## Cryptography : Types Of Cryptosystem - Ankit

There are two basic types of cryptosystems: a) Secret-key cryptosystem b) Public-key cryptosystem Secret-key cryptosystem or traditional cryptography is also referred as symmetric cryptography. In this the sender and receiver of a message know and use the same secret key; the sender uses the secret key to encrypt the message, and the receiver uses the same secret key to decrypt the message. Fig: Symmetric (Secret-Key) Cryptography The main challenge is getting the sender and receiver to agree on the secret key without anyone else finding out. Anyone who overhears or intercepts the key in transit can later read, modify, and forge all messages encrypted or authenticated using that key. All cryptosystems must deal with key management issues. Because all keys in a secret-key cryptosystem must remain secret, secret-key cryptography often has difficulty providing secure key management. The most popular secret-key cryptosystem in use today is the Data Encryption Standard (DES). Other examples are IDEA, Blowfish, etc. Public-key cryptosystem is also referred as Asymmetric cryptography, in which each user has a pair of keys (1) a public key and (2) a private key. The public key is made public while the private key remains secret. Encryption is performed with the public key while decryption is done with the private key. The need for the sender and receiver to share secret information is eliminated; all communications involve only public keys, and no private key is ever transmitted or shared. In this system, it is no longer necessary to trust the security of some means of communications. The only requirement is that public keys be associated with their users in a trusted (authenticated) manner (for instance, in a trusted directory). Anyone can send a confidential message by just Continue reading >>

## The Basic Elements Of A Cryptographic System

The basic elements of a cryptographic system z/OS Cryptographic Services ICSF Overview Most practical cryptographic systems combine two elements: A process or algorithm which is a set of rules that specify the mathematical steps needed to encipher or decipher data. A cryptographic key (a string of numbers or characters), or keys. The algorithm uses the key to select one relationship between plaintext and ciphertext out of the many possible relationships the algorithm provides. The selected relationship determines the composition of the algorithm's result. ICSF supports two main types of cryptographic processes: Symmetric, or secret key, algorithms, in which the same key value is used in both the encryption and decryption calculations. Asymmetric, or public key, algorithms, in which a different key is used in the decryption calculation than was used in the encryption calculation. Secret key cryptography uses a conventional algorithm such as the Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm or the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm that are supported by ICSF. Another term for secret key cryptography is symmetric cryptography. To have intelligent cryptographic communications between two parties who are using a conventional algorithm, this criteria must be satisfied: Both parties must use the same cryptographic algorithm. The cryptographic key that the sending party uses to encipher the data must be available to the receiving party to decipher the data. Figure 1 is a simplified illustration of the cryptographic components that are needed to encipher and decipher data in a secret key cryptographic system. In this system, Tom and Linda have established a secure communications channel by sharing a secret key. Tom enciphers the plaintext by using the algorithm and the sec Continue reading >>

## Cissp Cryptography Training: Components, Protocols And Authentication

Get started Bring yourself up to speed with our introductory content. CISSP cryptography training: Components, protocols and authentication Spotlight article: Shon Harris outlines the main topics in the CISSP domain on cryptography -- background information, cryptography components, digital authentication, protocols and more. Cryptography in the database: The last line of defense SearchOracle Cryptography is undoubtedly one of the most complex and daunting topics in information security. So let's start with the basics: What is cryptography? Cryptography is a method of storing and transmitting data in a particular form so that only those for whom it is intended can read and process it. It is considered the science of protecting information as it encodes data into an unreadable format, usually through the use of complex mathematical algorithms. Cryptography can effectively protect sensitive information from third parties as it is either stored on media or transmitted through untrusted network communication paths. Almost all information security is based on some type of cryptography, but the sheer complexity of cryptography often works against security practitioners. Because only a small portion of today's security experts really understand cryptography, and the lack of knowledge in this area leads to operating systems, software applications, protocols and network-based products with poorly implemented cryptographic functionality. These poor implementations are what attackers often seek to exploit. In this spotlight article for the Cryptography domain of the Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) exam, I will not only discuss why cryptography is usually considered to be the most difficult domain within the Common Body of Knowledge (CBK), but also one Continue reading >>

## Encryption Algorithms

Encryption is the process of converting a plaintext message into ciphertext which can be decoded back into the original message.An encryption algorithm along with a key is used in the encryption and decryption of data.There are several types of data encryptions which form the basis of network security.Encryption schemes are based on block or stream ciphers. The type and length of the keys utilized depend upon the encryption algorithm and the amount of security needed.In conventional symmetric encryption a single key is used.With this key, the sender can encrypt a message and a recipient can decrypt the message but the security of the key becomes problematic.In asymmetric encryption, the encryption key and the decryption key are different.One is a public key by which the sender can encrypt the message and the other is a private key by which a recipient can decrypt the message. A modern branch of cryptography. also known as public-key cryptography in which the algorithms employ a pair of keys (a public key and a private key)and use a different component of the pair for different steps of the algorithm. These algorithms work on chunks of specific sized data along with a key resulting in blocks of cipher text.The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a federal agencythat approved the Data Encryption Standard (DES) block cipher an early encryption algorithm created in the mid 1970s.The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) also set this security algorithm as the Data Encryption Algorithm (DEA) standard.Another standard developed in the 1980s is the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES).Some commonly used block cipher algorithms are IDEA, RC2, RC5, CAST and Skipjack. The results of the previously chained block is used in the encryption of the next Continue reading >>

## Joseph Kizza

" It would be good if we were not to fail in our endeavors, but we do. It is wonderful, though, when we fail because we learn from the experience. Those who do not learn are doomed to fail for life." - Unknown ======================================================================================================================== Joseph Migga Kizza received his B.S. in Mathematics and Computer Science from Makerere University , M.E. in Computer Science from California State University, MA in Mathematics from University of Toledo, Ohio, and a PhD in Computer Science with a concentration in cryptogrpahy from The University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Nebraska. Dr. Kizza is currently the Head of Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Tennessee-Chattanooga , Tennessee. His research and teaching are focusing on social computing, computer network security, digital forensics, cloud computing and data science. ======================================================================== Editor-in-Chief International Journal of Computing and ICT Research (IJCIR) The International Journal of Computing and ICT (IJCIR) is a peer reviewed International journal with an objective of providing a medium for academics to publish original cutting edge research in the field of computing and ICT. IJCIR publishes two issues per year: June and December of each year. The IJCIR is an independent biannual publication of Makerere University. The journal's focus is to highlight new research developments, experiences and best practices in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) across Africa. The Journal publishes papers in computer science, computer engineering, software engineering, information systems, data communications and computer networks, ICT for sustain Continue reading >>

## 5public-key Cryptography

Public-key (PK) cryptography covers operations such as signing , encryption , and key agreement between parties that do notstart with any shared secrets. Instead of shared secrets, each partypossesses a keypair consisting of a secret private key and awidely-published public key. Not all PK cryptosystems support all PKoperations (for example, DSA does not support encryption or secretderivation), and some PK implementations may support a subset of a PKcryptosystems potential operations. Returns #t if v is a PK cryptosystem specifier,#f otherwise. A PK cryptosystem specifier is one of the following: 'rsa,'dsa, 'dh, or 'ec. Strictly speaking, itspecifies the information represented by the public and private keysand the algorithms that operate on that information. For example,'rsa specifies RSA keys with RSAES-* encryption algorithmsand the RSASSA-* signature algorithms, and 'ec specifies ECkeys with ECDSA signing and ECDH key agreement. Returns #t if v is a PK cryptosystem implementation,#f otherwise. Returns an implementation of PK algorithm pki from the givenfactories. If no factory in factories implementspki, returns #f. Indicates whether the cryptosystem implementation pk (or theimplementation corresponding to pk, if pk is a key)supports signing, encryption, and key agreement, respectively. Note that the functions only report the capabilities of thecryptosystem implementation, regardless of the limitations ofpk if pk is a key. For example,( pk-can-sign? pk) would return true when pk is anRSA public-only key, even though signing requires a private key. Returns #f if the PK cryptosystem represented by pkuses key parameters, #f otherwise. See PK Keys and Parameters formore information. A PK keypair consists of public key component and private keycomponents. A public key i Continue reading >>

## Cryptosystems And Their Components, Design Objectives And Basis For Security | Commonlounge

Cryptosystems and their Components, Design Objectives and Basis for Security [ Edit ] A cryptosystem is a pair of algorithms: one for the encryption of data and another for decryption. Often these algorithms use a unique key which should be kept secret, in which case the process for generating and sharing the key is also considered part of the cryptosystem. Modern cryptography is essential to the digital world we live in and has grown to be quite complex. It is used for sending messages in a secure manner on the internet, such as our credit card information and other private data. Encryption is used to keep our data secure online and locally. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is used by governments to maintain the secrecy of their documents and was chosen from a number of candidates across the mathematics community for its security and efficiency. In addition, digital security can also be used to maintain anonymity, to authenticate ones identity via digital signatures, to demonstrate proof of work in blockchain technologies and to ensure that software and messages are free from tampering. Here are a few definitions of some terms relating to cryptography and cryptosystems: Plaintext: The original message in its original legible form. Ciphertext: Encrypted text that will appear to be a random string. Encryption: The process of converting data into its cryptic form that prevents unauthorized access, i.e. converting plaintext to ciphertext. This process requires encryption keys which provide information regarding the specific implementation of a given encryption algorithm. Decryption: The process of converting encrypted data back into its original form for use, i.e. converting ciphertext back to plaintext. Decryption requires a decryption key which provides the specif Continue reading >>

## 7 Key Elements Of A Successful Encryption Strategy

7 Key Elements of a Successful Encryption Strategy The world is run on codes and ciphers. From emails to ATMs, entertainment and shopping online, cryptography inhabits our every waking moment. In fact, life as we know it would be practically impossible without it. Cryptography is the science of secret communication. Its fundamental objective is to enable communications over an insecure channel in such a way that a potential adversary cannot understand what is being conveyed. The global proliferation of cyberespionage has led one particular component of cryptography encryption to become critical in the effort to safeguard sensitive data and intellectual property (IP). Inadequate security and eager cybercriminals have led enterprise data breaches to increase at an alarming pace. Staggering numbers of affected customers and financial losses continue tosend shock waves through the business world, creating a sense of urgency around identifying solutions. Making matters worse, the Internet of Things (IoT) is providingnew ways to gain access to systems and data. Every IoT device is an endpoint, and therefore a potential back door for hackers. They can also be used as weapons; millionsof devices everything from routers, security cameras and DVRs to medical devices, cars and more have been infected with malware, and repurposed as zombie armies by cyber attackers looking to direct their power towards targets of their choosing. Manufacturers are not doing enough to protect devices, and consumers are backing away from companies that have been breached. During RSA Conference 2017 , Raj Samani, CTO for Europe, the Middle East and Africa for Intel Security noted that DNS provider Dyn lost nearly 15,000 customers after suffering a massive DDoS attack backed by a Mirai IoT botnet. "Tha Continue reading >>

## Which Are The Different Types And Components Of Cryptography?

Which are the different types and components of cryptography? Read this thread to know the definition of cryptography. Also learn about the different types and components of cryptography. What is meant cryptography? Which are the different types and components of cryptography? What is DES and RSA? Cryptography is a science of secure communication between hosts. It includes securing the message which can be only be read by person with the right code. The process is called encryption. And the process in which secure message is decoded is called decryption. There are different types of cryptography - depending on the type of methods being used in the communication. Three popular types of cryptography techniques are - public key, private key and symmetric key cryptography. In each case of public key cryptography, the content is secured with PGP key and you need the same key to read the message. The public key content doesn't have to secret and can be shared with others. Such cryptography is only used for the content that requires security from some sources that doesn't allow open communication. In case of private key cryptography the content is secured and the key is only shared in between two or more private parties. In case of symmetric cryptography, the same key is used for the encryption and decryption. This was used in old method for the encryption. This is obsolete method for secure communication. There is also another improvement in the cryptography industry known as "Steganography". In this method of secure communication the data is hidden within another content. For example simple nature image could have mp3 file hidden inside. Such method of encryption is very popular and harder to break for those who are into security analysis. DES is an old method of data encry Continue reading >>

## Security Analysis And Enhancements Of An Image Cryptosystem Based On Hyperchaotic System

Security analysis and enhancements of an image cryptosystem based on hyperchaotic system Author links open overlay panel MusheerAhmada Open Access funded by King Saud University The security system engaged to transfer securely the sensitive information over wireless channels must posses some innate features such as high resistivity to various cryptographic attacks, high sensitivity to secret key and plaintext, and strong statistical characteristics of encrypted content. Recently, an image cryptosystem is investigated to secure color images while transmission. The cryptosystem is based on permutation only cipher and employed synchronized 4D hyperchaotic systems. The cryptosystem has credibility of providing ample statistical encryption quality of ciphertext. This paper aims to investigate and analyze the security of this image cryptosystem in terms of its defects and attack resistivity. The security analysis uncovers that cryptosystem holds certain serious security defects and incapable to secure encrypted content. To support the claim, the inherent defects are highlighted; thereby an attack procedure is proposed to show that the cryptosystem is breakable under the proposed cryptanalysis. The attacker can recover complete plaintext image from ciphertext image without knowing secret key. Computer simulations are performed to justify the success of cryptanalysis. The image cryptosystem is all insecure for use in practical applications of image-based secure wireless communication. As a remedy, this paper also suggests security enhancements and an enhanced cryptosystem is proposed to make it completely resistive against above and other types of cryptanalytic attacks and increase on its plain image sensitivity and statistical encryption strength. Continue reading >>

## Cisco Ios Cryptosystem Components

CCSP Cisco Certified Security Professional Certification You should be familiar with two terms used in network security. While these terms are quite closely related, they arent quite as interchangeable as they might first seem. The process of translating data into a secret code, which can only be read or processed after being decrypted using a secret key or password. Encryption typically involves using a mathematical algorithm for combining the original data, referred to as plaintext or Cleartext, with one or more keyscharacter strings of numbers and/or text known only to the sender and the recipient. The resulting output is ciphertext. Encryption is the most effective way to achieve data security. The science or study of encryption and decryption techniques. A system for encrypting and decrypting data is called a cryptosystem. While its technically possible for encrypted data to be deciphered using cryptanalysis, or code-breaking techniques, most modern cryptography techniques are virtually unbreakable. The Internet, wireless technologies, and other forms of electronic communication are making electronic security technologies increasingly important. Current cryptography technologies being widely used include SSL for web traffic, Secure Shell (SSH) for Telnet sessions, Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) to protect e-mail messages, and IPSec Layer 3 secure communications. Simply encryption uses a mathematical algorithm to scramble a message to create the cipher text. A key is used by the algorithm to determine the scramble pattern. The same key can then be used to unscramble or decipher the message. While this isnt a perfect analogy, a deadbolt on a door is nothing more than a chunk of metal until someone inserts a key that can manipulate the tumblers and advance the bolt. The l Continue reading >>

## Getting Started With The Srvb Cryptosystem

Read the Spanish version of this article translated by Yesica Danderfer Information security is a fascinating field of knowledge that can involve anything from theoretical computer science to software engineering, and even observe the psychology of human error. Cryptography is now one of the many anonymous technological heroes of our daily life. Social networks, web banking, military intelligence, and any other information system that deals with sensitive information all rely heavily on cryptography. Cryptography allows us to have privacy, which some consider the 12th human right . This article will give you an introduction to the principles behind public-key cryptosystems and introduce you to the Santana Rocha-Villas Boas (SRVB) , a cryptosystem developed by the author of the article and Prof. Daniel Santana Rocha. At the time of writing, the algorithm authors are cooking up a campaign that includes a financial reward to anyone who manages to crack the code. Since the article will cover the algorithm functionality in detail, this is the best place to start the pursuit for the prize. More information is available on the SRVB site . Cryptography is any method to hamper the interpretability of a message, while still allowing a way to feasibly interpret it as long as a specific instruction is provided, which is usually the so called key. While this is a very broad definition that encompases even the earliest techniques, it is worthy to mention that this does not cover everything there is to information security. The technological race between encryption methods and ways to crack them is expected to never have a definitive winner. Each new generation is expected to raise the standards of information security and cryptanalysis, which is the set of techniques to systematical Continue reading >>

## Basic Cryptosystems And Properties

To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 video From the course by New York University Tandon School of Engineering Course 2 of 4 in the Specialization Introduction to Cyber Security This course introduces the basics of cyber defense starting with foundational models such as Bell-LaPadula and information flow frameworks. These underlying policy enforcements mechanisms help introduce basic functional protections, starting with authentication methods. Learners will be introduced to a series of different authentication solutions and protocols, including RSA SecureID and Kerberos, in the context of a canonical schema. The basics of cryptography are also introduced with attention to conventional block ciphers as well as public key cryptography. Important cryptographic techniques such as cipher block chaining and triple-DES are explained. Modern certification authority-based cryptographic support is also discussed and shown to provide basis for secure e-commerce using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) schemes. Research Professor, NYU and CEO, TAG Cyber LLC Hi, folks, Ed here. I'm going to take you through the basics of cryptography now. we've gone through S Key, we've gone through Kerberos, you've seen a lot of these things in action. I've shown you notation without even explaining it to you. We've popped it up on the screen and gotten you sort of something inside and a little subscript next to the squiggly brace and you may or may not think, I'm assuming that you're sort of absorbing that. But now I'm going to take you back. I always like doing this. I've been teaching cybersecurity for 30 years and I've learned that if you start with the basics, But if you start with showing them stuff and just assuming they're gettin Continue reading >>

## What Is Cryptography?

Cryptography provides for secure communication in the presence of malicious third-partiesknown as adversaries. Encryption (a major component of cryptography) uses an algorithm and a key to transform an input (i.e., plaintext) into an encrypted output (i.e., ciphertext). A given algorithm will always transform the same plaintext into the same ciphertext if the same key is used. Algorithms are considered secure if an attacker cannot determine any properties of the plaintext or key, given the ciphertext. An attacker should not be able to determine anything about a key given a large number of plaintext/ciphertext combinations which used the key. What is the difference between symmetric and asymmetric cryptography? With symmetric cryptography, the same key is used for both encryption and decryption. A sender and a recipient must already have a shared key that is known to both. Key distribution is a tricky problemand was the impetus for developing asymmetric cryptography. With asymmetric crypto, two different keys are used for encryption and decryption. Every user in an asymmetric cryptosystem has both a public key and a private key. The private key is kept secret at all times, but the public key may be freely distributed. Data encrypted with a public key may only be decrypted with the corresponding private key. So, sending a message to John requires encrypting that message with Johns public key. Only John can decrypt the message, as only John has his private key. Any data encrypted with a private key can only be decrypted with the corresponding public key. Similarly, Jane could digitally sign a message with her private key, and anyone with Janes public key could decrypt the signed message and verify that it was in fact Jane who sent it. Symmetric is generally very fast and Continue reading >>

## A Basic Description Of Encryption

Encryption is the transformation of data into a formunreadable by anyone without a secret decryption key. Its purposeis to ensure privacy by keeping the information hidden from anyonefor whom it is not intended, even those who can see the encrypteddata. For example, one may wish to encrypt files on a hard diskto prevent an intruder from reading them. In a multi-user setting, encryption allows securecommunication over an insecure channel. The general scenario isas follows: Alice wishes to send a message to Bob so that no oneelse besides Bob can read it. Alice encrypts the message, whichis called the plaintext, with an encryption key; the encryptedmessage, called the ciphertext, is sent to Bob. Bob decrypts theciphertext with the decryption key and reads the message. An attacker,Charlie, may either try to obtain the secret key or to recoverthe plaintext without using the secret key. In a secure cryptosystem,the plaintext cannot be recovered from the ciphertext except byusing the decryption key. In a symmetric cryptosystem, a singlekey serves as both the encryption and decryption keys. What is authentication? What is a digital signature? Authentication in a digital setting is a processwhereby the receiver of a digital message can be confident ofthe identity of the sender and/or the integrity of the message.Authentication protocols can be based on either conventional secret-keycryptosystems like DES or on public-key systems like RSA; authenticationin public-key systems uses digital signatures. In this document, authentication will generally referto the use of digital signatures, which play a function for digitaldocuments similar to that played by handwritten signatures forprinted documents: the signature is an unforgeable piece of dataasserting that a named person wrote or Continue reading >>