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Ethereum White Paper

Ethereum - Consensys

Ethereum - Consensys

Ethereum is how the Internet was supposed to work. There are four core technological building blocks that are coordinated to enable the Ethereum decentralized application platform to operate: 1) Cryptographic Tokens and Addresses: a mathematically secure unique voucher system that can act as numeraire and be used pay for goods, services or assets, and can also be used to represent a mathematically secure, pseudonymous identity; 2) Peer-to-peer Networking: individual users connect their computers together forming a network to exchange data without a central server (both Bitcoin and Ethereum run on P2P networks); 3) Consensus Formation Algorithm: this algorithm permits users of the blockchain to reach consensus about the current state of the blockchain (the Bitcoin blockchain reaches consesus on a global state change every 10 minutes on average whereas the Ethereum blockchain reaches consensus approximately every 15 seconds). 4) Turing Complete Virtual Machine: a virtual machine is a computer that exists as software, and can be run at a layer of abstraction above the underlying hardware; Turing complete means that this software computer can run any computer program one defines and is powerful enough to implement any program defined in any similarly computationally complete system (as opposed to Bitcoin, which has a virtual machine but can only run a much simpler class of programs); These 4 pillars of decentralized application technology are designed to enable smart contracts. Smart contracts are computer protocols that facilitate, verify, or enforce the negotiation or performance of some sort of agreement (e.g. a legal contract emulating the logic of contractual clauses or a financial contract specifying responsibilities of the counterparts and automated flows of value). Continue reading >>

White Paper Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

White Paper Ethereum/wiki Wiki Github

Introduction to Bitcoin and Existing Concepts The concept of decentralized digital currency, as well as alternative applications like property registries, has been around for decades. The anonymous e-cash protocols of the 1980s and the 1990s were mostly reliant on a cryptographic primitive known as Chaumian Blinding. [8] Chaumian Blinding provided these new currencies with high degrees of privacy, but their underlying protocols largely failed to gain traction because of their reliance on a centralized intermediary. In 1998, Wei Dai's b-money [9] became the first proposal to introduce the idea of creating money through solving computational puzzles as well as decentralized consensus, but the proposal was scant on details as to how decentralized consensus could actually be implemented. In 2005, Hal Finney introduced a concept of reusable proofs of work, [10] a system which uses ideas from b-money together with Adam Back's computationally difficult Hashcash [11] puzzles to create a concept for a cryptocurrency, but once again fell short of the ideal by relying on trusted computing as a backend. In 2009, a decentralized currency was for the first time implemented in practice by Satoshi Nakamoto, [1c] [1d] combining established primitives for managing ownership through public key cryptography with a consensus algorithm for keeping track of who owns coins, known as "proof of work." The mechanism behind proof of work was a breakthrough because it simultaneously solved two problems. First, it provided a simple and moderately effective consensus algorithm, allowing nodes in the network to collectively agree on a set of updates to the state of the Bitcoin ledger. Second, it provided a mechanism for allowing free entry into the consensus process, solving the political problem of Continue reading >>

Venezuela Releases Petro Whitepaper Ahead Of $5 Billion Ico

Venezuela Releases Petro Whitepaper Ahead Of $5 Billion Ico

Venezuela Releases Petro Whitepaper Ahead of $5 Billion ICO Venezuelas oil-backed cryptocurrency, the petro, is a step closer to reality following the release of the official whitepaper. The eagerly anticipated document outlines the token model and crowdsale mechanism that will be used to launch the ethereum-based project in February. Having been officially signed off by president Nicols Maduro, the whitepaper is finally available for scrutiny and it doesnt disappoint. Also read: Venezuela Announces Whitepaper and Pre-Sale of Its Oil-Backed Cryptocurrency Petro Bigger than Filecoin. Bigger than Tezos. Bigger than Telegram, EOS, and all the rest. In fact, the value of the petro token sale, if it hits its cap, will almost equal the total revenue generated in 2017 from initial coin offerings. With the price of one PTR provisionally fixed at $60, to correspond with a barrel of oil, Venezuelas tokens are more expensive than even the $50 Bitconnect X is seeking in its current ICO. In fairness to the South American nation, its cryptocurrency is not a Ponzi scheme. Its creators promise: Petro will give investors the opportunity to enter the crypto asset market with an instrument of intrinsic value that is safer, more stable and susceptible to a fundamental analysis because it is linked to a widely known industry, and therefore, suitable to be used in large transactions and even as a store of value. In many respects, the petro whitepaper is unremarkable. 22 pages, neatly formatted and capably written, save for the odd typo, mark it out as a cut above the average cryptocurrency whitepaper. Theres a lot of talk of blockchain in there, but mercifully no mention of disruptive technology or a new paradigm. If it were the work of just another startup launching just another cryptocurr Continue reading >>

Ethereum Whitepaper In Fourminutes

Ethereum Whitepaper In Fourminutes

This series is a part of weekly summary of whitepapers infourminut.es . Bitcoin is the first example of a digital asset that runs without a central issuer or controller. Blockchain is the underlying technology that enables this system. The blockchain is an open, decentralized ledger where nodes in the network agree together on updates to the state of the ledger. When the nodes can prove they worked on a cryptographically hard problem i.e. proof-of-work, the network allows free entry into the consensus process. Ethereum builds up on the bitcoin blockchain. It adds a built-in turing-complete programming language to create smart contracts and decentralized applications (DAaps). Smart contracts are programs created and stored in the Ethereum blockchain. It executes only when specific criteria is meet. Think of it as cryptographic boxes or autonomous agents that contain values which gets unlocked when certain conditions are met. These contracts are immutable i.e., no one can change it after it is deployed to the blockchain. Unlike bitcoin scripting, the programming language in Ethereum is Turing-complete. It supports a broader set of computational instructions that enables writing complex contracts. DAaps are applications that run on a peer-to-peer network rather than on a single centralized computer. The primary characteristics of a blockchain DAaps are: Open source apps stored in a decentralized public blockchain, Participants get tokens as incentives, and It uses a standard cryptography algorithm as proof of value. The creator first uploads the smart contract to the blockchain. The participating nodes in the Ethereum network then replicate the smart contact, which then gets distributed throughout the network. Once it is on the blockchain, anyone can invoke the smart cont Continue reading >>

The Venezuelan Government Is Doing An Ethereum Token Sale To Support Its New Cryptocurrency

The Venezuelan Government Is Doing An Ethereum Token Sale To Support Its New Cryptocurrency

The Venezuelan Government Is Doing an Ethereum Token Sale to Support Its New Cryptocurrency The government released the Petro's white paper on Tuesday. Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro. Image: Shutterstock Venezuelas economy is in deep trouble. To dig itself out, on Tuesday the Venezuelan government unveiled its full plans for the Petro, a bespoke digital currency backed by the countrys oil resources. Controversy has surrounded the Petro, the price of which will be pegged to the value of Venezuelas oil per barrelroughly $60 in early January, according to Reuters since day one. Opposition legislators in Venezuelan Parliament see the currency as an illegal attempt by President Nicols Maduro to essentially get advance payment for the eventual sale of its oil reserves. Cryptocurrency enthusiasts, meanwhile, have argued that a centralized government creating a decentralized currency defeats the purpose of the technology entirely. The Petro white paper, released on Tuesday , will only add fuel to the fire of criticism. (The Petro site was offline all morning, but government-supported news outlet Alba Ciudad uploaded a copy , which weve re-uploaded below in case that goes offline too.) The white paper reveals that prior to the Petros launch, Venezuela will create a token on the Ethereum blockchain and sell it. Tokens are not cryptocurrencies, like the Petro will betheyre digital assets created out of thin air and their value is only whatever people are willing to pay for them. Most token sales on Ethereum (events known as Initial Coin Offerings ) are used to raise money to fund development, but the real fundraiser for Venezuela will be the public offering of Petro itself. Instead, according to the white paper, the token pre-sale will promote and guarantee demand for the Pe Continue reading >>

Algorithmia - Open Marketplace For Algorithms

Algorithmia - Open Marketplace For Algorithms

Trustless Machine Learning Contracts; Evaluating and Exchanging Machine Learning Models on the Ethereum Blockchain Algorithmia Research - Besir Kurtulmus, Kenny Daniel - 2018 Download Paper Blog Post Example Contract Source Code Using blockchain technology, it is possible to create contracts that offer a reward in exchange for a trained machine learning model for a particular data set. This would allow users to train machine learning models for a reward in a trustless manner. The smart contract will use the blockchain to automatically validate the solution, so there would be no debate about whether the solution was correct or not. Users who submit the solutions wont have counterparty risk that they wont get paid for their work. Contracts can be created easily by anyone with a dataset, even programmatically by software agents. This creates a market where parties who are good at solving machine learning problems can directly monetize their skillset, and where any organization or software agent that has a problem to solve with AI can solicit solutions from all over the world. This will incentivize the creation of better machine learning models, and make AI more accessible to companies and software agents. A consequence of creating this market is that there will be a well defined price of GPU training for machine learning models. Crypto-currency mining also uses GPUs in many cases. We can envision a world where at any given moment, miners can choose to direct their hardware to work on whichever workload is more profitable: cryptocurrency mining, or machine learning training. Bitcoin was first introduced in 2008 to create a decentralized method of storing and transferring funds from one account to another. It enforced ownership using public key cryptography. Funds are store Continue reading >>

Cracking The Ethereum Whitepaper

Cracking The Ethereum Whitepaper

Im Bo, I read cryptocurrency white papers so you dont have to. Theres just something about reading white papers that turns a lot of people off. If it turns you on, I strongly recommend reading the Ethereum white paper . In it, Vitalik Buterin describes the Bitcoin protocol, its shortcomings and how Ethereum addresses them as a next generation smart contract & decentralized application platform. I know its not immediately obvious how a smart contract can help the average person. So before we begin, lets make it so with a brutal oversimplification. Imagine you have a website that beautifully conveys all your companys information in a precise and well thought out fashion. Now imagine all your customers demand you send them the same information via plain text email. Email is great, but conveying sophisticated information just cant be done via plain text. It would be slow, inefficient and grossly incomplete. The scary part is that youd happily have done this a few years back before knowing websites were possible. With cash, you directly express simple transactions i.e. payments, but you require intermediaries such as banks, brokers, and investment managers for more nuanced ones (e.g. your credit card, overdraft limits and investment portfolio). Through smart contracts, you can directly and independently express any of these complicated transactions. In fact, you can be your own investment manager, banker, broker and currency issuer if you choose. Profound as it sounds, this barely scratches the surface of what smart contracts on Ethereum can do. And smart contracts are only half the story. Title: A Next Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform To fully understand the implications of this ambitious project it is important not to overlook the unique ci Continue reading >>

Ethereum White Paper

Ethereum White Paper

A NEXT GENERATION SMART CONTRACT & DECENTRALIZED APPLICATION PLATFORM When Satoshi Nakamoto first set the Bitcoin blockchain into motion in January 2009, he was simultaneously introducing two radical and untested concepts. The first is the "bitcoin", a decentralized peer-to-peer online currency that maintains a value without any backing, intrinsic value or central issuer. So far, the "bitcoin" as a currency unit has taken up the bulk of the public attention, both in terms of the political aspects of a currency without a central bank and its extreme upward and downward volatility in price. However, there is also another, equally important, part to Satoshi's grand experiment: the concept of a proof of work-based blockchain to allow for public agreement on the order of transactions. Bitcoin as an application can be described as a first-to-file system: if one entity has 50 BTC, and simultaneously sends the same 50 BTC to A and to B, only the transaction that gets confirmed first will process. There is no intrinsic way of determining from two transactions which came earlier, and for decades this stymied the development of decentralized digital currency. Satoshi's blockchain was the first credible decentralized solution. And now, attention is rapidly starting to shift toward this second part of Bitcoin's technology, and how the blockchain concept can be Commonly cited applications include using on-blockchain digital assets to represent custom currencies and financial instruments ("colored coins"), the ownership of an underlying physical device ("smart property"), non-fungible assets such as domain names ("Namecoin") as well as more advanced applications such as decentralized exchange, financial derivatives, peer-to-peer gambling and on-blockchain identity and reputation syst Continue reading >>

The Colony Whitepaper

The Colony Whitepaper

Today, we are happy to (finally!) release the Colony Whitepaper. The whitepaper is a technical document, intended to define the Colony Network. While we are releasing it publicly, it is not a marketing document. It has been written as a blueprint for the implementation of the contracts, not to persuade anyone of the merits of the system it describes. The whitepaper is an evolving document. At the top of the whitepaper, immediately underneath the title, is a date in YYYYMMDD format. This indicates the last day that the whitepaper was updated. As development continues, and improvements to proposed implementations are made, and mistakes are inevitably discovered, the whitepaper will change perhaps significantly. Its current state represents our current best-guess for the final system. The whitepaper does not represent a commitment from the Colony team to make the network of contracts described in the whitepaper. This is partly due to the fact that it is an evolving document, and so the intended final product may change as development continues. But this is also due to the fact that we may get hit by a bus. The whitepaper contains unknowns. Values for constants are given, with no guarantee that they are correct, or values are omitted completely. As we implement the network, and testing takes place, we intend to firm up these values. This evolution of constants will surely continue after the network is deployed and greater numbers of people begin to use it, in order to ensure the smooth-running of the network as a whole. We are very keen to receive feedback from the community as we enter this next stage of implementation, so please do reach out to us with any feedback you have after reading the whitepaper. You can reach us via slack , email , or for extra points, by raising Continue reading >>

Where Is Ethereum's White Paper?

Where Is Ethereum's White Paper?

I found this one, but I don't know if it's the official one written by Vitalik Buterin since it's a wiki in github. Link: I also found this yellow paper by Dr. Gavin Wood, but who is that? How is he related to Ethereum at all? Anyone know where is the official white paper for Ethereum? 12+ exclusive games The Bitcoin Casino by Primedice Advertised sites are not endorsed by the Bitcoin Forum. They may be unsafe, untrustworthy, or illegal in your jurisdiction. Advertise here. Seems like most links to Vitalik's publication have disappeared indeed Found copies of the December 2013 Ethereum Whitepaper, see here: "archived from , Jan 11, 2014 copied under a belief that code archaeologists from future generations may need this history" Check the Ethereum official website. There is doc called Ethereum Homestead Documentation. It is the result of ongoing collaborative work of the Ethereum Community volunteers. I hope you will find it useful! Yeah this doc is the most useful one for him "Ethereum Homestead Documentation" Here is the link: If you are able to read it from the begining till end you will understand the whole things about ethereum. Continue reading >>

Ethereum - Wikipedia

Ethereum - Wikipedia

This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . This article relies too much on references to primary sources . Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources . Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable . Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. The Ethereum Project's logo, first used in 2014 Ethereum is an open-source , public, blockchain -based distributed computing platform featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality. [2] It provides a decentralized Turing-complete virtual machine , the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes. Ethereum also provides a cryptocurrency token called "ether", which can be transferred between accounts and used to compensate participant nodes for computations performed. [3] "Gas", an internal transaction pricing mechanism, is used to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network. [2] [4] Ethereum was proposed in late 2013 by Vitalik Buterin , a cryptocurrency researcher and programmer. Development was funded by an online crowdsale between July and August 2014. [5] The system went live on 30 July 2015, with 11.9 million coins "premined" for the crowdsale. [6] This accounts for approximately 13 percent of the total circulating supply. In 2016, as a result of the collapse of The DAO project, Ethereum was forked into two separate blockchains - the new forked version became Ethereum (ETH), and the original continued as Ethereum Classic (ETC). [7] [8] [9] Ethereum was initially described in a white paper by Vitalik Buterin , [10] a programmer involved with Bitcoin Magazine , in late 2013 with a goal of buildin Continue reading >>

Is Trons(trx) Whitepaper Really A Concern?

Is Trons(trx) Whitepaper Really A Concern?

Is Trons(TRX) Whitepaper Really A Concern? TRON listed as $TRX is a startup led by Justin Sun , a young entrepreneur that has seen success. His recent project TRON is a coin-backed company that specializes in a blockchain-based decentralized protocol in order to create a worldwide free content entertainment system. Peiwo is an app that will utilize TRON and will offer TRON-compatible entertainment to its 10 million users.The Tron Foundation that is set up with the approval of the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (ACRA) and under supervision and regulation of the Company law of Singapore; has been attacked and called fraudulent after the coin saw a massive rally reaching an ATH of a little over 25 cents. The Tron Foundation has been marked as vaporware by many of reliable sources, yet they are looking at the organization in a fundamental way and not thinking about how the structure and management will influence the success of this company. Yes, their white paper may be forged, plagiarized, etc., but this doesnt completely tarnish the ideas and the team TRON has. I think it is fair to say that Justin Sun is reputable and has many strong connections in the world of technology. A whitepaper can only take a project so far, just because a project has an above average whitepaper does not mean that the project will see success. It is more about the team and how well the project is managed and how much content it can produce WITH the whitepaper as its blueprint. TRON Dogs will be comparable to the [so far] successful Crypto Kitties game. TRON Dogs is a new blockchain-based virtual game from Tron Labs using the digital currency TRONIX (TRX) to purchase virtual dogs that you can raise and trade with your friends. The idea derives from Ethereums Crypto Kitties and is Continue reading >>

Ethereum White Paper Summary

Ethereum White Paper Summary

/ 1 Comment /in Resource Briefs /by Liz Geer Whereas Satoshi Nakamotos Bitcoin Whitepaper is often credited as a catalyst to the current blockchain revolution, the Ethereum Whitepaper was a dramatic breakthrough in unlocking the power of decentralized technologies. This guide is designed to introduce you to Ether eum, which was introduced to the world in 2013 by Vitalik Buterin. Ethereum is the second largest block chain protocol in the world, behind only Bitcoin . Any person attempting to understand how future applications will sit atop of blockchain protocols should start with understanding Ethereum. To make that easier, we have created this guide to help you understand the Ethereum whitepaper. Throughout history, banks and third-party institutions have existed to provide trust between multiple parties of a transaction. Bitcoin radically changed this construct, allowing transactions to take place within a protocol, without the need to depend on third-party entities (to read more about Satoshis Whitepaper on Bitcoin, click here ). By moving trust from the intermediary to the protocol, Bitcoin changed the way money flows and set the stage for the Internet of Value. All the Blockchain initiatives we talk about today, including Ethereum, are a result of Bitcoin. As world-changing as Bitcoin is, it does not allow for easy repurposing of the Bitcoin protocol for alternative blockchain applications. Developers were faced with a tough choice go through the labor intensive process of creating a completely new blockchain, or attempt to expand past the limitations of the current protocol. Whereas Bitcoin was specifically constructed to administer a specific use of blockchain technology, Ethereum was created to provide a framework to run all decentralized applications. Ethereum Continue reading >>

Ethereum Classic Whitepaper

Ethereum Classic Whitepaper

Carlo Vicari on Ethereum Classic Whitepaper @nickydn Yes, sorry I didn't clarify Nick. I didn't mean the solution section was literally missing, just that I wanted to add some more content before listing our principles. The whitepaper proposal I had was using all of the same content from the original proposal but i wanted to ask everyone's opinions on proposed changes i suggested rather than making a whole ton of comments or changes to the original document you put forth, a second draft would be a better description than 2nd proposal. Before i continued though I needed some opinions. Also, yes i agree, in my opinion we should try and stay as united as possible to complete this instead of having 13 different documents. Nicholas Newell on Ethereum Classic Whitepaper @carlovicari Are we looking at the same document? There is a 'solution' section. Re @prophetdaniel , I'm happy to go in any direction, but would offer the caveat that we shouldn't repeat ourselves, spread thin our efforts, or confuse (multiple docs/links geared to same goal etc). What purpose does creating another document with the same structure serve? Either way, I'm happy to go along with whatever, but wanna make sure our efforts are efficient here. So, let's continue on Carlo's doc, but let's also try to keep it in one place from here on out. Carlo Vicari on Ethereum Classic Whitepaper @nickydn Yea i guess really what was missing is the solution section more than anything else. I'd like to speak with everyone about different value proposition ideas later today hopefully. I'm at work now but I will take some time during lunch or after work later to discuss with everyone. Prophet Daniel on Ethereum Classic Whitepaper For every opportunity I think we should not disencourage going to several random different Continue reading >>

Ethereum White Paper Annotated Version (2015) | Hacker News

Ethereum White Paper Annotated Version (2015) | Hacker News

Was this submission to HN intended to generate interest to crowdsource more annotations ( la RapGenius)? Seems to be a subtle way of drawing interest to the site (see the author of annotations) using a currently hyped tech. Of course, Buterin has earned the right to be annotated along with greats such as Einstein and Keynes. Snark aside, this is a really cool site. They seem to be attempting to annotate a variety of papers (amateur and professional), so it's understandable. It is a bit jarring to see something by Kenneth Arrow or Feynman alongside Ethereum marketing material, though. They've even got McCarthy (maybe a better expenditure of time): Frankly, no. I don't want to hear anything about mr Butlerin until (a) Ethereum is a widely used & useful product and (b) the security agencies of the world declassify their involvement. Until/Unless I can acquire and manage proper securities & options via one a decentralised ledger, I reamain thoroughly unimpressed by anything other than the marketing efforts of most crypto projects. Also, a "new currency" would be bitcoin. So far mr Butlerin's major achievement IMO is convincing major financial actors of the merits of his platform. As a private person, I'll take btc/ltc any day over etherium. That is usually the bar, I like the relativity of how people's opinions suddenly begin mattering because they were associated with something that is over a billion dollars now. Don't know why people may try to create a separate standard for cryptocurrency. Of course I'm just speculating (ha), but Ethereum is more than this. You can build your whole payment gateway from a smart contract. I participated in a crowd-funding event that (no, not an ICO) had me so impressed with the payment gateway tech, I had to send more money twice just to Continue reading >>

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