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What Is Cryptosporidium Antigen?

Development Of A Diagnostic Kit To Detect Cryptosporidium Parvum And Giardia Lamblia - Sciencedirect

Development Of A Diagnostic Kit To Detect Cryptosporidium Parvum And Giardia Lamblia - Sciencedirect

Volume 4, Issue 3 , June 2013, Pages 146-151 Open Access funded by Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention This study aims to develop a high-sensitivity antibody diagnostic kit that will enable a rapid and accurate detection of Cryptospofidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in patients with diarrhea. The cultivated C. parvum oocysts and G. lamblia cysts in each calf and dog were injected to mice to obtain antibodies, which were titrated. Spleen cells of the immunized mouse were separated and blended with myelomas to produce hybrid cell lines that form monoclonal antibodies. Using ELISA method, antibodies that specifically respond to C. parvum and G.lamblia were then selected. The cells were injected into the abdominal cavity of a BALB/c mouse to isolate hydrops abdominis containing high level of antibodies. The IgG antibody was purified using protein G gel. The detection limit of monoclonal antibodies for Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia was 125 oocysts/mL and 1250 cysts/mL, respectively. In addition, during testing they did not show cross-reactivity to viruses (n= 15), bacteria (n =17), and parasites (n = 9). The rapid diagnostic antibody kit developed in this study, which specifically responds to C. parvum and G. lamblia, will be useful in detecting and monitoring diarrheal infections. Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidium Antigen Is A Test For A Parasite That Causes Diarrhea

Cryptosporidium Antigen Is A Test For A Parasite That Causes Diarrhea

Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal illness caused by protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium is an extremely chlorine-tolerant intracellular protozoan parasite that causes waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal illness worldwide. An estimated 748, 000 cryptosporidiosis cases occur annually in the United States. Infection results from the ingestion of oocysts through fecally contaminated food or water, or through contact with an infected person or animal. Ingestion of fewer than 10 oocysts can cause infection in healthy individuals. Infected individuals can excrete ooxysts for up to 60 days after resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms. Cryptosporidium oocysts are extremely chlorine tolerant and can survive for up to 10 days in chlorinated water. This tolerance makes Cryptosporidium ideally suited for transmission via recreational and drinking water. The majority of cases of cryptosporidiosis in humans are caused by C. hominis and C. parvum. C. hominis is mainly spread through human-to-human transmission, whereas C. parvum can be spread through human-to-human or animal-to-human transmission. Human infections caused by C. meleagridis, C. canis, C. felis, C. ubiquitum, C. cuniculus, C. suis, and C. muris have been reported. Risk factors for cryptosporidiosis include ingestion of recreational water, ingestion of untreated drinking water, contact with livestock, recent international travel or contact with infected persons. Groups at particular risk of infection include the immunocompromised, especially those with HIV infection, family members and sexual partners of infected patients, children and caretakers in day care centers, animal handlers and travelers. Cryptosporidiosis is typically characterized by profuse, watery, nonbloody diarrhea. Other symptoms ca Continue reading >>

R2450520, Xpect Giardia/cryptosporidium Test | Oxoid - Product Detail

R2450520, Xpect Giardia/cryptosporidium Test | Oxoid - Product Detail

The Xpect Giardia/Cryptosporidium testis a qualitative immunoassay for the detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium antigen in preserved and unpreserved faecal specimens. The test is intended as an aid in the laboratory diagnosis of suspected Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections. Additional information can be obtained by downloading the Xpect Giardia/CryptosporidiumIFU (170KB) in PDF format. Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis are among the most common causes of parasitic intestinal disease in developed countries. Infection usually occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or drinking water. Differentiating between the two causative agents is important for the selection of appropriate therapy options. Giardia intestinalis, also known as G. lamblia or G. duodenalis, exists in two different morphological forms; an environmentally resistant cyst and a flagellate trophozoite. The organism is associated with intestinal infections in humans, characterised by acute watery diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, malabsorption, anorexia, nausea, weight loss, and flatulence lasting from several days to weeks. Chronic or asymptomatic infections may also occur. The causative agent of Cryptosporidiosis in humans is Cryptosporidium parvum. Environmentally resistant oocysts represent the transmissible form of the organism. Symptoms of the acute disease may include watery diarrhoea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, low-grade fever, and malaise lasting from several days to more than a month. Asymptomatic infections may also occur. Specific antigens characteristic of each organism are shed into the faeces of infected patients. Detection of these antigens by immunoassays incorporating highly specific antibodies can confirm the presence of Giardia or Cryptosporidium. The Xpect Giardia/Crypto Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidium Antigen

Cryptosporidium Antigen

View results securely in your own personal dashboard. Our tests are not a substitute for seeing your doctor, especially if you are suffering symptoms. Our doctors will interpret your results based on the information you have provided, but will not diagnose, consult or provide any treatment. You will be advised to see your doctor for any necessary follow-up action. We will send you your Cryptosporidium Antigen stool test sample collection kit which contains everything you need to take your stool sample in the comfort of your own home. Your Cryptosporidium Antigen test includes 1st class postage and packaging for you to send your stool sample directly to our laboratory for analysis. If you live in an area where you cannot rely on the post or you simply want to ensure that your sample arrives at the laboratory the following day, you may wish to send your stool sample guaranteed next day delivery for extra reassurance. Your stool sample will be analysed at one of our chosen laboratories. You can be assured of fast, accurate results from one of our accredited independent providers of clinical diagnostic tests. Our medical team will comment on out-of-range stool test results and give you follow-up advice where necessary. If you need it, a PDF copy of your Cryptosporidium Antigen test results can be downloaded for your doctor. Secure online account with mymedichecks.com Once you have placed your order you will receive login details to mymedichecks.com where you can manage your account, track your orders and view your Cryptosporidium Antigen test results. Continue reading >>

Detection Of Cryptosporidium - Specific Coproantigen In Human Immunodeficiency Virus/acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients By Using A Commercially Available Immunoenzymatic Assay

Detection Of Cryptosporidium - Specific Coproantigen In Human Immunodeficiency Virus/acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients By Using A Commercially Available Immunoenzymatic Assay

Detection of Cryptosporidium - specific coproantigen in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients by using a commercially available immunoenzymatic assay Claudio Vieira SilvaI; Marcelo Simo FerreiraII, 1 ; Maria do Rosrio de Ftima Gonalves-PiresI; Julia Maria Costa-CruzI ILaboratrio de Parasitologia, Instituto de Cincias Biomdicas IIDisciplina de Molstias Infecciosas e Parasitrias, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Uberlndia, Av. Par 1720, 38400-902 Uberlndia, MG, Brasil The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in 52 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients (group 1) and 38 clinically healthy individuals (group 2) by using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). All fecal samples collected were submitted to the Baermann, Lutz, and Ritchie methods, the Safranin/Methylene Blue, and Weber's chromotrope modified Trichrome staining techniques, and EIA. In group 1, parasitological staining techniques and EIA were both positive for Cryptosporidium sp. infection in 3/52 (5.8%) samples and both negative in 45/52 (86.5%) samples, while 4/52 (7.7%) samples were positive in EIA and negative in parasitological staining techniques. Concerning group 2, all samples were negative by EIA and microscopy for Cryptosporidium infection. In conclusion, EIA may be an alternative method for detecting Cryptosporidium-specific coproantigen in HIV/AIDS patients. Key words: Cryptosporidium sp. - coproantigen - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Cryptosporidium sp. is recognized as a major cause of waterborne diarrheal disease worldwide. The gastrointestinal disturbances are self-limiting in immunocompetent hosts, but chronic infections in immunocompromised subjects may become li Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidiosis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Cryptosporidiosis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

A physician may use an ultrasound to check for crypto in the bile system. There may be dilated or irregular bile ducts and a thickened gallbladder. Finally, an Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may confirm the diagnosis. An ERCP involves the insertion of a flexible, lighted tube through the mouth and into the stomach and small intestine. There are several treatment and management options for crypto. Anti-diarrheal drugs, such as nitazoxanide, can treat patients of all ages. Eighty percent of symptoms resolve in under 5 days with this drug. Swimming is not recommended for at least 2 weeks following a recovery from crypto. It is common for the infection to return. Activities such as swimming are not recommended for at least 2 weeks after symptoms have gone. People who have, or who have recently had, cryptosporidiosis should not swim in communal areas. This is because the pathogen can spread from the anal and genital areas. The oocysts continue to shed for some time. A lactose-free diet can help to soothe the digestive tract and reduce inflammation . It is important to keep hydrated. A person with severe dehydration may need intravenous fluids. Antibiotics are not usually helpful and are primarily reserved for persons with a severe presentation of the disease and a weak immune system. Crypto in patients with a weakened immune system A person with HIV or AIDS has a higher risk of catching cryptosporidiosis, because their immune system is compromised and their body cannot fight infection effectively. Antiviral treatment can enhance the immune system and increase resistance to a range of infections. Studies have suggested that drugs such as rifabutin and clarithromycin, when taken for Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) complex prophylaxis, may protect against Continue reading >>

Giardia/cryptosporidium Detection

Giardia/cryptosporidium Detection

O&P Screen - Ova and Parasite Screen - Giardia Antigen by EIA - Cryptosporidium Antigen by EIA - Cryptosporidium Detection Direct antigen tests for Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp This test is a screen for Giardia and Cryptosporidium antigens only. It should be used for patients with diarrhea and exposure to potential waterborne outbreaks, nursery schools, day care centers or camping/backpacking. For a more comprehensive panel, see Gastrointestinal Panel By PCR For patients with relevant travel history, or immunocompromised patients, refer to the Parasite Exam Comprehensive , which includes this test as well as the microscopic exam for other parasites. Collection kits available from Legacy. For specimen collection and transport see Specimen Collection-Transport Guide for Stool Orders. Can submit up to 3stools, one per 24hour period. Specimens are not accepted after the third day of hospitalization without prior consultation. Stool preserved in 10% formalin, SAF, or MIF at 20-30C or 2-8C; In Cary-Blair at 2-8C Fresh stool not preserved in 10% formalin, Cary-Blair, SAF, or MIF within one hour of collection Continue reading >>

Cryps - Clinical: Cryptosporidium Antigen, Feces

Cryps - Clinical: Cryptosporidium Antigen, Feces

Establishing the diagnosis of intestinal cryptosporidiosis For other diagnostic tests that may be of value in evaluating patients with diarrhea; the following algorithms are available in Special Instructions: -Parasitic Investigation of Stool Specimens Algorithm -Laboratory Testing for Infectious Causes of Diarrhea Cryptosporidia are protozoa of the coccidian group which are common parasites of livestock animals and can contaminate and survive in surface water supplies. Infection of humans occurs by the fecal-oral route or by ingestion of contaminated water. The exact mechanism by which the organism causes gastroenteritis is unknown. Cryptosporidiosis occurs as a profuse diarrhea in patients with AIDS and as a self-limited moderate diarrhea in young children, especially daycare attendees and their relatives. See Parasitic Investigation of Stool Specimens Algorithm and Laboratory Testing for Infectious Causes of Diarrhea in Special Instructions for other diagnostic tests that may be of value in evaluating patients with diarrhea. Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidium Test - More Information

Cryptosporidium Test - More Information

How long does it take to get test results? It typically takes 6 business days or less. Accesa Labs does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. All users should consult with a medical provider for specific health concerns. The Cryptosporidium lab test, also known as a Cryptosporidium antigen test, Cryptosporidium stool test, and Cryptosporidium parvum test, checks for Cryptosporidium antigen in the stool. Cryptosporidium is a parasite that can infect humans. Cryptosporidium causes a condition called cryptosporidiosis, or crypto, that can affect the digestive (gastrointestinal) and respiratory system. In the gastrointestinal system, Cryptosporidium causes a watery diarrhea that can lead to dehydration. In the respiratory system, Cryptosporidium can also cause a cough for which a cause cannot be found. To get a Cryptosporidium antigen test near you, just order online and get tested at your selected Quest Diagnostics lab. Once your results are ready, they will be available for download. As can be seen on the sample Cryptosporidium lab report above, your lab results will say not detected if no Cryptosporidium antigen is found in your specimen. Cryptosporidium Antigen Test at Guaranteed Prices. Our Cryptosporidium Antigen Test price includes the following: Continue reading >>

Evaluation Of An Immunoassay-based Algorithm For Screening And Identification Of Giardia And Cryptosporidium Antigens In Human Faecal Specimens From Saudi Arabia

Evaluation Of An Immunoassay-based Algorithm For Screening And Identification Of Giardia And Cryptosporidium Antigens In Human Faecal Specimens From Saudi Arabia

Evaluation of an Immunoassay-Based Algorithm for Screening and Identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Antigens in Human Faecal Specimens from Saudi Arabia 1Department of Medical Parasitology, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Shebin-El Koum 32513, Menoufia, Egypt 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Applied Medical Science, Taif University, Taif 2425, Saudi Arabia Received 25 October 2013; Revised 4 December 2013; Accepted 15 December 2013; Published 29 January 2014 Copyright 2014 Yousry Hawash. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. An immunoassay-based algorithm, involving three commercial kits, was introduced and evaluated for screening and identification of Giardia/Cryptosporidium antigens in human stool specimens. Initially, Giardia/Cryptosporidium Chek kit (TechLab), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was adopted for screening. The ELISA-positive reactions were subsequently characterised by RIDA Quick Giardia and RIDA Quick Cryptosporidium immunochromatographic kits (R-Biopharm). A gold standard test comprising PCR and microscopy was used for preparing control samples. Performance of individual kits was tested against these samples which included 50 Giardia-positive, 40 Cryptosporidium-positive, and 70 Cryptosporidium/Giardia-negative. For Cryptosporidium, specificities of the ELISA and RIDA Quick Cryptosporidium kits were 95.71% and 100%, respectively. Both kits demonstrated sensitivity of 95%. For Giardia, the ELISA and RIDA Quick Giardia kits showed sensitivities of 100% and 97.5%, respectively. Specificities obtained by the ELISA and RIDA Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidium Antigen Detection In Human Feces By Reverse Passive Hemagglutination Assay.

Cryptosporidium Antigen Detection In Human Feces By Reverse Passive Hemagglutination Assay.

Cryptosporidium antigen detection in human feces by reverse passive hemagglutination assay. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. A reverse passive hemagglutination (RPH) assay was developed for Cryptosporidium oocyst antigen with an antioocyst monoclonal antibody (MAb; MAb-C1) coupled to stabilized sheep erythrocytes. RPH was compared with microscopy of auramine-phenol-stained smears of 56 oocyst-positive fecal samples, each of which was tested blindly by RPH with two oocyst-negative samples received on the same day (a total of 112 controls). Thirty-nine additional fecal samples from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody-positive patients with diarrhea (10 of which were positive in auramine-phenol-stained smears) were stored at -20 degrees C before testing. Thirty specimens with a variety of other fecal pathogens (all negative for oocysts) were also tested. Of the 237 samples tested, 69 were positive by one or both methods: 65 by RPH and 66 by microscopy. The kappa coefficient of agreement between the methods was very high at 0.926. The sensitivity of RPH was 93.9%, the specificity was 98.2%, the positive predictive value was 95.4%, and the negative predictive value was 97.7%. Visible oocyst numbers and RPH titers were measured after storage of fecal samples and oocyst concentrates for 8 days at 4 degrees C. Oocyst morphology was generally poor in specimens from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody-positive group, and it degenerated during the 8-day storage experiments. MAb-C1-reactive antigen eluted from oocysts to give progressively higher reciprocal titers during storage, and it was partially removed from the oocysts by concentration. RPH is a promising technique for the detection of Cryptosporidium antigen in human feces and may Continue reading >>

183558: Giardia Lamblia, Direct Detection Eia... | Labcorp

183558: Giardia Lamblia, Direct Detection Eia... | Labcorp

183558: Giardia lamblia, Direct Detection EIA... Cryptosporidium antigen; Giardia lamblia antigen Rapid detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from clinical samples. 2 Grams (thumbnail size portion of stool) or 2 mL liquid stool O&P transport vial with formalin (Para-Pak pink); stool C&S transport vial with Cary Blair medium (Para-Pak orange); sterile screw cap container or Para-Pak white Fecal specimens for parasitic examination should be collected before initiation of antidiarrheal therapy or antiparasitic therapy. The highest yield on hospitalized patients occurs when diarrhea is present on admission or within 72 hours of admission. The onset of diarrhea more than 72 hours after admission is usually caused by Clostridium difficile toxin rather than parasites or the usual stool pathogens. The following recommendations are made for efficient and cost-effective diagnosis of diarrheal disease in patients admitted with gastroenteritis. Submit one or two specimens per diarrheal illness immediately. Consider first requesting EIAs for Giardia and Cryptosporidium (See test Giardia lamblia, Direct Detection EIA [182204] or Giardia lamblia, Direct Detection EIA and Cryptosporidium, Direct Detection EIA [183558] ). Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the most common causes of parasitic gastroenteritis in the United States. If EIAs are negative, request add-on testing for Ova and Parasites Examination [008623] , and submit an additional specimen after five days for O&P examination. Also consider testing for unusual stool pathogens ( Cyclospora Smear, Stool [183145] ), especially in the immunocompromised patient. Maintain stool specimens in O&P transport with formalin at room temperature or refrigerate and test within two months of collection. Stool collected in Cary Blair medium s Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidium Infection

Cryptosporidium Infection

Cryptosporidium infection (cryptosporidiosis) is an illness caused by tiny, one-celled cryptosporidium parasites. When cryptosporidia (krip-toe-spoe-RID-e-uh) enter your body, they travel to your small intestine and then burrow into the walls of your intestines. Later, cryptosporidia are shed in your feces. In most healthy people, a cryptosporidium infection produces a bout of watery diarrhea and the infection usually goes away within a week or two. If you have a compromised immune system, a cryptosporidium infection can become life-threatening without proper treatment. You can help prevent a cryptosporidium infection by practicing good hygiene and avoiding swallowing water from pools, recreational water parks, lakes and streams. The first signs and symptoms of cryptosporidium infection usually appear within a week after infection and may include: Symptoms may last for up to two weeks, though they may come and go sporadically for up to a month, even in people with healthy immune systems. Some people with cryptosporidium infection may have no symptoms. Seek medical attention if you develop watery diarrhea that does not get better within a few days. Cryptosporidium infection begins when you ingest the one-celled cryptosporidium parasite. Some strains of cryptosporidium may cause more serious disease. These parasites then travel to your intestinal tract, where they settle into the walls of your intestines. Eventually, more cells are produced and shed in massive quantities into your feces, where they are highly contagious. You can become infected with cryptosporidia by touching anything that has come in contact with contaminated feces. Methods of infection include: Drinking contaminated water that contains cryptosporidium parasites Swimming in contaminated water that conta Continue reading >>

Performance Evaluation Of Point-of-care Test For Detection Of Cryptosporidium Stool Antigen In Children And Hiv Infected Adults

Performance Evaluation Of Point-of-care Test For Detection Of Cryptosporidium Stool Antigen In Children And Hiv Infected Adults

Performance evaluation of point-of-care test for detection of Cryptosporidium stool antigen in children and HIV infected adults Shimelis and Tadesse; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.2014 Gastro-enteritis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV/AIDS and children, and Cryptosporidium is the most important parasite implicated. To date, several commercial companies have developed simple and rapid point-of-care tests for the detection of Cryptosporidium infection; however, information is scarce regarding their diagnostic significance in Ethiopia. This study aimed at evaluating the performance of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for the detection of Cryptosporidium stool antigen. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hawassa University Hospital, southern Ethiopia from May to November 2013. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 100 children and 250 HIV infected individuals with diarrhea or CD4 T-cell count lower than 200 cells/l. Specimens were processed using direct, formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques for diagnosis of Cryptosporidium and other parasites. One hundred faecal samples (50 positives for Cryptosporidium, 35 positives for other parasites and 15 negatives for any intestinal parasites) were tested using the CoproStripCryptosporidium kit (Savyon Diagnostics Ltd, Israel). Test parameters were calculated using microscopy of the modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained stool smear as reference method. The performance of the RDT was first compared to routine microscopic analysis (examination 10min). The CoproStripCryptosporidium RDT correctly detected 31 of 42 positive samples and 49 of 50 negative samples (i.e., 11 false negatives and 1 false positive). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accur Continue reading >>

Evaluation Of A Screening Test For Detection Of Giardia And Cryptosporidium Parasites

Evaluation Of A Screening Test For Detection Of Giardia And Cryptosporidium Parasites

The Giardia/Cryptosporidium Chek test (TechLab, Inc.), a screening test for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, was evaluated with 136 fecal samples. Using the results of the Giardia II test and Cryptosporidium II test as gold standards, it was 98.4% sensitive and 100% specific and had positive and negative predictive values of 98.7% and 99.3%. Giardia is a binucleated flagellated protozoan parasite which exists as a noninfectious trophozoite inhabiting the small intestine or as a highly infectious cyst form ( 7 ). The noninfectious trophozoite can last only a matter of hours outside the body, while the infectious cyst form can survive for several days in an external environment ( 7 ). Cryptosporidium is also an enteric protozoan parasite of vertebrates ( 8 ). Both parasites are transmitted through fecal-oral routes ( 9 , 10 , 26 , 32 ), by consumption of contaminated food or water ( 9 , 18 , 30 , 32 , 33 ), or by sexual transmission ( 33 ). They cause common intestinal waterborne diseases in the United States ( 6 , 20 , 21 , 31 ). Contraction of the diseases is more frequent among younger children, and they especially pose a threat to immune system-compromised individuals ( 1 , 3 , 19 , 31 , 33 ). In developing countries, crowded urban areas and a lack of sanitation enhance the risk of transmission ( 4 , 5 , 22 , 30 , 33 ). There is a need for rapid diagnostic tests, especially for point-of-care use and in waterborne-outbreak investigations ( 2 , 16 , 24 , 25 , 27 - 29 , 30 , 31 , 34 ). Giardia/Cryptosporidium Chek is an immunoassay developed to allow the simultaneous qualitative detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium antigens in fecal specimens. It is a microtiter plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects both Giardia and Cryptosporidium cyst antigens f Continue reading >>

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