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What Is The Best Drug For Treating Cryptosporidiosis?

Role Of Cox-2 In Pathogenesis Of Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis And Effect Of Some Drugs On Treatment Of Infection - Scialert Responsive Version

Role Of Cox-2 In Pathogenesis Of Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis And Effect Of Some Drugs On Treatment Of Infection - Scialert Responsive Version

Role of COX-2 in Pathogenesis of Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis and Effect of some Drugs on Treatment of Infection Role of COX-2 in Pathogenesis of Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis and Effect of some Drugs on Treatment of Infection Gehan S. Sadek and Bahaa El Deen W. El Aswad Cryptosporidium is a common cause of severe diarrhea in immunocompromised people and young children. Cryptosporidium infection was found to be associated with elevation of many cytokines as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-) and interleukin 1 (IL-1). These cytokines are key stimulators of prostaglandin synthesis. Prostaglandins may contribute to diarrhea by altering chloride secretion. COX-2 is an inducible enzyme and the expression of the COX-2 gene has been shown to increase in certain inflammatory states. It is known that COX-2 is essential for the synthesis of prostaglandins. There are no studies that define the role of COX-2 in intestinal cryptosporidiosis. The present study was aimed to assess the expression pattern of COX-2 immunohistochemically in the intestine of experimentally infected rats. Also, it was aimed to assess the effectiveness of celecoxib, nitazoxanide, nitazoxanide combined with celecoxib and nitazoxanide combined with azithromycin as anticryptosporidial drugs. It was found that infection with Cryptosporidium caused severe pathological changes in ileal tissue. Also, there was a strong correlation between Cryptosporidium and COX-2 expression in the same tissue. So, it can be said that the inflammatory effect of Cryptosporidium in intestine is mediated through induction of COX-2 but practically "celecoxib" which is an anti COX-2 drug did not represent a significant advance in the treatment of rats infected with Cryptosporidium. On the other hand, treatment of infection by nitazoxani Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidium Infection - Including Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention

Cryptosporidium Infection - Including Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention

Cryptosporidium infection - including symptoms, treatment and prevention Cryptosporidium infection (cryptosporidiosis or 'crypto') is an infection of the bowel caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium which can result in gastroenteritis (also known as 'gastro'). Cryptosporidium infection is a notifiable condition1 The Cryptosporidium parasite may be transmitted person-to-person. Infection is also spread: directly - by drinking or swimming in contaminated water and eating uncooked food (such as fruits and vegetables) contaminated with Cryptosporidium indirectly - when hands, objects and surfaces are contaminated with faeces of infected people or animals (cows and other domestic animals). The parasite must be taken in by the mouth to cause infection. The main symptom is watery diarrhoea which occurs with stomach cramps. Fever, vomiting and loss of appetite occur less commonly. Symptoms in people with normal immune systems usually last for about 1 to 2 weeks. People with severe immune suppression, particularly those with advanced HIV infection , may have severe, prolonged diarrhoea. The infection is diagnosed by examining a specimen of faeces under a microscope or by detecting Cryptosporidium in a faecal sample using a PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test in a pathology laboratory. (time between becoming infected and developing symptoms) (time during which an infected person can infect others) As soon as the infected person develops symptoms and for up to several weeks after the disappearance of symptoms. For those with normal immune systems, specific treatment is not required. There is no available effective treatment for reducing diarrhoea in people with immune suppression. The following are general recommendations for the treatment of gastroenteritis: Give plenty of flui Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Cryptosporidium: What We Know, Gaps, And The Way Forward

Treatment Of Cryptosporidium: What We Know, Gaps, And The Way Forward

Treatment of Cryptosporidium: What We Know, Gaps, and the Way Forward The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Curr Trop Med Rep See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Cryptosporidiosis is increasingly recognized as an important globalhealth concern. While initially reported in immunocompromised such as AIDSpatients, cryptosporidiosis has now been documented as a major cause ofchildhood diarrhea and an important factor in childhood malnutrition. Currently,nitazoxanide is the only proven anti-parasitic treatment forCryptosporidium infections. However, it is not effective inseverely immunocompromised patients and there is limited data in infants. Immunereconstitution or decreased immunosuppression is critical to therapy in AIDS andtransplant patients. This limitation of treatment options presents a majorpublic health challenge given the important burden of disease. Repurposing ofdrugs developed for other indications and development of inhibitors for noveltargets offer hope for improved therapies, but none have advanced to clinicalstudies. Keywords: Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium hominis, cryptosporidiosis, nitazoxanide, paromomycin Cryptosporidium species are increasingly recognized asimportant enteric pathogens [ 1 - 3 ]. Cryptosporidiosis was initiallyrecognized as a cause of diarrhea in compromised hosts. Shortly thereafter, zoonoticand waterborne transmission of the parasite was identified. Cryptosporidium is nowconsidered one of the major causes of childhood diarrhea. In addition,Cryptosporidium has been documented as a key component of the viciouscycle of infection and malnutrition that are major contributors to childhoodmorbidity and mortality worldwide. The majority of humanCryptosporidium Continue reading >>

Common Drugs And Medications To Treat An Intestinal Infection Due To Cryptosporidium Parasites

Common Drugs And Medications To Treat An Intestinal Infection Due To Cryptosporidium Parasites

IMPORTANT: About This Section and Other User-Generated Content on WebMD The opinions expressed in WebMD User-generated content areas like communities, reviews, ratings, or blogs are solely those of the User, who may or may not have medical or scientific training. These opinions do not represent the opinions of WebMD. User-generated content areas are not reviewed by a WebMD physician or any member of the WebMD editorial staff for accuracy, balance, objectivity, or any other reason except for compliance with our Terms and Conditions. Some of these opinions may contain information about treatment or uses of drug products that have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. WebMD does not endorse any specific product, service, or treatment. Do not consider WebMD User-generated content as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. WebMD understands that reading individual, real-life experiences can be a helpful resource but it is never a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a qualified health care provider. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or dial 911 immediately. Continue reading >>

Frontiers | Drug Development Against The Major Diarrhea-causing Parasites Of The Small Intestine, Cryptosporidium And Giardia | Microbiology

Frontiers | Drug Development Against The Major Diarrhea-causing Parasites Of The Small Intestine, Cryptosporidium And Giardia | Microbiology

Front. Microbiol., 19 November 2015 | Drug Development Against the Major Diarrhea-Causing Parasites of the Small Intestine, Cryptosporidium and Giardia Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Diarrheal diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly among young children. A limited number of infectious agents account for most of these illnesses, raising the hope that advances in the treatment and prevention of these infections can have global health impact. The two most important parasitic causes of diarrheal disease are Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Both parasites infect predominantly the small intestine and colonize the lumen and epithelial surface, but do not invade deeper mucosal layers. This review discusses the therapeutic challenges, current treatment options, and drug development efforts against cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis. The goals of drug development against Cryptosporidium and Giardia are different. For Cryptosporidium, only one moderately effective drug (nitazoxanide) is available, so novel classes of more effective drugs are a high priority. Furthermore, new genetic technology to identify potential drug targets and better assays for functional evaluation of these targets throughout the parasite life cycle are needed for advancing anticryptosporidial drug design. By comparison, for Giardia, several classes of drugs with good efficacy exist, but dosing regimens are suboptimal and emerging resistance begins to threaten clinical utility. Consequently, improvements in potency and dosing, and the ability to overcome existing and prevent new forms of drug resistance are priorities in antigiardial drug development. Current work on new drugs against both infections has revealed Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidiosis Symptoms, Treatment & Causes

Cryptosporidiosis Symptoms, Treatment & Causes

Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease caused by microscopic parasites, Cryptosporidium, that can live in the intestine of humans and animals and is passed in the stool of an infected person or animal. Both the disease and the parasite are commonly known as "Crypto." The parasite is protected by an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for long periods of time and makes it very resistant to chlorine-based disinfectants. During the past 2 decades, Crypto has become recognized as one of the most common causes of waterborne disease (recreational water and drinking water) in humans in the United States. The parasite is found in every region of the United States and throughout the world. Cryptosporidium lives in the intestine of infected humans or animals. An infected person or animal sheds Crypto parasites in the stool. Millions of Crypto germs can be released in a bowel movement from an infected human or animal. Shedding of Crypto in the stool begins when the symptoms begin and can last for weeks after the symptoms (e.g., diarrhea ) stop. You can become infected after accidentally swallowing the parasite. Cryptosporidium may be found in soil, food, water, or surfaces that have been contaminated with the feces from infected humans or animals. Crypto is not spread by contact with blood. By putting something in your mouth or accidentally swallowing something that has come into contact with stool of a person or animal infected with Crypto. By swallowing recreational water contaminated with Crypto. Recreational water is water in swimming pools, hot tubs, Jacuzzis, fountains, lakes, rivers, springs, ponds, or streams. Recreational water can be contaminated with sewage or feces from humans or animals. By swallowing water or beverages contaminated with stool fr Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidium | Causes, Symptoms And Treatment | Patient

Cryptosporidium | Causes, Symptoms And Treatment | Patient

Cryptosporidium is a parasite. This is a living thing (organism) that lives in, or on, another organism. It can infect your bowels (intestines) and cause cryptosporidiosis. This is a form of bowel infection called gastroenteritis, which leads to diarrhoea and being sick (vomiting). Infection can occur in humans and animals and is spread by contact with soil, water, food or surfaces that have been contaminated by infected stools (faeces) containing the parasite. Young children are most likely to become infected. Symptoms usually last for up to two weeks, sometimes longer. Symptoms can be very severe in people whose immune system is not working properly. No specific treatment is needed for most people but you should drink plenty of fluids to avoid lack of body fluid (dehydration). You should not use a swimming pool for 14 days after the infection has cleared. A parasite is a general term for any living thing (organism) that lives in, or on, another living organism. It may feed off its host, or obtain shelter using its host but contributes nothing to its host's well-being or welfare. Human parasites include fungi, protozoa and worms. Cryptosporidium is a living thing (organism) that lives in, or on, another organism (a parasite). It can infect your bowels (intestines) and cause cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidiosis is an infection of your bowels (gastroenteritis) which can lead to diarrhoea and sometimes being sick (vomiting). Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite. A protozoan is a microscopic, single-celled organism. Cryptosporidium can infect humans, cattle and other animals, particularly farm animals. There are two main species of cryptosporidium that cause infection in humans - Cryptosporidium hominis (C. hominis) and Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum). As a living t Continue reading >>

Fda Approves Treatment For Diarrhea Caused By Cryptosporidium Infection

Fda Approves Treatment For Diarrhea Caused By Cryptosporidium Infection

FDA approves treatment for diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium infection The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Alinia (nitazoxanide) tablets and oral suspension for treating diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum infection in adults and children 12 years and older. The product, already approved to treat the same infection in younger children, received a priority review by FDA. For adults and teens, FDA's decision brings a first-ever treatment for infections caused by the waterborne protozoan that is recognized as widespread in the United States. Cryptosporidium is reported to be found in 65% to 97% of surface water in the United States and is recognized as the leading cause of waterborne disease outbreaks. Infection is typically spread by person-to- person contact or through contaminated water or food. "This approval is important," said A. Clinton White, Jr., M.D., a professor of infectious disease at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. "Cryptosporidium is a common, yet significantly underdiagnosed, cause of diarrheal illness in the United States." After being ingested by humans, Cryptosporidium typically causes watery diarrhea with abdominal pain that lasts for one to four weeks or more. Children, the elderly and persons with weak immune systems are particularly susceptible to severe or protracted disease. Traditional antibiotics used to treat gastrointestinal infections are not effective in treating Cryptosporidium. In a recent study of patients with diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium, nitazoxanide significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms compared to a placebo. 96% of patients treated with Alinia tablets and 87% of patients treated with Alinia suspension were well within 7 days after initiating Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidium Infection

Cryptosporidium Infection

You may undergo the following tests to diagnose cryptosporidium infection: Acid-staining test. The simplest way to diagnose cryptosporidium infection is a method called an acid-staining test, which identifies cryptosporidium under a microscope. To obtain cells for the analysis, your doctor might ask for a stool sample, or in more extreme cases, take a tissue sample (biopsy) from your intestine for the test. Stool culture. Your doctor might also order a standard stool culture. Although this test cannot detect the presence of cryptosporidium, it may help rule out other bacterial pathogens. Other tests. Once it's clear that your infection is caused by cryptosporidium parasites, you may need further testing to check for development of serious complications. For example, checking liver and gallbladder function may determine whether the infection has spread. If you have both AIDS and cryptosporidiosis, a T-cell count which measures the level of a certain white blood cell that's part of your immune system can help predict the duration of the cryptosporidiosis. A T-cell count under 100 cells per microliter means you're more likely to have complications. There's no commonly advised specific treatment for cryptosporidiosis, and recovery usually depends on the health of your immune system. Most healthy people recover within two weeks without medical attention. If you have a compromised immune system, the illness can last and lead to significant malnutrition and wasting. The goal of treatment is to alleviate symptoms and improve your immune response. Cryptosporidiosis treatment options include: Anti-parasitic drugs. Medications, such as nitazoxanide (Alinia), can help alleviate diarrhea by attacking the metabolic processes of the cryptosporidium organisms. Azithromycin (Zithromax) Continue reading >>

Treatment | Cryptosporidium | Parasites | Cdc

Treatment | Cryptosporidium | Parasites | Cdc

To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Most people who have healthy immune systems will recover without treatment. Diarrhea can be managed by drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. People who are in poor health or who have weakened immune systems are at higher risk for more severe and prolonged illness. Young children and pregnant women may be more susceptible to dehydration resulting from diarrhea and should drink plenty of fluids while ill. Rapid loss of fluids from diarrhea may be especially life threatening to babies. Therefore, parents should talk to their healthcare providers about fluid replacement therapy options for infants. Anti-diarrheal medicine may help slow down diarrhea, but a healthcare provider should be consulted before such medicine is taken. Nitazoxanide has been FDA-approved for treatment of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium in people with healthy immune systems and is available by prescription. However, the effectiveness of nitazoxanide in immunosuppressed individuals is unclear. HIV-positive individuals who suspect they have cryptosporidiosis should contact their healthcare provider. For those persons with AIDS, anti-retroviral therapy that improves the immune status will also decrease or eliminate symptoms of cryptosporidiosis. However, even if symptoms disappear, cryptosporidiosis is often not curable and the symptoms may return if the immune status worsens. Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidium

Cryptosporidium

OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Cryptosporidium spp. intracellular protozoan parasite. Two species are responsible for most human infections: Cryptosporidium hominis, which primarily infects humans; and Cryptosporidium parvum, which infects humans and animals, such as cattle. Species distinction between C. hominis and C. parvum is quite recent, and for several years, both parasites were referred to as C. parvum (genotypes 1 and 2). Other species have also been reported to cause disease in humans, including C. felis, C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. muris. Treatment of cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent patients In most immunocompetent patients, cryptosporidiosis is self-limited, and, in many cases, no pharmacological treatment is required. When a decision is made to treat, nitazoxanide, a nitrothiazolyl-salicylamide derivative, is the treatment of choice for cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent adults and children. Adverse events associated with nitazoxanide are limited and typically mild, and no important drug-drug interactions have been reported. In two randomized control trials (RCTs), a 3-day course of nitazoxanide administered to HIV-seronegative adults and children with cryptosporidiosis was shown to result in higher rates of diarrhea resolution and oocyst-free stools when compared to placebo. In another RCT, a 3-day course of nitaxozanide was shown to reduce the duration of both diarrhea and C. parvum oocyst shedding among HIV-seronegative children. Current US treatment guidelines recommend as first-line treatment in non-HIV infected adults and children for more than 12 years: nitazoxanide 500mg PO bid x 3d; in children 1-3 years of age, 100mg PO bid x 3d; and in children 4-11 years of age, 200mg PO bid x 3d. Nitazoxanide is the only FDA approved Continue reading >>

List Of Cryptosporidiosis Medications (5 Compared) - Drugs.com

List Of Cryptosporidiosis Medications (5 Compared) - Drugs.com

Adequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (and there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters). Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks. There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks. Studies in animals or humans have demonstrated fetal abnormalities and/or there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience, and the risks involved in use in pregnant women clearly outweigh potential benefits. Is not subject to the Controlled Substances Act. Has a high potential for abuse. Has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. There is a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision. Has a high potential for abuse. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions. Abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence. Has a potential for abuse less than those in schedules 1 and 2. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence. Has a low potential for abuse relative to those in schedule 3. It has a Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidiosis Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Antiparasitic Therapy, Symptomatic Therapy

Cryptosporidiosis Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Antiparasitic Therapy, Symptomatic Therapy

Author: Miguel M Cabada, MD, MSc; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD more... Optimal therapy for cryptosporidiosis includes attention to fluids and electrolytes, antimotility agents, antiparasitic drugs, nutritional support, and/or reversal of immunosuppression. [ 1 , 2 ] Attention to the nutritional aspects of patient care, to avoid potentially fatal malnutrition, is crucial. Mature epithelial cells at the tips of the villi are preferentially lost; hence, enzymes expressed on these cells (including lactase) are also lost. This leads to secondary lactose intolerance. Therefore, supportive care should include a lactose-free diet. Enteral nutrition is usually sufficient; studies have not supported the use of parenteral nutrition. Infection may improve with nutritional supplementation, particularly with regimens including zinc or glutamine. Patients with acalculous cholecystitis should generally be treated with cholecystectomy. The following specialists should be consulted: Infectious disease specialist - For consideration of antiparasitic and antiretroviral therapy Gastroenterologist - For ERCP and sphincterotomy; endoscopy is sometimes required for diagnosis General surgeon - For suspected acalculous cholecystitis Nitazoxanide significantly shortens the duration of diarrhea and can decrease the risk of mortality in malnourished children. [ 21 ] Trials have also demonstrated efficacy in adults. [ 26 , 27 ] Trials of antiparasitic drugs in patients with AIDS and cryptosporidiosis have been disappointing. Nitazoxanide, paromomycin, and azithromycin are partially active. Combination antiretroviral therapy that includes an HIV protease inhibitor is associated with dramatic improvement in many cases. [ 1 , 2 ] Improvement is likely to result from immune reconstitution bu Continue reading >>

New Drugs And Treatment For Cryptosporidiosis.

New Drugs And Treatment For Cryptosporidiosis.

New drugs and treatment for cryptosporidiosis. Scottish Parasite Diagnostic Laboratory, Stobhill Hospital, Glasgow G21 3UW, UK. [email protected] There is a history of inadequate treatments for cryptosporidiosis and a lack of understanding of the species that cause human disease. Against this background, we review the efficacy of antiparasitic agents, particularly nitazoxanide, which has led to increased treatment options, the potential for immunotherapy, and consider the role of highly active antiretroviral therapy in reducing the incidence of this opportunistic infection. Nitazoxanide is effective for cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent and probably immunocompromised patients (with an alteration in the duration of treatment or the dosing regimen). HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy have a dramatically lower incidence of cryptosporidiosis, attributable to the effects of intestinal immune reconstitution as well as the effect on the CD4 cell count. Protease inhibitors have a direct inhibitory effect on Cryptosporidium infection, suggesting a further reason for the reduction in the incidence of cryptosporidiosis and implying a further possible therapeutic modality. Cryptosporidiosis remains a significant public health threat. Risk avoidance guidance could be viewed in the more relative terms of risk management depending on the degree of immunosuppression. Of established efficacy in immunocompetent patients, nitazoxanide is also useful for immunocompromised patients. Better prevention and treatment options mean that, in the immunocompromised, this disease is now less common. Immune reconstitution is the key to prevention. Further database mining of the Cryptosporidium genome will assist in the discovery of new genes, biochemica Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidiosis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Cryptosporidiosis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

A physician may use an ultrasound to check for crypto in the bile system. There may be dilated or irregular bile ducts and a thickened gallbladder. Finally, an Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may confirm the diagnosis. An ERCP involves the insertion of a flexible, lighted tube through the mouth and into the stomach and small intestine. There are several treatment and management options for crypto. Anti-diarrheal drugs, such as nitazoxanide, can treat patients of all ages. Eighty percent of symptoms resolve in under 5 days with this drug. Swimming is not recommended for at least 2 weeks following a recovery from crypto. It is common for the infection to return. Activities such as swimming are not recommended for at least 2 weeks after symptoms have gone. People who have, or who have recently had, cryptosporidiosis should not swim in communal areas. This is because the pathogen can spread from the anal and genital areas. The oocysts continue to shed for some time. A lactose-free diet can help to soothe the digestive tract and reduce inflammation . It is important to keep hydrated. A person with severe dehydration may need intravenous fluids. Antibiotics are not usually helpful and are primarily reserved for persons with a severe presentation of the disease and a weak immune system. Crypto in patients with a weakened immune system A person with HIV or AIDS has a higher risk of catching cryptosporidiosis, because their immune system is compromised and their body cannot fight infection effectively. Antiviral treatment can enhance the immune system and increase resistance to a range of infections. Studies have suggested that drugs such as rifabutin and clarithromycin, when taken for Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) complex prophylaxis, may protect against Continue reading >>

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