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All Ethereum Private Keys

The Top 10 Best Ethereum Wallets (2018 Edition)

The Top 10 Best Ethereum Wallets (2018 Edition)

The Top 10 Best Ethereum Wallets (2018 Edition) By: Sudhir Khatwani In: Ethereum Last Updated: Ethereum currently has the second largest market cap after Bitcoin . Because of this, many investors are now flocking to Ethereum. Naturally, this has surged demand for more secure Ethereum wallets. And in my opinion, this is what all secure cryptocurrency wallets need to have: Private keys Wallets where you control your private keys. Ease of use Elegant UI for ease of use. Development community Active development community. Backup & security Backup and restore features. Compatibility Compatible with different operating systems. I believe that if a wallet doesnt have any one of these things, your coins could be at risk and you could give yourself a major headache. When looking for wallets, make sure that the above requirements are met before you store your coins there. If you want to get hold of ETH Instantly using Bitcoin or any other cryptocurrency, just use the widget below. Here I have listed out the best wallets for Ethereum. They all meet the above requirements. The Ledger Nano S is one of the most inexpensive Ethereum hardware wallets available ($65). Here, Ether is stored offline on the device. Whenever you want to spend Ether, Ledger signs it using the private key stored on the device. You can store both ETH & ETC. Harsh has made few videos guide about Ledger Nano S that you must check out. This will help you to learn everything about Ledger Nano S. The best thing about the Ledger Nano S is that it comes with a small OLED screen which allows you to control your transactions. The security is so robust that you can use your Nano S device even on a hacked computer. Trezor was the first hardware wallet invented for Bitcoin. However,nowTrezor can be used for Ethereum too Continue reading >>

What Are Private Keys?

What Are Private Keys?

A private keyis like a password to a digital bank account, and you can have as many private keys as you have assets. Exodus makes it easy so that 90% of the time, you never have to worry about your private keys. Your private keys are hidden inside Exodus, and they can only be exported using our developer menu - this way, you're the only one that has access to your private keys. Private keys are different from your public receiving address. You can give your public address to anyone that asks for it, but you must never give your private keys to an untrusted source (not even to us). There are many scams out there that will ask you for your private key - Never give out yourprivate key, no matter how "safe" they say it is.If you'd like to learn more ways of protecting yourself from scams, and other safety tips, check out this article . This is an example of what a private key looks like after it's been exported. When you first opened your Exodus wallet, your private keys were created. It was actually your private keys that mathematically generated your public addresses, so they are connected. You can think of a private key as the proof that you own a public address. Without the private key, you cannot prove that the funds in the public address are yours. Private keys are also different from your 12-word backup phrase. You have a private key for each of your assets (Bitcoin, Litecoin,Ethereum, etc), but a 12-word phrase has control of all of your private keys - the private keys essentially live inside of the 12 words. This is why it's important to always keep your 12-word backup phrase safe, and to not share it with anyone, not even support staff at Exodus. If a person half-way around the world gains access to either your 12-word backup phrase or any of your private keys, t Continue reading >>

Knowledge-base/ethereum-two-people-same-private-key.md At Master Myetherwallet/knowledge-base Github

Knowledge-base/ethereum-two-people-same-private-key.md At Master Myetherwallet/knowledge-base Github

First of all, the wallet private key is not given, it is randomly generated, then the public key is derived from it, and finally the address is derived from the public key. Potentially someone else could randomly generate the same private key, but the chances of that happening are unbelievably tiny - Let's take things into perspective. Since every Ethereum address starts with '0x' and is followed by 40 hexadecimal characters, and hexadecimal characters have 16 options (a-f and 0-9), there are 16^40 possible Ethereum addresses. 16^40 = 2^2^2^40 = 2^160 possible addresses. That's 1,461,501,637,330,902,918,203,684,832,716,283,019,655,932,542,976. That means you can actually pick a private key yourself. Just pick a number between 0 and 1461501637330902918203684832716283019655932542976. Go ahead, just pick one. Don't tell anyone! There, that's your private key. That number gives you access to all the funds in that account. If you happened to pick one that someone else is using, you now have access to all of their funds. If someone else happens to pick the one that you just picked, now they have access to all of your funds. That's why it's important that the one you picked is really really random and that you never let anyone see it. It's that simple. Pick a number, that's your account. Cross your fingers that nobody else picks it! The mind blowing part is that this is actually secure. That number up there is so large that if you truly did a good job picking your number randomly, then the odds that anyone else picks it is infintesimal. (1/that number). Don't believe me? Go ahead, there are billions of dollars worth of value in the blockchain. You should set up a computer program to generate tons of these numbers and check each one to see whether they have any money in them. Continue reading >>

All Ethereum Private Keys

All Ethereum Private Keys

Yes, we generated all possible ethereum private keys. All private keys' decimal number converted to hex numbers. There is 1 to 2^256(115792089237316195423570985008687907853269984665640564039457584007913129639936) positive numbers. Every page has 25 keys. Ethereum Technical Paper: Ethereum Yellow Paper Public address balance that generated on page checked automatically. It is a very tiny possibility such as you search a small stone in the Universe. However If you are lucky and find a balanced account, page will start beeping sound :) We do not recommend searching your own private keys! You can not scrap all public address. Therefore you can see how large the number above is (2^256) Theoretically, some ethereum private keys and public addresses can be vulnerable, since search engines (Google, Bing, Yandex etc...) can index some pages with private keys and addresses. However indexing all the pages mean huge numbers.For example; one of our pages with 25 addresses is about 18,443 Bytes. Try to multiply by total pages. You will get result of 8.54221400721529051e+67 TeraBytes. Continue reading >>

What Are Ethereum Private Keys?

What Are Ethereum Private Keys?

Moving Ether around is very easy, but in the background an important part of moving and storing Ether involves something called a private key. The easiest way to understand private keys is to think about an old-fashioned mailbox system: Lets say Maria wants to send mail to Peter. First she needs to know what Peters mailbox address or number is. Lets say Peters mailbox is number 2034. Similarly, if she wants to send Ether to Peter, she needs to know his Ether address, which is a number that uniquely identifies him. This is also sometimes called his wallet address, or public key, which functions similar to your bank account number. Its a long and complicated number because there are so many Ether mailboxes in the world, but thankfully you dont have to remember it, you can find it on the internet. So now Maria deposits the Ethereum in Peters mailbox. She can have a peek inside and see the Ethereum there, in fact anyone who walks by can see that mailbox 2034 is filled with one Ethereum. This is part of the exciting part of Ethereum - that everyone can see all the transactions but without anyone having to share their identity. People can see there is one Ethereum in 2034, but no-one, except for Maria and Peter, will know it belongs to Peter. Now lets see how Peter gets his Ethereum - well he can see its there, so he doesnt have to do anything. But if he wants to move it, he needs to open the box to send it to someone else. To open this he needs a key - and this is his own unique key, also called a private key, that he, and only he can use to open the mailbox. When he opens it he can remove the Ethereum and deposit into someone elses box, lets maybe say he is buying an online game from Microsoft, now he can deposit it into Microsofts box and once they can see the Ethereum re Continue reading >>

Exporting The Private Key For Your Ethereum Address

Exporting The Private Key For Your Ethereum Address

Exporting the private key for your Ethereum address Backing up your Blockchain.info wallet is critical and can be done by following this guide . Creating the backup phrase will secure your bitcoin and ethereum balances. You also have the option of exporting the individual private key for your ethereum address. This is useful if you accidentally sent ethereum based tokens (known as ERC20 tokens) to your Blockchain wallet. At this time we do not support sending tokens or showing token balances in the Blockchain wallet, which you can read about in greater detail here . To export yourethereum private key start by clickingETHER in the lefthand menu: You will see the main transaction page for the ethereum section of your wallet. To the top right you can seeExport Private Key: PressExport Private Key and acknowledge the following message: PressContinue and the private key will be displayed. As stated in the warning you shouldnever share this information with anyone. Access to a private key means access to the funds associated with the public address. Continue reading >>

A Beginners Guide To Setup A Wallet To Securely Store Your Ethereum And Ethereum Icotokens

A Beginners Guide To Setup A Wallet To Securely Store Your Ethereum And Ethereum Icotokens

Frontend Developer who loves coding, design, technology and startup. Working at Omise, the awesome online payment startup A Beginners Guide to Setup a Wallet to Securely Store Your Ethereum and Ethereum ICOTokens If you want your Ether safe, dont store all your Ether in an Exchange market. Keep some in your ownwallet I heard this from one of my co-workers when I just started investing in Ethereum. That really confused me Isnt the wallet in the Cryptocurrency exchange market my wallet too? Why isnt the exchange safe for me? So Im going to walk you through the mechanism of Ethereum wallet and a method to setup your own wallet to store coins that are secure and convenient. At least this will help you understand more to be able to take care your own coins properly. coins means any Ethereum currencies, Ether or Ethereum tokens. Ether means the native currency of Ethereum platform, sometimes we call it Ethereum or ETH. Ethereum tokens means any non-native currencies on the Ethereum network which normally comes from ICO , ex. Golem , Augur , OmiseGO . Ethereum network means the distributed network for processing the Ethereum transactions. Miners also are part of it. Ethereum wallet means an address or an account on Ethereum network that can be used to store or transfer the coins. To create a wallet, you will need to generate a private key to claim the address of the wallet on the Ethereum network. And 1 address can have only 1 private key. That means you CANNOT change or reset a password (private key). Also, if you lose your private key, you can say you lost your coins forever. And whoever gets your private key, they can use the private key to transfer the coins out of your wallet. Which Ethereum wallet client should Iuse? Exchange market is not the best choice. You have no f Continue reading >>

Security - Is Each Ethereum Address Shared By (theoretically) 2 ** 96 Private Keys? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Security - Is Each Ethereum Address Shared By (theoretically) 2 ** 96 Private Keys? - Ethereum Stack Exchange

Is each Ethereum address shared by (theoretically) 2 ** 96 private keys? This is an extended question to How are ethereum addresses generated? . In Ethereum, a private key is 256-bit long, but an address is only 160-bit long. By "Pigeonhole Principle", it guarantees that some unique private keys map to the same address. Theoretically, 2 ** 96 unique private keys maps to one address on average. If 2 private keys map to the same address, do they both gain access to the same address? Can they both used to transfer Ether from that address to another? According to @tayvano's answer , a private key is 256-bit long, and any 256-bit string is a valid private key: Every single string of 64 hex are, hypothetically, an Ethereum private key that will access an account. Therefore, there are 2 ** 256 valid private keys (the key space is 2 ** 256). A public key is 512-bit long. However, since each of them is derived from its own private key, there are only 2 ** 256 valid public key, and thus the key space is 2 ** 256. The public key is then feed as the input of Keccak-256 (pre-standard SHA3) hash algorithm. The output of Keccak-256 is a 256-bit string, therefore it could be treated as a one-to-one mapping in key space. (The hash space is 2 ** 256) However, an Ethereum address is obtained from the least significant 160-bit of the Keccak-256 hash. This cuts the key space to 2 ** 160. As a result, the process of generating an address from a private key is a function of a 256-bit value to a 160-bit value, which guarantees duplicates. Related: ethereum.stackexchange.com/questions/4299/ eth Nov 16 '16 at 6:56 Thanks for the link! In fact I understood how big the number is before reading the post, but I'm still curious whether all of the 2 ** 96 keys work on the same address, or is there an Continue reading >>

Trezor Integration With Myetherwallet

Trezor Integration With Myetherwallet

Ethereum, Ethereum Classic and ERC-20 Interface forTREZOR Introducing TREZOR integration with MyEtherWallet ! Starting today, you can store ethers safely on your TREZORs. Control your private keys to all cryptocurrencies from the hardware wallet of your choice, and enjoy a perfect peace of mind! Ethereum is currently the cryptocurrency with the second highest market cap and second highest trade volume. We have long recognized the potential of ETH and implemented support for the coin with TREZOR firmware update 1.4.0. Facing limited resources, we are happy we can cooperate with MyEtherWallet to provide an easy and intuitive interface for you, when interacting with ethers. We believe that you, Ethereum users, will greatly benefit from this new integration! Your ethers are stored and protected by the same recovery seed, which you have been using for bitcoins and other crypto. Therefore, there are no changes to how you should use your TREZOR. Your private keys to your coins remain stored in your TREZOR device even when using MEW. If you are familiar with how bitcoin works on TREZOR Wallet, the procedure is similar with Ethereum. You are just using a different wallet interface to your TREZOR. Recovering a seed on TREZOR will restore all of the cryptocurrencies, which were previously saved under the seed. Just update to Firmware version 1.5.0 and above. Time flies by so quickly! Just look what happened to the price of bitcoin, ethers, litecoins, etc., in the meantimeblog.trezor.io TREZOR has officially supported Ethereum since the firmware update to version 1.4.0. If you are using FW from 1.4.0 and above, you should be all set to use MyEtherWallet with TREZOR. For your convenience, we have prepared a short guide to introduce you to the main steps. If you havent updated to FW Continue reading >>

Accounts, Addresses, Public And Private Keys, And Tokens

Accounts, Addresses, Public And Private Keys, And Tokens

Accounts, Addresses, Public And Private Keys, And Tokens The format of your private key is 3a1076bf45ab87712ad64ccb3b10217737f7faacbf2872e88fdd9a537d8fe266. The format of your account (which is generated from your public key) is 0xC2D7CF95645D33006175B78989035C7c9061d3F9. Note that there is a lowercase version 0xc2d7cf95645d33006175b78989035c7c9061d3f9 and a partially uppercase version 0xC2D7CF95645D33006175B78989035C7c9061d3F9. The partially uppercase version has a checksum to verify the address. See EIP55 - Yet another cool checksum address encoding The password encrypted private key is stored in a JSON file with the following format (newlines and indents added for clarity, example on OS/X): $ more ~/Library/Ethereum/keystore/UTC--2017-03-18T05-48-53.504714737Z--c2d7cf95645d33006175b78989035c7c9061d3f9 {"address":"c2d7cf95645d33006175b78989035c7c9061d3f9", "crypto":{ "cipher":"aes-128-ctr", "ciphertext":"0f6d343b2a34fe571639235fc16250823c6fe3bc30525d98c41dfdf21a97aedb", "cipherparams":{ "iv":"cabce7fb34e4881870a2419b93f6c796" }, "kdf":"scrypt", "kdfparams"{ "dklen":32, "n":262144, "p":1, "r":8, "salt":"1af9c4a44cf45fe6fb03dcc126fa56cb0f9e81463683dd6493fb4dc76edddd51" }, "mac":"5cf4012fffd1fbe41b122386122350c3825a709619224961a16e908c2a366aa6" }, "id":"eddd71dd-7ad6-4cd3-bc1a-11022f7db76c", "version":3} How To Create New Accounts (or Addresses) How To Create A New Account In Go Ethereum (geth) You can generate a new Ethereum account by executing geth account new if you already have the geth Ethereum node software installed: $ geth account newYour new account is locked with a password. Please give a password. Do not forget this password.Passphrase: xxxxxxxxRepeat passphrase: xxxxxxxxAddress: {4e6cf0ed2d8bbf1fbbc9f2a100602ceba4bf1319} A UTC--{year}-{month}--{account} enc Continue reading >>

Why Generate Truly Random Privatekeys?

Why Generate Truly Random Privatekeys?

[spotted] 21 BTC (cumulative) sent to an address whose private key is compromised To develop our applications, we are constantly handling authentication protocols (basic, digest, oauth,). We even use hash functions and in 2016, when Apple required that all connections be in https, we could no longer ignore the main principles of symmetric and asymmetric encryption. And still When I generated accounts every 2 minutes while doing my tests on Ethereum, I had the impression to reserve myself addresses unnecessarily, I realize now that this reasoning is fundamentally wrong for several reasons. First, the probability of a collision when creating an address is infinitely small, orders of magnitude are so huge that it is difficult to represent them. Then, even if two people tried to brute-force keys for 100 years, these addresses would have to be used on the Blockchain transactions for that to be relevant. Conclusion, no reason to feel guilty if you generate thousands of addresses, consider rather that they already exist all but you can not control them. So we have a system without storage / persistence that allows from a private key to generate a public key and an address. This is obviously a one-way system. Do not try to hack it, there is no flaw in this system, it is both ultra secure and very user friendly. Without dependency (third party or hardware) I can sign transactions on the Blockchain with the only constraint, the knowledge of my secret code. On the other hand, if your private key is compromised, a hacker can quietly take away your cryptos and you will not be able to do anything. If you find this shocking, make an analogy with your mailbox. When you send me an email, I know your public address (your email), imagine that your password is your date of birth (private Continue reading >>

Ethereum Classic Public And Private Keys: A Little Enlightenment

Ethereum Classic Public And Private Keys: A Little Enlightenment

Ethereum Classic Public And Private Keys: A Little Enlightenment Interactions with the Ethereum Classic (ETC) system depend on special numbers referred to as public keys and private keys. Private keys are used to transfer funds, install programs, and, run programs. These numbers must be kept secret at all times. Public keys are used to confirm knowledge of private keys without their disclosure. Public keys also provide a means of identifying accounts . Private keys are 32 byte numbers between 1 and 115792089237316195423570985008687907852837564279074904382605163141518161494336 inclusive. People randomly select them. Some may be concerned that two people might unintentionally select the same private key. The odds of that happening are vanishingly small. In fact, the number of possible private keys is approximately equal to the number of atoms in the entire universe! Public keys are 64 byte numbers derived from private keys using an odd type of arithmetic with respect to pairs of numbers. Here is a Python script that calculates public keys from private keys: #!/usr/bin/env python3"""Calculates ETC public keys from ETC private keys.Usage: etc_pub_key """import randomimport sysA = 0N = 0xfffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffebaaedce6af48a03bbfd25e8cd0364141P = 0xfffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffefffffc2fGX = 0x79be667ef9dcbbac55a06295ce870b07029bfcdb2dce28d959f2815b16f81798GY = 0x483ada7726a3c4655da4fbfc0e1108a8fd17b448a68554199c47d08ffb10d4b8HEXADECIMAL = 16NUM_FORMAT = "{{:0{}x}}".format(len(hex(P)[2:]))def inverse(number): """ Inverts a number. """ inverse = 1 power = number for e in bin(P - 2)[2:][::-1]: if int(e): inverse = (inverse * power) % P power = (power ** 2) % P return inversedef add(pair_1, pair_2): """ Adds two pairs. """ if pair_1 == "identit Continue reading >>

Accessing Your Ether Wallets Private Keys On Blockchain.info

Accessing Your Ether Wallets Private Keys On Blockchain.info

Accessing your Ether wallets Private Keys on Blockchain.info Currently, many companies support creation and use of Ether wallets. Its possible to send and receive ETH easily, without being need to download the whole Blockchain for the task. However, many of these wallets havent added support for ERC-20 tokens. These tokens are used often as a trading value in many ICOs, and also given to the users as payment for their contribution. With Chronologics ICO it wasnt different. There are steps to be taken to visualize and use these tokens for some wallets. Now, lets talk about the wallets that really allow users full control over their address. Among them we have Jaxx, MyEtherWallet, Blockchain.info, and others. If youve made your contribution from any of these rest assured that with a few simple steps you can manage and even transfer your DAY tokens. However, if youve sent your contribution from Coinbase, Bittrex, Poloniex, FreeWallet, BTC Markets or Kraken, among others, then you have a problem. In order to check the DAY tokens inside your ETH address, you dont need to unblock/open your wallet, rather only type your wallets address on EtherScan.io or Ethplorer.io. Now, if you really want to move your DAY tokens, or any other ERC-20 asset from those wallets, then youll have to access it using the Private Key, JSON file and password, etc. Today well feature a quick tutorial on how to recover your Private Key from an Ether wallet hosted by Blockchain.info. Step #1: Login into your Blockchain.info account. Step #2: Click on Ether (left side of your screen). Step #3: Select the option Export Private Key, as demonstrated below. Step #4: This warning mentions the implied risks of exposing your Private Key. Basically, never let anyone else see it and always double-check the websi Continue reading >>

Understanding Private Key, Public Key & Address In Ethereum Blockchain

Understanding Private Key, Public Key & Address In Ethereum Blockchain

Public key is described as follows in yellow paper . Where pu is the public key, assumed to be a byte array of size 64 (formed from the concatenation of two positive integers each < 2256) and pr is the private key, a byte array of size 32 (or a single positive integer in the aforementioned range). This is done using group operation of EC cryptography. To derive public key, private key is multiplied by G.Multiplication used to derive public is EC multiplication which is entirely different from normal multiplication for which I am going to use JS library . G is called generator point which is one of the domain parameters of EC cryptography. G has fixed value for ecp256k1, which is recommended by experts. you can read more here . var EC = require('elliptic').ec;var BN = require('bn.js');var ec = new EC('secp256k1');var G = ec.g; // Generator pointvar pk = new BN('1'); // private key as big numbervar pubPoint=G.mul(pk); // EC multiplication to determine public point var x = pubPoint.getX().toBuffer(); //32 bit x co-ordinate of public point var y = pubPoint.getY().toBuffer(); //32 bit y co-ordinate of public point var publicKey =Buffer.concat([x,y])console.log("pub key::"+publicKey.toString('hex')) Ethereum address is described as follows in yellow paper For a given private key, pr, the Ethereum address A(pr) (a 160-bit value) to which it corresponds is defined as the right most 160-bits of the Keccak hash of the corresponding ECDSA public key. To generate Ethereum address, take Keccak-256 hash of public key. Right most 20 bytes is your Ethereum address. var EC = require('elliptic').ec;var BN = require('bn.js');var ec = new EC('secp256k1');const keccak256 = require('js-sha3').keccak256;var privateKey=Buffer.alloc(32, 0);privateKey[31]=1;console.log("PK::"+privateKey.toStrin Continue reading >>

Account - How To Get Ethereum Addresses With Balance - Stack Overflow

Account - How To Get Ethereum Addresses With Balance - Stack Overflow

How to get Ethereum addresses with balance You can dump blockchain state into a json file and see balance per address here. If you need just balances, and don't want to read huge json file, you can postprocess it with jq . This could take time, like hour or maybe more, but still possible: geth dump 4400000 > accounts.jsoncat accounts.json | jq '.accounts as $acc | $acc | keys[] | ["0x"+., $acc[.].balance] | join(",")' > balances.txt If you want to find accounts with top balance: cat balances.txt | sort --field-separator=',' --key=2 -n -r > balances-sorted.txt Thank you for your solution, but unfortunately, I got this error: Fatal: could not create new state: missing trie node fa220efdfa9f27c2b2f9a3803920a9f3e425e6a28a5527967b3e2071478bd893 (path ) I redownload the blockchain several times, and it did not help. Fade to Grey Oct 27 at 19:08 It seems you database is corrupted, and at this case db dump can't work of course. I suggest to redownload it, but using a full sync mode, without --fast option. Igor Artamonov Oct 30 at 13:28 Thanks. Always the same result - Fatal: could not create new state: missing trie node fa220efdfa9f27c2b2f9a3803920a9f3e425e6a28a5527967b3e2071478bd893 (path ) And yes, I do not use fast synchronization. Also, i tried to use more cache (1024/2048). Fade to Grey Oct 31 at 11:20 You need to submit a bug report to geth github repo PS you have a very fast server, on a standard server it takes a week to synchronize in non-fast mode Igor Artamonov Oct 31 at 12:08 Thanks, I'll try to do it. I just used Mac Pro 2013 - 12c/24t, 64GB Ram =) Fade to Grey Oct 31 at 20:00 Continue reading >>

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