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Cryptography Tutorial In Hindi

Cryptography Kya Hai Hindi Me Types Of Cryptography Hindi

Cryptography Kya Hai Hindi Me Types Of Cryptography Hindi

Cryptography the art of protecting data. data information ? data information unreadable secrets codes cipher text decrypt read secret key Decrypt data plain text Cryptography E-mail , credit card information protect data security integrity Cryptography data decrypt encrypt Cryptography encryption decryption process encryption plain text cipher text convert Decryption cipher text plain text convert Encryption:- Cryptography , encryption data information secret codes convert cipher text Cipher text expert original data information plain text cipher text encrypt Encryption ( internet transmit ) encrypted data key decrypt Encryption :-Encryption :- Decryption:- Decryption encrypted data original data convert encrypted cipher text original plain text Cipher text plain text Decryption key decrypt :- subjects topics Continue reading >>

What Are The Differences Between Des And Aes Encryption?

What Are The Differences Between Des And Aes Encryption?

If you own Townsend Security 24x7 support and have a production down issue outside normal business hours, please call +1.800.349.0711 International customers, please dial +1.757.278.1926. What are the Differences Between DES and AES Encryption? Posted by Michelle Larson on Sep 4, 2014 3:46:00 PM The time required to crack an encryption algorithm is directly related to the length of the key used to secure the communication. Every now and then, our development team comes across someone still using antiquated DES for encryption. If you havent made the switch to the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), lets take a look at the two standards and see why you should! DES is a symmetric block cipher (shared secret key), with a key length of 56-bits. Published as the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 46 standard in 1977, DES was officially withdrawn in 2005 [although NIST has approved Triple DES (3DES) through 2030 for sensitive government information]. The federal government originally developed DES encryption over 35 years ago to provide cryptographic security for all government communications. The idea was to ensure government systems all used the same, secure standard to facilitate interconnectivity. To show that the DES was inadequate and should not be used in important systems anymore, a series of challenges were sponsored to see how long it would take to decrypt a message. Two organizations played key roles in breaking DES: distributed.net and the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF). The DES I contest (1997) took 84 days to use a brute force attack to break the encrypted message. In 1998, there were two DES II challenges issued. The first challenge took just over a month and the decrypted text was "The unknown message is: Many hands make light work". The sec Continue reading >>

The Vigenre Cipher Encryption And Decryption

The Vigenre Cipher Encryption And Decryption

The Vigenre Cipher Encryption and Decryption The Vigenre cipher uses a 2626 table with A to Z as the row heading and column headingThis table is usually referred to as the Vigenre Tableau, Vigenre Table or Vigenre Square.We shall use Vigenre Table.The first row of this table has the 26 English letters.Starting with the second row, each row has the letters shifted to the left one position in a cyclic way.For example, when B is shifted to the first position on the second row, the letter A moves to the end. In addition to the plaintext, the Vigenre cipher also requires a keyword, which is repeated so that the total length is equal to that of the plaintext.For example, suppose the plaintext is MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY and the keyword is HOUGHTON.Then, the keyword must be repeated as follows: MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITYHOUGHTON HOUGHTONHOUGH TONHOUGNTO We follow the tradition by removing all spaces and punctuation, converting all letters to upper case, and dividing the result into 5-letter blocks.As a result, the above plaintext and keyword become the following: MICHI GANTE CHNOL OGICA LUNIV ERSIT YHOUGH TONHO UGHTO NHOUG HTONH OUGHT O To encrypt, pick a letter in the plaintext and its corresponding letter in the keyword, use the keyword letter and the plaintext letter as the row index and column index, respectively, and the entry at the row-column intersection is the letter in the ciphertext.For example, the first letter in the plaintext is M and its corresponding keyword letter is H.This means that the row of H and the column of M are used, and the entry T at the intersection is the encrypted result. Similarly, since the letter N in MICHIGAN corresponds to the letter N in the keyword, the entry at the intersection of row N and column N is A which is the enc Continue reading >>

Blowfishenc: Blowfish Encryption Algorithm (theory) : Fpga & Digital Design Lab : Computer Science & Engineering : Iit Delhi Virtual Lab

Blowfishenc: Blowfish Encryption Algorithm (theory) : Fpga & Digital Design Lab : Computer Science & Engineering : Iit Delhi Virtual Lab

The subkeys are calculated using the Blowfish algorithm: Initialize first the P-array and then the four S-boxes, in order, with a fixed string. This string consists of the hexadecimal digits of pi (less the initial 3): P1 = 0x243f6a88, P2 = 0x85a308d3, P3 = 0x13198a2e, P4 = 0x03707344, etc. XOR P1 with the first 32 bits of the key, XOR P2 with the second 32-bits of the key, and so on for all bits of the key (possibly up to P14). Repeatedly cycle through the key bits until the entire P-array has been XORed with key bits. (For every short key, there is at least one equivalent longer key; for example, if A is a 64-bit key, then AA, AAA, etc., are equivalent keys.) Encrypt the all-zero string with the Blowfish algorithm, using the subkeys described in steps (1) and (2). Replace P1 and P2 with the output of step (3). Encrypt the output of step (3) using the Blowfish algorithm with the modified subkeys. Replace P3 and P4 with the output of step (5). Continue the process, replacing all entries of the P array, and then all four S-boxes in order, with the output of the continuously changing Blowfish algorithm. In total, 521 iterations are required to generate all required subkeys. Applications can store the subkeys rather than execute this derivation process multiple times. It is having a function to iterate 16 times of network. Each round consists of key-dependent permutation and a Continue reading >>

What Is Cryptography And Its Types In Hindi? | Cryptography |

What Is Cryptography And Its Types In Hindi? | Cryptography |

What is Cryptography and its types in Hindi? | Cryptography | Cryptography (What is Cryptography and its types) | Cryptography Personal Confidential Data Protect | Cryptography | Cryptography Greek Krypto "Hidden Secrets" | Cryptography "The Art of Protecting Data / Information" | Data Unreadable Secret Codes Cipher Text Data Read Decrypt Secret Key | Decrypt Data Plain Text | Encryption Decryption Process | E-Mail Messages, Credit/Debit Card Details information protect | Encryption Plain Text Cipher Text Convert Decryption Cipher Text Plain Text Convert | Cryptography Encryption Data information Unreadable Secret Codes Convert Converted Data Cipher Text | Encrypted Data Decrypt Key Plain Text Convert Key | Plain Text Cipher Text Convert Process Encryption | Cryptography Decryption Encrypted Data Plain Text Convert | Cipher Text Plain Text Convert Process Decryption | Cryptography Mainly Parts Divide | 1. Symmetric Cryptography - Encryption Decryption Keys Same Key Data information Encrypt Decrypt | 2. Asymmetric Cryptography - Encryption Decryption Keys Same Encryption Public Key Decryption Private Key | 1. Confidentiality Encryption technique can guard the information and communication from unauthorized revelation and access of information. 2. Authentication The cryptographic techniques such as MAC and digital signatures can protect information against spoofing and forgeries. 3. Data Integrity The cryptographic hash functions are playing vital role in assuring the users about the data integrity. 4. Non-repudiation The digital signature provides the non-repudiation service to guard against the dispute that may arise due to denial of passing message by the sender. Whats-app Encrypted Messages | Message Plain Text Cipher Text Convert Private Key | Encryption Public Key Continue reading >>

Transposition Cipher

Transposition Cipher

This article needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) In cryptography , a transposition cipher is a method of encryption by which the positions held by units of plaintext (which are commonly characters or groups of characters) are shifted according to a regular system, so that the ciphertext constitutes a permutation of the plaintext. That is, the order of the units is changed (the plaintext is reordered). Mathematically a bijective function is used on the characters' positions to encrypt and an inverse function to decrypt. The Rail Fence cipher is a form of transposition cipher that gets its name from the way in which it is encoded. In the rail fence cipher, the plaintext is written downwards on successive "rails" of an imaginary fence, then moving up when we get to the bottom. The message is then read off in rows. For example, using three "rails" and a message of 'WE ARE DISCOVERED. FLEE AT ONCE', the cipherer writes out: W . . . E . . . C . . . R . . . L . . . T . . . E. E . R . D . S . O . E . E . F . E . A . O . C .. . A . . . I . . . V . . . D . . . E . . . N . . (The cipherer has broken this ciphertext up into blocks of five to help avoid errors. This is a common technique used to make the cipher more easily readable. The spacing is not related to spaces in the plaintext and so does not carry any information about the plaintext.) The rail fence cipher was used by the ancient Greeks in the scytale , a mechanical system of producing a transposition cipher. The system consisted of a cylinder and a ribbon that was wrapped around the cylinder. The message to be encrypted was written on Continue reading >>

International Data Encryption Algorithm

International Data Encryption Algorithm

In cryptography , the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), originally called Improved Proposed Encryption Standard (IPES), is a symmetric-key block cipher designed by James Massey of ETH Zurich and Xuejia Lai and was first described in 1991. The algorithm was intended as a replacement for the Data Encryption Standard (DES). IDEA is a minor revision of an earlier cipher Proposed Encryption Standard (PES). The key can be recovered with a computational complexity of 2126.1 using narrow bicliques . This attack is computationally faster than a full brute-force attack, though not, as of 2013, computationally feasible. [1] The cipher was designed under a research contract with the Hasler Foundation, which became part of Ascom-Tech AG. The cipher was patented in a number of countries but was freely available for non-commercial use. The name "IDEA" is also a trademark . The last patents expired in 2012, and IDEA is now patent-free and thus completely free for all uses. [2] [3] IDEA was used in Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) v2.0 and was incorporated after the original cipher used in v1.0, BassOmatic , was found to be insecure. [4] IDEA is an optional algorithm in the OpenPGP standard. IDEA operates on 64-bit blocks using a 128-bit key and consists of a series of 8 identical transformations (a round, see the illustration) and an output transformation (the half-round). The processes for encryption and decryption are similar. IDEA derives much of its security by interleaving operations from different groups modular addition and multiplication, and bitwise eXclusive OR (XOR) which are algebraically "incompatible" in some sense. In more detail, these operators, which all deal with 16-bit quantities, are: Bitwise XOR (exclusive OR) (denoted with a blue circled plus Addition mod Continue reading >>

Unacademy - India's Largest Learning Platform

Unacademy - India's Largest Learning Platform

Hii kya aap public add optional ke liye choose kiya hai Data Encryption Standard - DESand data ross- the NationalDES was developed as a standard for communications and data protection by an IBresearch team, in response to a public request for proposals by the NBS - the NationalBureau of Standards (which is now known as NIST) Symmetric and Asymmetric EncryptionAlgorithmsSAME KEYPLAINTEXT [ENCRYPT ] CIPHERTEXT [DECRYP] PLAINTEXTSYMMETRIC (SINGLE KEY) ENCRYPTIONRECIPIENT'SKEYSO PUBLICO PRIVATEPLANTEXT [ ENCRYPT] OPHERTEXT [ DECRYPTI PLAINTEXT DES - Basics. DES uses the two basic techniques of cryptographyconfusion and diffusion. At the simplest level, diffusion is achieved through numerouspermutations and confusion is achieved through theoperation.XOR DES - The 16 Rounds64-bit plaintextThe basic process in enciphering a64-bit data block and a 56-bit ketial Pamusing the DES consists of:56-bit keyInitial PermutationPermuted Choice 1Iteration IPermuted Choice 2L.eft circular shiftAn initial permutation (IP). 16 rounds of a complex key dependentIteration 2Permuted Choice 2Left circular shiftcalculation fo A tinal permutation, being the inverse Continue reading >>

Block Ciphers Modes Of Operation

Block Ciphers Modes Of Operation

The modes of operation of block ciphers are configuration methods that allow those ciphers to work with large data streams, without the risk of compromising the provided security. It is not recommended, however it is possible while working with block ciphers, touse thesame secret key bits forencrypting thesame plaintext parts. Using one deterministic algorithm for anumber ofidentical input data, results insome number ofidentical ciphertext blocks. This is avery dangerous situation for thecipher's users. Anintruder would be able toget much information by knowing the distribution of identical message parts, even if he would not beable tobreak thecipher anddiscover theoriginal messages. Luckily, there exist ways toblur the cipher output. The idea is tomix the plaintext blocks (which are known) with the ciphertext blocks (which have been just created), and to use the result as the cipher input for the next blocks. As a result, the user avoids creating identical output ciphertext blocks from identical plaintext data. These modifications are called theblock cipher modes ofoperations. It is thesimplest mode ofencryption. Each plaintext block is encrypted separately. Similarly, each ciphertext block is decrypted separately. Thus, it is possible toencrypt anddecrypt by using many threads simultaneously. However, in this mode thecreated ciphertext is notblurred. Atypical example ofweakness ofencryption using ECB mode is encoding abitmap image (forexample a.bmp file). Even astrong encryption algorithm used in ECB mode cannot blur efficiently the plaintext. Thebitmap image encrypted using DES and thesame secret key. TheECBmode was used for theleft image andthemore complicated CBCmode was used for theright image. A message that is encrypted using the ECBmode should be extended unti Continue reading >>

What Is A Key Distribution Center (kdc)? - Definition From Techopedia

What Is A Key Distribution Center (kdc)? - Definition From Techopedia

Definition - What does Key Distribution Center (KDC) mean? A key distribution center (KDC) in cryptography is a system that is responsible for providing keys to the users in a network that shares sensitive or private data. Each time a connection is established between two computers in a network, they both request the KDC to generate a unique password which can be used by the end system users for verification. Techopedia explains Key Distribution Center (KDC) A key distribution center is a form of symmetric encryption that allows the access of two or more systems in a network by generating a unique ticket type key for establishing a secure connection over which data is shared and transferred. KDC is the main server which is consulted before communication takes place. Due to its central infrastructure, KDC is usually employed in smaller networks where the connection requests do not overwhelm the system. KDC is used instead of standard key encryption because the key is generated every time a connection is requested, which minimizes the chances of attack. This definition was written in the context of Cryptography Continue reading >>

Learn Cryptography - Caesar Cipher

Learn Cryptography - Caesar Cipher

The Caesar Cipher, also known as a shift cipher, is one of the oldest and simplest forms of encrypting a message. It is a type of substitution cipher where each letter in the original message (which in cryptography is called the plaintext) is replaced with a letter corresponding to a certain number of letters shifted up or down in the alphabet. For each letter of the alphabet, you would take its position in the alphabet, say 3 for the letter 'C', and shift it by the key number. If we had a key of +3, that 'C' would be shifted down to an 'F' - and that same process would be applied to every letter in the plaintext. In this way, a message that initially was quite readable, ends up in a form that cannot be understood at a simple glance. For example, here's the Caesar Cipher encryption of a full message, using a left shift of 3. THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS OVER THE LAZY DOG QEB NRFZH YOLTK CLU GRJMP LSBO QEB IXWV ALD As unreadable as the resulting ciphertext may appear, the Caesar Cipher is one of the weakest forms of encryption one can employ for the following reasons: The key space is very small. Using a brute force attack method, one could easily try all (25) possible combinations to decrypt the message without initially knowing the key. The structure of the original plaintext remains intact. This makes the encryption method vulnerable to frequency analysis - by looking at h ow often certain characters or sequences of characters appear, one can discover patterns and potentially discover the key without having to perform a full brute force search. The Caesar Cipher can be expressed in a more mathematical form as follows: In plain terms, this means that the encryption of a letter x is equal to a shift of x + n, where n is the number of letters shifted. The result of the pro Continue reading >>

Cryptography And Network Security

Cryptography And Network Security

Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit Introduction - Overview on Modern Cryptography - Introduction to Number Theory - Probability and Information Theory - Classical Cryptosystems-Cryptanalysis of Classical Ciphers-shannons Theory - Symmetric Key Ciphers - Block Cipher Standards - Linear Cryptanalysis - Differential Cryptanalysis - Few other Cryptanalytic Techniques - Overview on S-Box Design Principles -Modes of Operation of Block Ciphers - tream Ciphers - Pseudorandomness - Cryptographic Hash Functions - Message Authentication Codes - More Number Theoretic Results - The RSA Cryptosystem primality Testing - Factoring Algorithms - Some Comments on the Security of RSA - Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) - The Diffie - Hellman Problem and Security of ElGamal Systems - An Introduction to Elliptic Curve Cryptography - Application of Elliptic Curves to Cryptography - Implementation of Elliptic Curve Cryptography - Secret Sharing Schemes - A Tutorial on Network Protocols-System Security - Firewalls and Intrusion Detection Systems - Side Channel Analysis of Cryptographic Implementations Continue reading >>

A Novel Approach To Hindi Text Steganography

A Novel Approach To Hindi Text Steganography

In this paper, a security model is proposed which imposes the concept of secrecy over privacy for text messages. In the recent years, we have plenty of security tools which are developed to protect the transmission of multimedia objects. But approaches for the security of text messages are comparatively less. The model proposed by us combines cryptography, steganography (taken as security layers) and along with that an extra layer of security has been imposed in between them. This newly introduced extra layer of security changes the format of normal encrypted message and the security layer followed by it embeds the encrypted message behind a multimedia cover object. Keywords: Stenography, Text stenography, Security, Secrecy, Privacy. In the field of Data Communication, security-issues have got the top priority. So, of late the degree of security provided by a security tool has become the main evolutionary criteria of it. Classical cryptography is one of the ways to secure plain text messages. Along with that at the time of data transmission, security is also implemented by introducing the concept of steganography, watermarking, etc. In this types of combined approach, there exits some In remote networking, at the time of transmission of hidden encrypted text message, if the eavesdroppers get the track of the hidden text, then they could easily get the encrypted text. Now breaking of encrypted text message can be achieved by applying some brute force technique. So, there remains some probability of snooping of information. So, this type of techniques incurs another level of security which can route the Cryptanalyzer or Steganalyzer The work proposed here represents a heuristic approach to introduce the concept of Multi Layer Data Security algorithm in the field of combi Continue reading >>

Advanced Encryption Standard

Advanced Encryption Standard

The more popular and widely adopted symmetric encryption algorithm likely to be encountered nowadays is the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). It is found at least six time faster than triple DES. A replacement for DES was needed as its key size was too small. With increasing computing power, it was considered vulnerable against exhaustive key search attack. Triple DES was designed to overcome this drawback but it was found slow. Provide full specification and design details AES is an iterative rather than Feistel cipher. It is based on substitutionpermutation network. It comprises of a series of linked operations, some of which involve replacing inputs by specific outputs (substitutions) and others involve shuffling bits around (permutations). Interestingly, AES performs all its computations on bytes rather than bits. Hence, AES treats the 128 bits of a plaintext block as 16 bytes. These 16 bytes are arranged in four columns and four rows for processing as a matrix Unlike DES, the number of rounds in AES is variable and depends on the length of the key. AES uses 10 rounds for 128-bit keys, 12 rounds for 192-bit keys and 14 rounds for 256-bit keys. Each of these rounds uses a different 128-bit round key, which is calculated from the original AES key. The schematic of AES structure is given in the following illustration Here, we restrict to description of a typical round of AES encryption. Each round comprise of four sub-processes. The first round process is depicted below The 16 input bytes are substituted by looking up a fixed table (S-box) given in design. The result is in a matrix of four rows and four columns. Each of the four rows of the matrix is shifted to the left. Any entries that fall off are re-inserted on the right side of row. Shift is carried out as foll Continue reading >>

Best Hindi Tutorials : Ccna In Hindi : Ssl(secure Socket Layer)

Best Hindi Tutorials : Ccna In Hindi : Ssl(secure Socket Layer)

Message Authentication Code (MAC) add packets SSL header attach SSL alert protocol sessions problems (errors) alert messages represent alert message error short description fatal error message server client connection close connection close protocol client server notify close_notify message protocols warnings present Change cipher spec protocol client server encryption method change Change cipher protocol single message sender symmetric key encryption change message 1 byte value 1 set protocol advantage connection establish encryption method change client server connection initial handshake process start server digital certificate client present Client certificate public key cryptography authenticate certificate server authorized server Server authenticate client authenticate server authenticate client server encryption method determine encryption method client server support common key share data decryption SSL secure connection enter protocol HTTP HTTPS process steps handshake protocol client server authenticate change cipher spec protocol encryption method set SSL record protocol SSL packets break , compress SSL header attach packets TCP process error alert protocols errors present alert protocol connection terminate message Continue reading >>

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