debt markets of the future, and we need you, the innovators and developers of the world, to build compelling lending applications on our protocol! To help you get acquainted with the Dharma development environment, weve created an interactive tutorial to walk you through the basics. In Lesson 1, youll create a simple peer-to-peer collateralized loan, which we call the Cat-lateralized Loan. Why Cat-lateralized, you ask? Because this isnt just any collateralized loan in this tutorial, youll learn how to build and crowdfund a loan with smart contracts thats trustlessly collateralized by a CryptoKitty . This allows any CryptoKitty owner to leverage their digital cat to get a loan, giving them cash derived from the value of their collectible without requiring them to sell their furry virtual pal. No longer will your CryptoKitties sit idle put those cuties to work! What we imagine a collateralized CryptoKitty lookslike. In Part 1, youll design a simple peer-to-peer debt agreement using smart contracts and Dharma protocol. In Part 2, youll learn how to leverage a CryptoKitty as collateral in the debt agreement you built in Part 1. Finally, in Part 3, youll use the dharma.js libraries to put it all together and trustlessly issue and crowdfund the collateralized debt agreement over Twitter. In this tutorial we leverage CryptoKitties as collateral, but the same smart contracts youll build in this tutorial could leverage virtually any non-fungible token CryptoPunks , Decentraland Plots , CryptoPets , CryptoPuppies , you nam Continue reading >>

A Cryptokitty Can Make You Millions Sort Of!

A Cryptokitty Can Make You Millions Sort Of!

A CryptoKitty Can Make You Millions sort of! By Apekshita Varshney |April 17, 2018, 5:50 am EDT *hissing noises*! Im Founder Cat #18. I enjoy tripping my owner, eating until I loathe myself, and reading garfield. When no ones home, I invite my pals over and we listen to Rihanna. I look forward to riding unicorns with you. Its neither animated nor a meme, its simply an illustration with a funny bio. But its not just any cat, this feline with ugly, purple splotches was bought for 253.3368 Ether (ETH) or $110,707.16 . A world that hasnt fully comprehended or utilised the blockchain technology. Founder Cat #18s home is CryptoKitties, a game where you can buy cats with the hope of selling them at a much higher price later. More accurately, CryptoKitties are digital, collectible cats built on the Ethereum blockchain. Today, money is transferred from one to another using a trusted, third-party source. This middle-person transfers the money after identifying the right account and charging a fee. Blockchain is a technology that makes the transfer, and subsequently trade, possible in real-time, more efficiently, and without the need for this third-party. It uses a ledger where people know how much each user owns and how much is being transacted. And since it isnt centrally controlled, chances of destruction are pretty rare. Simply, blockchain decentralises and democratizes transactions and eliminates central authorities. CryptoKitties is a game built on Ethereum which is considered a public computing platform. Ethereum uses the blockchain technology and cryptocurrency Ether (ETH) for the transactions. Where does bitcoin feature in all of this? It doesnt. Bitcoin is just one type of cryptocurrency. Monopoly helped people understand money management and CandyCrush and Farmville he Continue reading >>

Hacking The Cryptokitties Genome

Hacking The Cryptokitties Genome

My friend Anshul recently told me about CryptoKitties. I had heard about it clogging up the ETH pipes and causing the price to drop but had not realized what an amazing design the CryptoKitties team had realized. CryptoKitties are basically breed-able beanie babies built on top of the ethereum blockchain. And yet, they are also so much more than that: CryptoKitties are a digital playground where programmers, geneticists, and experts in economics, bioinformatics, machine learning and game theory can come together to learn and play. For those of you new to CryptoKitties, have a look at the Mashable guide ; this will teach you the basics of the CryptoKitties game system. To get a better view of exactly just what a kitty is you can go through the CryptokittiesCore contract . Youll find that a CryptoKitty is basically a struct on the EVM that looks like this. function isGeneScience() public pure returns (bool); /// @dev given genes of kitten 1 & 2, return a genetic combination - may have a random factor /// @return the genes that are supposed to be passed down the child function mixGenes(uint256 genes1, uint256 genes2, uint256 targetBlock) public returns (uint256); Wow a secret. This is THE secret. If youve been playing cryptokitties you know this is how kitties are produced. Youll notice that siring kitties produces offspring in a manner that feels intuitive: features get passed on from parents to offspring sometimes but not always, sometimes skipping generations. This is the code that runs at the conception of cryptokitties with non-zero generations. A brief genetics remedial from your 10th grade biology class A phenotype (from Greek phainein, meaning to show , and typos, meaning type) is the composite of an organism s observable characteristics or traits , such as its mo Continue reading >>

Ethereum: How To Become A Blockchain Developer

Ethereum: How To Become A Blockchain Developer

Learn how to work with Ethereum, the cryptocurrency for Smart Contracts, a revolutionary technology, home of the cryptokittens, and BTC's main competitor. The CryptoKitties is a Smart Contract that allows users to collect or buy and breed digital cats. If you would like to become a Blockchain developer, sooner or later, you will work with Ethereum. It is the second-largest cryptocurrency at the moment. According to coinmarketcap, its market capital is half the size of Bitcoin and twice the size of Ripple, the third-largest cryptocurrency. Ethereum, like Bitcoin, is a Blockchain solution that provides sharing coins' features. So, why did it become so popular? All the small differences between Ethereum and the first cryptocurrency make it so popular the smart contracts, quickly mined blocks and low fees. Like Bitcoin, Ethereum is a Blockchain solution. The general functional principle is the same currency owners can exchange the funds by sending the transactions which are broadcasted with the decentralized Blockchain. But a couple of differences make Ethereum so special Every block in mined in approximately 10 minutes in Bitcoin. In Ethereum, it happens 4-5 times per minute. Thus, making microtransactions, ordering pizza, or paying for goods does not require one to wait for 10 minutes until the transaction receives the first confirmation. In Bitcoin, the block size is currently specified at 1MB. The Ethereum block size is calculated in a totally different way and depends on the complexity of transactions included in this block. Every block can have a complexity of around 8,000,029 Gas. Every transaction has its own complexity called the Gas and calculated from the code, smart contracts, and information that the transaction includes. Lets say that a single, basic transact Continue reading >>

What Is Cryptokitties? A Beginners Guide On The Blockchain Collectible Cats

What Is Cryptokitties? A Beginners Guide On The Blockchain Collectible Cats

What is CryptoKitties? A Beginners Guide on the Blockchain Collectible Cats What is CryptoKitties? A Beginners Guide on the Blockchain Collectible Cats Last December, a new game became a trending fad in the blockchain world. Collectible CryptoKitties allowed users to buy, own, and trade unique, adorable cartoon cats on the blockchain. Around the time of launch, CryptoKitties was so successful that it slowed the Ethereum network. Just a few days after launch, users had already spent over $1 million on these collectible cats. The cool thing about CryptoKitties is theyre a demonstration. Of course, theyre fun and cute on their own. However, they also show the potential of blockchain for trading and securing digital assets. This was the driving principle behind the creation of CryptoKitties. In the white paper, the founders discuss the narrow focus of most blockchain projects on payments. Ultimately, they hoped CryptoKitties would help people expand their vision of what a blockchain could do. Most blockchain projects launch with a cryptocurrency. These are tradable tokens that represent some utility value in a project or even a share in a company. Token offerings have become an incredibly successful fundraising device for new startups. In some cases, too successful as projects with minimal expertise or roadmap can raise millions of dollars. CryptoKitties are not a currency. Instead, theyre blockchain assets. Theyre structured similarly to most other tokens. However, they have one major difference. Each CryptoKitty is unique, and theyre not meant to be fungible. Fungibility is key for a currency. It means that a dollar is a dollar, no matter where you got it, what year it was minted, or where it has been before you received it. They have value because we agree on their valu Continue reading >>

Learn To Code Ethereum Dapps By Building Your Own Game | Hacker News

Learn To Code Ethereum Dapps By Building Your Own Game | Hacker News

There's a lot of hate on here for blockchain gaming/rare digital art so I'd like to clarify two points. 1. Blockchain games are best when only the necessary work is done on chain, such as transfer of ownership or enforcement of critical rules at run time. This tutorial may not show that so as to demonstrate the power of the blockchain, but most people in the space are building only the components players want to not be controlled by a central entity into the blockchain. It works fine. 2. The lack of digital scarcity is a real problem for artists. Blockchain art is a real solution. Artists I talk to are extremely excited about the ability to issue limited/special editions of their art on the blockchain that can owned and traded by their biggest fans. It's not about hiding the source art (image, music, etc) from the public, it's about having "signed" and "authentic" editions folks can collect and trade. They've lost that ability in the digital art world and this gives it back to them. fans like to give one time tokens of appreciation to artists. and then maybe hang it on a wall and forget. collectors and tax avoiders like to invest in scarce art (hence why they only assign big made-up values to the work of dead artists) and so they will be the only ones really interested in maintaining a block chain to authenticate their investment. One of the CryptoZombies creators here. This comment is spot-on. In the realm of gaming, digital ownership of in-game assets is one area we're really excited about. Economies have already sprung up in many online games around selling items for real-world cash. With something like ERC721 tokens on Ethereum, you would truly own your items outside of the company's web server. No one could take them away from you, the items could be provably scar Continue reading >>

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