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What Is The Use Of Cryptography?

What Is Cryptography? - Definition From Whatis.com

What Is Cryptography? - Definition From Whatis.com

Cryptography is a method of storing and transmitting data in a particular form so that only those for whom it is intended can read and process it. Bringing development and IT ops together can help you address many app deployment challenges. Our expert guide highlights the benefits of a DevOps approach. Explore how you can successfully integrate your teams to improve collaboration, streamline testing, and more. This email address doesnt appear to be valid. This email address is already registered. Please login . You have exceeded the maximum character limit. Please provide a Corporate E-mail Address. By submitting my Email address I confirm that I have read and accepted the Terms of Use and Declaration of Consent. By submitting your personal information, you agree that TechTarget and its partners may contact you regarding relevant content, products and special offers. You also agree that your personal information may be transferred and processed in the United States, and that you have read and agree to the Terms of Use and the Privacy Policy . Cryptography is closely related to the disciplines of cryptology and cryptanalysis . Cryptography includes techniques such as microdots, merging words with images, and other ways to hide information in storage or transit. However, in today's computer-centric world, cryptography is most often associated with scrambling plaintext (ordinary text, sometimes referred to as cleartext) into ciphertext (a process called encryption ), then back again (known as decryption). Individuals who practice this field are known as cryptographers. Modern cryptography concerns itself with the following four objectives: 1) Confidentiality (the information cannot be understood by anyone for whom it was unintended) 2) Integrity (the information cannot be Continue reading >>

Use Of Cryptography

Use Of Cryptography

One of the primary reasons that intruders can be successful is that most of the information they acquire from a system is in a form that they can read and comprehend. When you consider the millions of electronic messages that traverse the Internet each day, it is easy to see how a well-placed network sniffer might capture a wealth of information that users would not like to have disclosed to unintended readers. Intruders may reveal the information to others, modify it to misrepresent an individual or organization, or use it to launch an attack. One solution to this problem is, through the use of cryptography, to prevent intruders from being able to use the information that they capture. Encryption is the process of translating information from its original form (called plaintext) into an encoded, incomprehensible form (called ciphertext). Decryption refers to the process of taking ciphertext and translating it back into plaintext. Any type of data may be encrypted, including digitized images and sounds. Cryptography secures information by protecting its confidentiality. Cryptography can also be used to protect information about the integrity and authenticity of data. For example, checksums are often used to verify the integrity of a block of information. A checksum, which is a number calculated from the contents of a file, can be used to determine if the contents are correct. An intruder, however, may be able to forge the checksum after modifying the block of information. Unless the checksum is protected, such modification might not be detected. Cryptographic checksums (also called message digests) help prevent undetected modification of information by encrypting the checksum in a way that makes the checksum unique. The authenticity of data can be protected in a simila Continue reading >>

Applications Of Cryptography

Applications Of Cryptography

Weve talked about the theory of cryptography before; now I will describe some of the main uses of cryptography. The most obvious use of cryptography, and the one that all of us use frequently, is encrypting communications between us and another system. This is most commonly used for communicating between a client program and a server. Examples are a web browser and web server, or email client and email server. When the internet was developed it was a small academic and government community, and misuse was rare. Most systems communicated in the clear (without encryption), so anyone who intercepted network traffic could capture communications and passwords. Modern switched networks make interception harder, but some cases for example, public wifi still allow it. To make the internet more secure, most communication protocols have adopted encryption. Many older protocols have been dropped in favour of newer, encrypted replacements. The best example is web encryption, since here you can choose between a clear or encrypted version of a website by switching between HTTP and HTTPS in the URL. Most large companies now use the encrypted form by default, and youll see that any visit to Google, Facebook, Microsoft Office 365 or other sites will be to the HTTPS version of the site. This is accompanied in recent browsers by extra information, including a padlock to show that it is HTTPS. Something you can try is to click the padlock on an encrypted page, and your browser will tell you more about the page security. It will also tell you the especially relevant fact of the actual site name youre visiting. Therefore, if youre entering a password in a page, please do check that it is HTTPS. Email is one area where encryption is not widely in use. When email moves from server to server, Continue reading >>

Encryption 101: What It Is, How It Works, And Why We Need It

Encryption 101: What It Is, How It Works, And Why We Need It

Encryption 101: What It Is, How It Works, and Why We Need It Encryption 101: What It Is, How It Works, and Why We Need It When you hear the word encryption, the first thing that might come to mind is that its something only techies or geeks would understand, or use. In reality, the idea of encryption isn't that complicated. Encryption is a system of mathematical algorithms that encodes user data so that only the intended recipient can read it. As simple as it sounds, the math and extra steps can become onerous for beginners. But before you decide to put it off for other ways to protect your online communications, a few examples might convince you that encryption is one of the best methods to safeguard your privacy, even at times when you think it doesnt count. Phone calls, emails, online purchases, social media, and general browsing are online activities we can no longer live without. While were constantly looking or sharing information online, our data is fundamentally stored somewhere. Most people arent sure where that somewhere is, but that data should only be available to the service provider brokering your conversation. It could, however, be visible to the telecom companies carrying your Internet packets, and your supposedly private and secure communications could be intercepted. As many cases have proven, user and company data is increasingly being targeted by hackers and cybercriminals resulting in data breaches and targeted attacks . This reason alone should serve as enough warning to those who havent considered protecting their communications via encryption. Encryption works best if it is ubiquitous and automatic. It should be enabled for everything by default, not a feature you only turn on when youre doing something you consider worth protecting. -Bruce Schn Continue reading >>

Uses Of Cryptography | Chapter No. 4 | Fasttrack To Cryptography | Digit

Uses Of Cryptography | Chapter No. 4 | Fasttrack To Cryptography | Digit

The crux of what youve learned so far is that cryptography is the art of writing or storing information in such a way that its revealed only to those who need to see it and hides it from all others. Long before the information age, cryptography was used only to ensure secrecy of information. Encryption was used to ensure confidentiality in communications by spies, military leaders and diplomats. The Egyptian hieroglyphs, the scytale transposition cipher used by the Spartans of Greece, waxed seals and different physical devices to assist with ciphers were used throughout history right up to modern times. These devices underwent further changes when computers and electronics came into the picture, immensely helping in cryptanalysis. Lets now discuss the expanded role and usefulness of Cryptography in modern times The crux of what youve learned so far is that cryptography is the art of writing or storing information in such a way that its revealed only to those who need to see it and hides it from all others. Long before the information age, cryptography was used only to ensure secrecy of information. Encryption was used to ensure confidentiality in communications by spies, military leaders and diplomats. The Egyptian hieroglyphs, the scytale transposition cipher used by the Spartans of Greece, waxed seals and different physical devices to assist with ciphers were used throughout history right up to modern times. These devices underwent further changes when computers and electronics came into the picture, immensely helping in cryptanalysis. Cryptography has become more mathematical now and also finds applications in day-to-day security. It helps you safely transfer or withdraw money electronically and youd be hard-pressed to come across an individual without a credit or d Continue reading >>

Cryptography Benefits & Drawbacks

Cryptography Benefits & Drawbacks

Nowadays, the networks have gone global and information has taken the digital form of bits and bytes. Critical information now gets stored, processed and transmitted in digital form on computer systems and open communication channels. Since information plays such a vital role, adversaries are targeting the computer systems and open communication channels to either steal the sensitive information or to disrupt the critical information system. Modern cryptography provides a robust set of techniques to ensure that the malevolent intentions of the adversary are thwarted while ensuring the legitimate users get access to information. Here in this chapter, we will discuss the benefits that we draw from cryptography, its limitations, as well as the future of cryptography. Cryptography is an essential information security tool. It provides the four most basic services of information security Confidentiality Encryption technique can guard the information and communication from unauthorized revelation and access of information. Authentication The cryptographic techniques such as MAC and digital signatures can protect information against spoofing and forgeries. Data Integrity The cryptographic hash functions are playing vital role in assuring the users about the data integrity. Non-repudiation The digital signature provides the non-repudiation service to guard against the dispute that may arise due to denial of passing message by the sender. All these fundamental services offered by cryptography has enabled the conduct of business over the networks using the computer systems in extremely efficient and effective manner. Apart from the four fundamental elements of information security, there are other issues that affect the effective use of information A strongly encrypted, authenti Continue reading >>

Guide To Cryptography

Guide To Cryptography

To ensure that cryptography is safely used to protect the confidentiality and integrity of sensitive user data. Initially confined to the realms of academia and the military, cryptography has become ubiquitous thanks to the Internet. Common every day uses of cryptography include mobile phones, passwords, SSL, smart cards, and DVDs. Cryptography has permeated everyday life, and is heavily used by many web applications. Cryptography (or crypto) is one of the more advanced topics of information security, and one whose understanding requires the most schooling and experience. It is difficult to get right because there are many approaches to encryption, each with advantages and disadvantages that need to be thoroughly understood by web solution architects and developers. In addition, serious cryptography research is typically based in advanced mathematics and number theory, providing a serious barrier to entry. The proper and accurate implementation of cryptography is extremely critical to its efficacy. A small mistake in configuration or coding will result in removing a large degree of the protection it affords and rending the crypto implementation useless against serious attacks. A good understanding of crypto is required to be able to discern between solid products and snake oil. The inherent complexity of crypto makes it easy to fall for fantastic claims from vendors about their product. Typically, these are a breakthrough in cryptography or unbreakable or provide "military grade" security. If a vendor says "trust us, we have had experts look at this, chances are they weren't experts! Cryptographic systems can provide one or more of the following four services. It is important to distinguish between these, as some algorithms are more suited to particular tasks, but not Continue reading >>

Cryptography

Cryptography

Cryptography (from the Greek Krypto 'hidden' and Grafo 'written') is the study and implementation of techniques to hide information, or to protect it from being read. The information that is protected can be written text, electronic signals such as Morse, Telex or speech, or all kinds of digital information like computer files, e-mail messages or data transmissions. The unprocessed readable information is called plaintext or plain data. The process of making the information unreadable is called encryption or enciphering. The result of encryption is a ciphertext or cryptogram. Reversing this process and retrieving the original readable information is called decryption or deciphering. An algorithm or so-called cipher is used to encrypt or decrypt information, . How a cryptographic algorithm works, is controlled by a secret key, sometimes called password or passphrase (on crypto machines, the key is the setting of the machine). The key is known only to those who are authorized to read the information. Without knowing the key, it should be impossible to reverse the encryption process, or the time required to reverse the process should take so much time that the information has become useless. Cryptanalysis or crypto-analysis is the study and analysis of existing ciphers or encryption algorithms, in order to assess their quality, to find weaknesses or to find a way to reverse the encryption process without having the key. Decryption without a key (often also without authorization) is a cryptanalytic attack, referred to as breaking or cracking a cipher. A cryptanalytic attack can exploit weaknesses in the algorithm or crypto device itself, exploit its implementation procedures, or try out all possible keys (a brute-force attack). In general, there are two types of attack: Th Continue reading >>

Ancient Uses Of Cryptography And Lessons Weve Learned From Them

Ancient Uses Of Cryptography And Lessons Weve Learned From Them

Ancient Uses of Cryptography and Lessons Weve Learned From Them Since about 1900 BCE, when unusual hieroglyphics were written on a noblemans tomb in Egypt , weve been inventing new forms of cryptography, or the art and science of keeping information secure. It turns out protecting information has been extremely important to humans for a long time, and because we now share our personal data more than ever before its a good time to look back and understand a bit about how we got here. Here are some highlights of our cryptographic inventions over the past 2,500 years: The Scytale:Fighting wars has always been a big driver of innovation in cryptography. Around 500 BCE,Spartans who were trying to send secure messages during military campaigns wrapped a piece of parchment with a message around a cylinder called a scytale. To decrypt the message, the recipient had to have a cylinder of the same size. While it wasnt the most sophisticated method by modern standards, it may have seemed pretty ingenious at the time. Head tattoos:Around the same time, Histiaeus of Meletus a cruel Greek leaderseeking to revolt against the King of Persia tattooed that conspiratorial message on a slaves head, waited for his hair to grow back and sent him to another rebellious leader with instructions to start a rebellion. Although the King ultimately beat back the attack, the message itself seemed to work! The Caesar cipher:More than 2,000 years ago, Julius Caesar developed a simple system to send secure information to his troops. It was all about substituting certain letters for others, typically by shifting the letters by a predetermined number , according to researcher Nicholas McDonald . That algorithm is what we would call a cipher, and since Caesars invention, weve made cipher keys much more s Continue reading >>

Cryptography In Everyday Life

Cryptography In Everyday Life

Authentication and digital signatures are a very important application of public-key cryptography. For example, if you receive a message from me that I have encrypted with my private key and you are able to decrypt it using my public key, you should feel reasonably certain that the message did in fact come from me. If I think it necessary to keep the message secret, I may encrypt the message with my private key and then with your public key, that way only you can read the message, and you will know that the message came from me. The only requirement is that public keys are associated with their users by a trusted manner, for example a trusted directory. To address this weakness, the standards community has invented an object called a certificate. A certificate contains, the certificate issuer's name, the name of the subject for whom the certificate is being issued, the public key of the subject, and some time stamps. You know the public key is good, because the certificate issuer has a certificate too. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is a software package originally developed by Phil Zimmerman that provides encryption and authentication for e-mail and file storage applications. Zimmerman developed his freeware program using existing encryption techniques, and made it available on multiple platforms. It provides message encryption, digital signatures, data compression, and e-mail compatibility. PGP uses RSA for key transport and IDEA for bulk encryption of messages. Zimmerman ran into legal problems with RSA over his use of the RSA algorithm in his program. PGP is now available in a couple of legal forms: MIT PGP versions 2.6 and later are legal freeware for non-commercial use, and Viacrypt PGP versions 2.7 and later are legal commercial versions of the same software. Time st Continue reading >>

What Are Some Good Uses Of Cryptography?

What Are Some Good Uses Of Cryptography?

Cryptography (Not crypology, which contains cryptoGRAPHY and cryptanalysis) is the study of encryption from a mathematical perspective. It is used both to communicate secretly, allowing the world to see the encrypted message in case anyone is listening in, while not allowing them to know the actual message. Only the intended recipient can read it. As you mentioned, you can also "sign" things by using a similar scheme, but where you "pre-decrypt" (my term) something, and other people who associate your encryption key with you can prove that you signed something. So basically, cryptography is used almost exclusively in security related areas. It can limit only approved people to access secret data. This is useful for sending messages, making sure only paying customers can install software, and is responsible for (attempting to, at least) preventing people from "jailbreaking" their phone. It can also provide some safety in other ways. Certain "dark networks," specifically Freenet, don't censor information. Each user stores some information on their own computers so taking down one person won't remove the information from the network. Once the information is uploaded, it can be virtually impossible to remove. In the case of illegal content, you could be hosting it on your computer without knowing it. However, since it is encrypted, a judge wouldn't reasonably find you guilty for holding the data on your computer because it is not only impossible to prove your computer is the one hosting the illegal content, but even if you are, you can't access it unless you intentionally try to decrypt it by going through other illegal routes. Besides bitcoin, you can also find applications of cryptography in: Tahoe-LAFS (and other encrypted file storage systems) PGP/GPG (encrypt plaintex Continue reading >>

Cryptography - Wikipedia

Cryptography - Wikipedia

"Secret code" redirects here. For the Aya Kamiki album, see Secret Code . "Cryptology" redirects here. For the David S. Ware album, see Cryptology (album) . Cryptography or cryptology (from Greek krypts, "hidden, secret"; and graphein, "writing", or - -logia , "study", respectively [1] ) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries . [2] More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages; [3] various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality , data integrity , authentication , and non-repudiation [4] are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics , computer science , electrical engineering , communication science , and physics . Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce , chip-based payment cards , digital currencies , computer passwords , and military communications . Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption , the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense . The originator of an encrypted message shared the decoding technique needed to recover the original information only with intended recipients, thereby precluding unwanted persons from doing the same. The cryptography literature often uses the name Alice ("A") for the sender, Bob ("B") for the intended recipient, and Eve (" eavesdropper ") for the adversary. [5] Since the development of rotor cipher machines in World WarI and the advent of computers in World WarII , the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread. Modern cry Continue reading >>

9. Cryptography In Everyday Life - Very Short Introductions

9. Cryptography In Everyday Life - Very Short Introductions

Cryptography in everyday life contains a range of situations where the use of cryptography facilitates the provision of a secure service: cash withdrawal from an ATM, Pay TV, email and file storage using Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) freeware, secure web browsing, and use of a GSM mobile phone. PGP and its cryptographic processes are described in more detail. It uses both symmetric and asymmetric cryptography and a two-level key hierarchy in which symmetric session keys are used to protect data, and asymmetric keys are used for both signature and the protection of the symmetric session keys. Access to the complete content on Very Short Introductions online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. Please subscribe or login to access full text content. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code. For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us . Continue reading >>

38 Million Reasons To Use Cryptography For Business

38 Million Reasons To Use Cryptography For Business

38 Million Reasons to use Cryptography for Business In October of this year, Adobe announced that their systems were hacked and attackers accessed Adobe customer IDs, encrypted passwords, and information relating to 2.9 million Adobe customers, including encrypted credit or debit card numbers. Later that month, BBC reported that the number of accounts that was breached was much greater 38 million! This is in addition to the loss of source code to Photoshop, its popular photo editing software package. When this happens, it is a very bad day. No, it is a nightmare. No, it is 38 million nightmares! Their fortress of information protection has now been breached and 38 million data horses have run out of the barn. Adobe is likely engaged in heavy damage control right now considering their obligations to their customers, stakeholders, and corporate responsibilities to maintain compliance with industry regulations such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) for healthcare information, Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) for financial information and Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI-DSS) for retail payment. But there is a sliver of good news in their announcement. It is in a single word: encrypted. Although data was taken from Adobe, some of it was encrypted. Specifically, passwords as well as debit and credit card numbers were encrypted. That, by itself, is reducing the magnitude of this nightmare. There is still work that needs to be done, but by the fact that some of the data was encrypted means that only a portion of the data that was taken has any value to the perpetrators. This is a strike against the perpetrators. For Adobe, most regulations provide safe harbor from reconciling stolen customer data (especially credit or debit card informati Continue reading >>

Basics Of Cryptography: The Practical Application And Use Of Cryptography

Basics Of Cryptography: The Practical Application And Use Of Cryptography

Basics of Cryptography: the practical application and use of cryptography Posted in Cryptography on November 7, 2016 Practice for certification success with the Skillset library of over 100,000 practice test questions . We analyze your responses and can determine when you are ready to sit for the test. Cryptography originated about 4000 years ago, and the world of cryptography has evolved a lot since then. Today Cryptography is omnipresent in our lives without most of us realizing it. The fundamental aspect of Cryptography has remained the same through time which is to hide information in transit and make it available only for the intended recipients. We will see the basic types of cryptography followed by the application and use of cryptography in real life. Cryptography involves the use of terms like plain text, cipher text, algorithm, key, encryption, and decryption. Plain text is the text or message that needs to be transmitted to the intended recipients and which needs to be hidden. Cipher text on the other hand, is the text that has been transformed by algorithms and which is gibberish. The process of converting the information from plain text to cipher text is known as encryption. On similar lines, the process of converting cipher text to plain text is decryption. The complex mathematical formula that is used to convert plain text to cipher text is known as algorithm. Further, both the sender and the receiver have similar or different keys to encrypt and decrypt the message. A key is a value that comprises a large sequence of random bits (Harris 2008). The larger the key size, the more difficult will it be to crack the algorithm. The algorithm and the key are the two important components of a cryptosystem. Auguste Kerckhoff in 1883 stated that encryption algorit Continue reading >>

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