## Good Introduction To Elliptic Curves?

Vladimir Novakovski , silver medals, IOI 2001 and IPhO 2001 Author has 64 answers and 163.3k answer views I used Elliptic Curves: Number Theory and Cryptography by Lawrence C Washington for a course on elliptic curves last year, and I liked it a lot. The first few chapters are accessible with only an elementary understanding of math, while in later chapters they assume a lot more and it gets harder to follow. If you wish to read about elliptic curves just with respect to their application for cryptographic purposes and implementation, you may like to go for "Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography" by Hanskerson, Menezes & Vanstone. It has quite a good description of algorithms for faster elliptic curve arithmetic and covers the area broadly. However, if you wish to dive much into the mathematics underlying elliptic curves, you may like to read "Elliptic Curves and their Applications to Cryptography - An Introduction" by Andreas Enge and "The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves" by Silverman. Continue reading >>

## A (relatively Easy To Understand) Primer On Elliptic Curve Cryptography

A (Relatively Easy To Understand) Primer on Elliptic Curve Cryptography Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is one of the most powerful but least understood types of cryptography in wide use today. At CloudFlare , we make extensive use of ECC to secure everything from our customers' HTTPS connections to how we pass data between our data centers. Fundamentally, we believe it's important to be able to understand the technology behind any security system in order to trust it. To that end, we looked around to find a good, relatively easy-to-understand primer on ECC in order to share with our users. Finding none, we decided to write one ourselves. That is what follows. Be warned: this is a complicated subject and it's not possible to boil down to a pithy blog post. In other words, settle in for a bit of an epic because there's a lot to cover. If you just want the gist, the TL;DR is: ECC is the next generation of public key cryptography and, based on currently understood mathematics, provides a significantly more secure foundation than first generation public key cryptography systems like RSA. If you're worried about ensuring the highest level of security while maintaining performance, ECC makes sense to adopt. If you're interested in the details, read on. The history of cryptography can be split into two eras: the classical era and the modern era. The turning point between the two occurred in 1977, when both the RSA algorithm and the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm were introduced. These new algorithms were revolutionary because they represented the first viable cryptographic schemes where security was based on the theory of numbers; it was the first to enable secure communication between two parties without a shared secret. Cryptography went from being about securely t Continue reading >>

## Elliptic Curve Cryptography: A Gentle Introduction | Hacker News

The Cloudflare ECC introduction is well written and very accessible - however I notice that it omits a very crucial bit of explanation. In the billards example it's stated that for a given player starting at point A: "It is easy for him to hit the ball over and over following the rules described above." arriving at some point B after some number of hits N. However, regarding some other player who knows point A and B "they cannot determine the number of times the ball was struck to get there without running through the whole game again" The question of course, is "Why not? Why can't the second player just start at point A and keep hitting the ball until it gets to point B, and count the hits? The answer is that the first player does not run through the the sequence one hit at a time! Knowing N, you can take a mathematical shortcut from A to B. The simplest of these is known as "double and add" for elliptic curves. This is similar to the "square and multiply" method for fast exponentiation. The shortcut is the critical advantage, because it's the enormous computational complexity of running through the entire game without the shortcut that is the basis of ECC's security. By my understanding, there's an inaccuracy in that article. It describes a one-way function, but calls it a trapdoor function. I thought that a one-way function is only a trapdoor function if there exists the possibility of reversing it with an extra piece of information. The wikipedia link[0] given seems to confirm that understanding: A trapdoor function is a function that is easy to compute in one direction, yet difficult to compute in the opposite direction (finding its inverse) without special information, called the "trapdoor". I know the article is trying to be informal, but that seems a simple thi Continue reading >>

## A (relatively Easy To Understand) Primer On Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Sign up or login to join the discussions! A (relatively easy to understand) primer on elliptic curve cryptography Everything you wanted to know about the next generation of public key crypto. Author Nick Sullivan worked for six years at Apple on many of its most important cryptography efforts before recently joining CloudFlare, where he is a systems engineer. He has a degree in mathematics from the University of Waterloo and a Masters in computer science with a concentration in cryptography from the University of Calgary. This post was originally written for the CloudFlare blog and has been lightly edited to appear on Ars. Readers are reminded that elliptic curve cryptography is a set of algorithms for encrypting and decrypting data and exchanging cryptographic keys. Dual_EC_DRBG, the cryptographic standard suspected of containing a backdoor engineered by the National Security Agency , is a function that uses elliptic curve mathematics to generate a series of random-looking numbers from a seed. This primer comes two months after internationally recognized cryptographers called on peers around the world to adopt ECC to avert a possible "cryptopocalypse ." Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is one of the most powerful but least understood types of cryptography in wide use today. An increasing number of websites make extensive use of ECC to secure everything from customers' HTTPS connections to how they pass data between data centers. Fundamentally, it's important for end users to understand the technology behind any security system in order to trust it. To that end, we looked around to find a good, relatively easy-to-understand primer on ECC in order to share with our users. Finding none, we decided to write one ourselves. That is what follows. Be warned: this is a compli Continue reading >>

## Blockchain 101 - Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Blockchain 101 - Elliptic Curve Cryptography In this series of articles, Im aiming to give you a solid foundation for blockchain development. In the last article, we gave an overview of the foundational math, specifically, finite fields and elliptic curves. In this article, my aim is to get you comfortable with elliptic curve cryptography (ECC, for short). This lesson builds upon the last one, so be sure to read that one first before continuing. Finite fields are one thing and elliptic curves another. We can combine them by defining an elliptic curve over a finite field. All the equations for an elliptic curve work over a finite field. By work, we mean that we can do the same addition, subtraction, multiplication and division as defined in a particular finite field and all the equations stay true. If this sounds confusing, it is. Abstract algebra is abstract! Of course, the elliptic curve graphed over a finite field looks very different than an actual elliptic curve graphed over the Reals. An elliptic curve over real numbers looks like this: An elliptic curve over a finite field looks scattershot like this: How to calculate Elliptic Curves over Finite Fields Lets look at how this works. We can confirm that (73, 128) is on the curve y2=x3+7 over the finite field F137. Highlight to reveal answers: 1. True, 2. True, 3. False, 4. True, 5. False The group law for an elliptic curve also works over a finite field: As discussed in the previous article , the above equation is used to find the third point that intersects the curve given two other points on the curve. In a finite field, this still holds true, though not as intuitively since the graph is a large scattershot. Essentially, all of these equations work in a finite field. Lets see in an example: First, we can confirm b Continue reading >>

## Elliptic Curves And Their Applications To Cryptography

Elliptic Curves and Their Applications to Cryptography ebooks can be used on all reading devices Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days. Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days. Since their invention in the late seventies, public key cryptosystems have become an indispensable asset in establishing private and secure electronic communication, and this need, given the tremendous growth of the Internet, is likely to continue growing. Elliptic curve cryptosystems represent the state of the art for such systems. Elliptic Curves and Their Applications to Cryptography: An Introduction provides a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to elliptic curves and how they are employed to secure public key cryptosystems. Even though the elegant mathematical theory underlying cryptosystems is considerably more involved than for other systems, this text requires the reader to have only an elementary knowledge of basic algebra. The text nevertheless leads to problems at the forefront of current research, featuring chapters on point counting algorithms and security issues. The Adopted unifying approach treats with equal care elliptic curves over fields of even characteristic, which are especially suited for hardware implementations, and curves over fields of odd characteristic, which have traditionally received more attention. Elliptic Curves and Their Applications: An Introduction has been used successfully for teaching advanced undergraduate courses. It will be of greatest interest to mathematicians, computer scientists, and engineers who are curious about elliptic curve cryptography in practice, without losing the beauty of the underlying mathematics. Continue reading >>

## Applications Of Elliptic Curve Cryptography: A Light Introduction To Elliptic Curves And A Survey Of Their Applications

Public-key cryptography algorithms, especially elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) and elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA) have been attracting attention from many researchers in different institutions because these algorithms provide security and high performance when being used in many areas such as electronic-healthcare, electronic-banking, electronic-commerce, electronic-vehicular, and electronic-governance. These algorithms heighten security against various attacks and at the same time improve performance to obtain efficiencies (time, memory, reduced computation complexity, and energy saving) in an environment of the constrained source and large systems. This paper presents detailed and a comprehensive survey of an update of the ECDSA algorithm in terms of performance, security, and applications. AbstractElliptic Curve crypto-processor (ECCP) is a favored public-key cryptosystem for embedded system and low-power smart devices due to its small key size and its high security arithmetic unit. This paper is concerned with the finite field polynomial multiplier which takes the most effort in the hardware implementation of elliptic curve cryptosystem because it is the most consuming operation for time and area. The inversion operation based on Itoh-Tsujii GF(2409) is also discussed in this work. Comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms that have been used to implement ECCP are also presented. It proves that Montgomery ladder algorithm is preferred one when the speed is needed. Optimization problem for general ECCP architecture are started from the selected algorithm and ends with liveness analysis and forward path. The proposed ECCP is implemented for GF(2163) and GF(2409) where the execution time are 1.9 s and 29 s respectively. The design and results a Continue reading >>

## What Is Elliptical Curve Cryptography (ecc)? - Definition From Whatis.com

Elliptic curve cryptography in transport ticketing ComputerWeekly.com Elliptical curve cryptography (ECC) is a public key encryption technique based on elliptic curve theory that can be used to create faster, smaller, and more efficient cryptographic key s. ECC generates keys through the properties of the elliptic curve equation instead of the traditional method of generation as the product of very large prime number s. The technology can be used in conjunction with most public key encryption methods, such as RSA , and Diffie-Hellman. According to some researchers, ECC can yield a level of security with a 164-bit key that other systems require a 1,024-bit key to achieve. Because ECC helps to establish equivalent security with lower computing power and battery resource usage, it is becoming widely used for mobile applications. ECC was developed by Certicom, a mobile e-business security provider, and was recently licensed by Hifn, a manufacturer of integrated circuitry ( IC ) and network security products. RSA has been developing its own version of ECC. Many manufacturers, including 3COM, Cylink, Motorola, Pitney Bowes, Siemens, TRW, and VeriFone have included support for ECC in their products. Experts reveal 18 types of cryptography attacks, and how they are executed. Todays cryptography is far more advanced than the cryptosystems of yesterday, dont let your system be compromised. This email address doesnt appear to be valid. This email address is already registered. Please login . You have exceeded the maximum character limit. Please provide a Corporate E-mail Address. By submitting my Email address I confirm that I have read and accepted the Terms of Use and Declaration of Consent. By submitting your personal information, you agree that TechTarget and its partners may Continue reading >>

## Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography

Hyperelliptic curve cryptography is similar to elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) insofar as the Jacobian of a hyperelliptic curve is an abelian group in which to do arithmetic, just as we use the group of points on an elliptic curve in ECC. {\displaystyle C:y^{2}+h(x)y=f(x)\in K[x,y]} is a polynomial of degree not larger than . From this definition it follows that elliptic curves are hyperelliptic curves of genus 1. In hyperelliptic curve cryptography is often a finite field . The Jacobian of , is a quotient group , thus the elements of the Jacobian are not points, they are equivalence classes of divisors of degree 0 under the relation of linear equivalence . This agrees with the elliptic curve case, because it can be shown that the Jacobian of an elliptic curve is isomorphic with the group of points on the elliptic curve. [1] The use of hyperelliptic curves in cryptography came about in 1989 from Neal Koblitz . Although introduced only 3 years after ECC, not many cryptosystems implement hyperelliptic curves because the implementation of the arithmetic isn't as efficient as with cryptosystems based on elliptic curves or factoring ( RSA ). The efficiency of implementing the arithmetic depends on the underlying finite field , in practice it turns out that finite fields of characteristic 2 are a good choice for hardware implementations while software is usually faster in odd characteristic. [2] The Jacobian on a hyperelliptic curve is an Abelian group and as such it can serve as group for the discrete logarithm problem (DLP). In short, suppose we have an Abelian group . This makes it possible to use Jacobians of a fairly small order , thus making the system more efficient. But if the hyperelliptic curve is chosen poorly, the DLP will become quite easy to solve. In this ca Continue reading >>

## Introduction To Elliptic Curve Cryptography

College of Information and Computer Sciences Home Introduction to Elliptic Curve Cryptography Introduction to Elliptic Curve Cryptography Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is widely used today. ECC's applications range from establishing secure Web connections using the Transport Layer Security protocol (TLS) to enabling secure identity and banking transactions using millions of smart cards. ECC is considered by many to provide a foundation for the next generation of public key cryptography protocols. In particular, the National Institute of Standards and Technology considers ECC to be critical in the migration to higher security standards. ECC has strong mathematical foundations for its security, requires smaller keys, and provides high performance in resource constrained devices. Therefore, the implementation of systems using ECC is expected to increase even faster with technological trends, such as the Internet of Things. In this lecture, I will motivate the use of elliptic curves for cryptography. I will provide a short introduction to the subject suitable for those who have not previously studied elliptic curves, but who have studied other public key cryptosystems, such as the RSA cryptosystem (e.g., students currently taking COMPSCI 597CR). By the end of the discussion, attendees will have learned about concrete applications, attractive features of ECC, as well as references to various materials to learn more about ECC. For example, Sage Math is a great tool that allows experimentation using Python while learning about ECC. I will also provide references to libraries that would allow attendees to learn more about implementation issues of ECC. Bio: Andres Molina-Markham is a visiting scholar at Dartmouth College. Prior to that he was a research scientist at RSA Lab Continue reading >>

## Elliptic Curve Cryptography Tutorial

For multiplication of two integers i and j of bitlength b, the result will have a worst-case bitlength of 2b. After each multiplication operation the whole integer has to be taken modulo p. This is already non-trivial: Continuously subtracting p from the result of the multiplication will give you the desired result, but will not be very efficient. Multiplication can however be reduced to a set of additions using this algorithm: n = ir = 0for (bit = 0; bit < bitlength; bit++) { if (bitset(j, bit)) { r = (r + n) mod p } n = (n + n) mod p} def multiply(i, j): n = i r = 0 for bit in range(bitlength): if (j & (1 << bit)): r = (r + n) % p n = (n + n) % p return r Therefore, we need only log(p) operations to iterate over all bits. Mathematically what happens is that the value j is split up into its power-two components, i.e.: The intermediate value n is initialized to i at the beginning of the program: And by adding the value repeatedly to itself, it is doubled every time: Those parts of the overall sum which are needed for the final result (i.e. where the appropriate bit is set within j) are then added into r, the other ones are discarded. To implement division in Fp one first can write the division operation a bit differently: So instead of dividing directly, we replace that operation by multiplication with the inverse element of the dividend. Multiplication is an operation we can already perform, as shown in the previous section. Also, each element has to have an inverse element, as stated by the basic rules of the group Fp. Finding it is a bit tricky, however. We use the extended euclidian algorithm to perform this (you guessed it: working Python code!): def eea(i, j): assert(isinstance(i, int)) assert(isinstance(j, int)) (s, t, u, v) = (1, 0, 0, 1) while j != 0: (q, r) = Continue reading >>

## Wesley Aptekar-cassels | Elliptic Curve Cryptography For Beginners

Elliptic Curve Cryptography for Beginners A description of ECC without using advanced math I find cryptography fascinating, and have recently become interested in elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) in particular. However, it's not easy to find an introduction to elliptic curve cryptography that doesn't assume an advanced math background. This post is an attempt to explain how ECC works using only high school level math. Because of this, I purposely simplify some aspects of this, particularly around terms that have specific mathematical meaning. However, you should still get a good intuitive understanding of elliptic curves from this post. The fundamental building block of most modern cryptography is a one-way function. A one-way function is a function that is easy to compute, but its inverse is hard 1 to compute. (i.e. given \(f(x) = y\), it's easy to calculate \(y\) given \(x\), but hard to calculate \(x\) given \(y\).) There are two main ways that this is done: This post will focus on how elliptic curves can be used to provide a one-way function. First, let's define an elliptic curve. An elliptic curve is defined by the function: Where \(a\) and \(b\) are parameters of the curve. The constraint that \(4a^3 + 27b^2 \neq 0\) is also imposed to eliminate curves that have cusps or self-intersections. Here's a interactive graph of what this looks like: For examples of cusps and self-intersections, try \(a = 0; b = 0\) or \(a = -3; b = 2\), respectively. That demo works on real numbers, but in actuality, you can define an elliptic curve over any field . A field is a set of objects that have addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division defined on them. For example, the real numbers (\(\mathbb{R}\)) are a field. In cryptography, we usually use the field "integers mod p Continue reading >>

## Elliptic Curve Cryptography: A Gentle Introduction

Those of you who know what public-key cryptography is may have already heard of ECC, ECDH or ECDSA. The first is an acronym for Elliptic Curve Cryptography, the others are names for algorithms based on it. Today, we can find elliptic curves cryptosystems in TLS , PGP and SSH , which are just three of the main technologies on which the modern web and IT world are based. Not to mention Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Before ECC become popular, almost all public-key algorithms were based on RSA, DSA, and DH, alternative cryptosystems based on modular arithmetic. RSA and friends are still very important today, and often are used alongside ECC. However, while the magic behind RSA and friends can be easily explained, is widely understood, and rough implementations can be written quite easily , the foundations of ECC are still a mystery to most. With a series of blog posts I'm going to give you a gentle introduction to the world of elliptic curve cryptography. My aim is not to provide a complete and detailed guide to ECC (the web is full of information on the subject), but to provide a simple overview of what ECC is and why it is considered secure, without losing time on long mathematical proofs or boring implementation details. I will also give helpful examples together with visual interactive tools and scripts to play with. Specifically, here are the topics I'll touch: Algorithms for breaking ECC security, and a comparison with RSA In order to understand what's written here, you'll need to know some basic stuff of set theory, geometry and modular arithmetic, and have familiarity with symmetric and asymmetric cryptography. Lastly, you need to have a clear idea of what an "easy" problem is, what a "hard" problem is, and their roles in cryptography. First of all: what is a Continue reading >>

## Ramanujans Class Invariants And Their Use In Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Volume 59, Issue 8 , April 2010, Pages 2901-2917 Ramanujans class invariants and their use in elliptic curve cryptography Author links open overlay panel ElisavetKonstantinoua The Complex Multiplication (CM) method is a method frequently used for the generation of elliptic curves (ECs) over a prime field . The most demanding and complex step of this method is the computation of the roots of a special type of class polynomials, called Hilbert polynomials. However, there are several polynomials, called class polynomials, which can be used in the CM method, having much smaller coefficients, and fulfilling the prerequisite that their roots can be easily transformed to the roots of the corresponding Hilbert polynomials. In this paper, we propose the use of a new class of polynomials which are derived from Ramanujans class invariants . We explicitly describe the algorithm for the construction of the new polynomials and give the necessary transformation of their roots to the roots of the corresponding Hilbert polynomials. We provide a theoretical asymptotic bound for the bit precision requirements of all class polynomials and, also using extensive experimental assessments, we compare the efficiency of using the new polynomials against the use of the other class polynomials. Our comparison shows that the new class of polynomials clearly surpass all of the previously used polynomials when they are used in the generation of prime order elliptic curves. Continue reading >>

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