CryptoCoinsInfoClub.com

What Is Cryptography And What Is It Used For?

How Is Cryptography Used In Computer Science?

How Is Cryptography Used In Computer Science?

State Listing of Computer Science Degree Programs Computer Science Degree Programs in Alabama Computer Science Degree Programs in Alaska Computer Science Degree Programs in Arizona Computer Science Degree Programs in Arkansas Computer Science Degree Programs in California (A-S) Computer Science Degree Programs in California (California State University) Computer Science Degree Programs in California (T-Z) Computer Science Degree Programs in Colorado (A-R) Computer Science Degree Programs in Colorado (S-Z) Computer Science Degree Programs in Connecticut (A-T) Computer Science Degree Programs in Connecticut (U-Z) Computer Science Degree Programs in Delaware Computer Science Degree Programs in District of Columbia Computer Science Degree Programs in Florida (A-L) Computer Science Degree Programs in Florida (M-Z) Computer Science Degree Programs in Georgia (A-K) Computer Science Degree Programs in Georgia (L-Z) Computer Science Degree Programs in Idaho Computer Science Degree Programs in Illinois (A-S) Computer Science Degree Programs in Illinois (T-Z) Computer Science Degree Programs in Indiana Computer Science Degree Programs in Kansas Computer Science Degree Programs in Kentucky Computer Science Degree Programs in Louisiana (A-M) Computer Science Degree Programs in Louisiana (N-Z) Computer Science Degree Programs in Maine Computer Science Degree Programs in Maryland Computer Science Degree Programs in Massachusetts (A-T) Computer Science Degree Programs in Massachusetts (U-Z) Computer Science Degree Programs in Michigan Computer Science Degree Programs in Minnesota Computer Science Degree Programs in Mississippi Computer Science Degree Programs in Missouri Computer Science Degree Programs in Montana Computer Science Degree Programs in Nebraska Computer Science Degree Pr Continue reading >>

Modern Cryptography

Modern Cryptography

Modern cryptography is the cornerstone of computer and communications security. Its foundation is based on various concepts of mathematics such as number theory, computational-complexity theory, and probability theory. There are three major characteristics that separate modern cryptography from the classical approach. It manipulates traditional characters, i.e., letters and digits directly. It is mainly based on security through obscurity. The techniques employed for coding were kept secret and only the parties involved in communication knew about them. It relies on publicly known mathematical algorithms for coding the information. Secrecy is obtained through a secrete key which is used as the seed for the algorithms. The computational difficulty of algorithms, absence of secret key, etc., make it impossible for an attacker to obtain the original information even if he knows the algorithm used for coding. It requires the entire cryptosystem for communicating confidentially. Modern cryptography requires parties interested in secure communication to possess the secret key only. Cryptology, the study of cryptosystems, can be subdivided into two branches Cryptography is the art and science of making a cryptosystem that is capable of providing information security. Cryptography deals with the actual securing of digital data. It refers to the design of mechanisms based on mathematical algorithms that provide fundamental information security services. You can think of cryptography as the establishment of a large toolkit containing different techniques in security applications. The art and science of breaking the cipher text is known as cryptanalysis. Cryptanalysis is the sister branch of cryptography and they both co-exist. The cryptographic process results in the cipher text Continue reading >>

Cryptography - Wikipedia

Cryptography - Wikipedia

"Secret code" redirects here. For the Aya Kamiki album, see Secret Code . "Cryptology" redirects here. For the David S. Ware album, see Cryptology (album) . Cryptography or cryptology (from Greek krypts, "hidden, secret"; and graphein, "writing", or - -logia , "study", respectively [1] ) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries . [2] More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages; [3] various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality , data integrity , authentication , and non-repudiation [4] are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics , computer science , electrical engineering , communication science , and physics . Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce , chip-based payment cards , digital currencies , computer passwords , and military communications . Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption , the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense . The originator of an encrypted message shared the decoding technique needed to recover the original information only with intended recipients, thereby precluding unwanted persons from doing the same. The cryptography literature often uses the name Alice ("A") for the sender, Bob ("B") for the intended recipient, and Eve (" eavesdropper ") for the adversary. [5] Since the development of rotor cipher machines in World WarI and the advent of computers in World WarII , the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread. Modern cry Continue reading >>

What Is Cryptography?

What Is Cryptography?

To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 video Cryptography is an indispensable tool for protecting information in computer systems. In this course you will learn the inner workings of cryptographic systems and how to correctly use them in real-world applications. The course begins with a detailed discussion of how two parties who have a shared secret key can communicate securely when a powerful adversary eavesdrops and tampers with traffic. We will examine many deployed protocols and analyze mistakes in existing systems. The second half of the course discusses public-key techniques that let two parties generate a shared secret key. Throughout the course participants will be exposed to many exciting open problems in the field and work on fun (optional) programming projects. In a second course (Crypto II) we will cover more advanced cryptographic tasks such as zero-knowledge, privacy mechanisms, and other forms of encryption. Week 1. This week's topic is an overview of what cryptography is about as well as our first example ciphers. You will learn about pseudo-randomness and how to use it for encryption. We will also look at a few basic definitions of secure encryption. Before we start with the technical material, I wanna give you a quick overview of what cryptography is about and the different areas of cryptography. So the core of cryptography of course is secure communication that essentially consists of two parts. The first is secured key establishment and then how do we communicate securely once we have a shared key. We already said that secured key establishment essentially amounts to Alice and Bob sending messages to one another such that at the end of this protocol, there's a shared key that they bot Continue reading >>

How The Modern World Depends On Encryption

How The Modern World Depends On Encryption

How the modern world depends on encryption By Mark Ward Technology correspondent, BBC News These are external links and will open in a new window Image caption Encryption helps to ensure that credit card transactions stay secure Encryption makes the modern world go round. Every time you make a mobile phone call, buy something with a credit card in a shop or on the web, or even get cash from an ATM, encryption bestows upon that transaction the confidentiality and security to make it possible. "If you consider electronic transactions and online payments, all those would not be possible without encryption," said Dr Mark Manulis, a senior lecturer in cryptography at the University of Surrey. At its simplest encryption is all about transforming intelligible numbers or text, sounds and images into a stream of nonsense. There are many, many ways to perform that transformation, some straightforward and some very complex. Most involve swapping letters for numbers and use maths to do the transformation. However, no matter which method is used the resulting scrambled data stream should give no hints about how it was encrypted. During World War II, the Allies scored some notable victories against the Germans because their encryption systems did not sufficiently scramble messages. Rigorous mathematical analysis by Allied code crackers laid bare patterns hidden within the messages and used them to recreate the machine used to encrypt them. Those codes revolved around the use of secret keys that were shared among those who needed to communicate securely. These are known as symmetric encryption systems and have a weakness in that everyone involved has to possess the same set of secret keys. In the modern era, a need has arisen to communicate securely with people and organisations we d Continue reading >>

What Is Cryptography? - Definition & Uses

What Is Cryptography? - Definition & Uses

What is Cryptography? - Definition & Uses Watch short & fun videos Start Your Free Trial Today Lyna has tutored undergraduate Information Management Systems and Database Development. She has a Bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering and a Masters degree in Information Technology. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Custom Courses are courses that you create from Study.com lessons. Use them just like other courses to track progress, access quizzes and exams, and share content. Organize and share selected lessons with your class. Make planning easier by creating your own custom course. Create a new course from any lesson page or your dashboard. Click "Add to" located below the video player and follow the prompts to name your course and save your lesson. Click on the "Custom Courses" tab, then click "Create course". Next, go to any lesson page and begin adding lessons. Edit your Custom Course directly from your dashboard. Name your Custom Course and add an optional description or learning objective. Create chapters to group lesson within your course. Remove and reorder chapters and lessons at any time. Share your Custom Course or assign lessons and chapters. Share or assign lessons and chapters by clicking the "Teacher" tab on the lesson or chapter page you want to assign. Students' quiz scores and video views will be trackable in your "Teacher" tab. You can share your Custom Course by copying and pasting the course URL. Only Study.com members will be able to access the entire course. In this lesson, we will examine the interesting world of cryptography. Securing our data and systems from malicious intruders, system glitches, and human errors have become paramount in modern systems. Cryptography is defined as the system by which data and informati Continue reading >>

Definition Of Cryptography | What Is Cryptography ? Cryptography Meaning - The Economic Times

Definition Of Cryptography | What Is Cryptography ? Cryptography Meaning - The Economic Times

Definition: Cryptography is associated with the process of converting ordinary plain text into unintelligible text and vice-versa. It is a method of storing and transmitting data in a particular form so that only those for whom it is intended can read and process it. Cryptography not only protects data from theft or alteration, but can also be used for user authentication. Description: Earlier cryptography was effectively synonymous with encryption but nowadays cryptography is mainly based on mathematical theory and computer science practice. Confidentiality - Information cannot be understood by anyone Integrity - Information cannot be altered. Non-repudiation - Sender cannot deny his/her intentions in the transmission of the information at a later stage Authentication - Sender and receiver can confirm each Cryptography is used in many applications like banking transactions cards, computer passwords, and e- commerce transactions. Three types of cryptographic techniques used in general. Symmetric-key Cryptography: Both the sender and receiver share a single key. The sender uses this key to encrypt plaintext and send the cipher text to the receiver. On the other side the receiver applies the same key to decrypt the message and recover the plain text. Public-Key Cryptography: This is the most revolutionary concept in the last 300-400 years. In Public-Key Cryptography two related keys (public and private key) are used. Public key may be freely distributed, while its paired private key, remains a secret. The public key is used for encryption and for decryption private key is used. Hash Functions: No key is used in this algorithm. A fixed-length hash value is computed as per the plain text that makes it impossible for the contents of the plain text to be recovered. Hash func Continue reading >>

What Is A Cryptographic Key? - Definition From Techopedia

What Is A Cryptographic Key? - Definition From Techopedia

Definition - What does Cryptographic Key mean? A cryptographic key is a string of bits used by a cryptographic algorithm to transform plain text into cipher text or vice versa. This key remains private and ensures secure communication. A cryptographic key is the core part of cryptographic operations. Many cryptographic systems include pairs of operations, such as encryption and decryption. A key is a part of the variable data that is provided as input to a cryptographic algorithm to execute this sort of operation. In a properly designed cryptographic scheme, the security of the scheme is dependent on the security of the keys used. Cryptographic keys are symmetric or asymmetric. Symmetric encryption requires only one key, which is used to encrypt and decrypt data. Asymmetric encryption uses two different keys: one for encryption and one for decryption. A certificate authority (CA) provides public/private key pairs using the public key infrastructure. The digital certificate registration authority process begins before the users digital certificate status is communicated to the CA. Cryptographic keys may be further indexed by the purposes for which they are used, which can include data encryption and decryption, digital signature verification, digital signature creation, message authentication, key transport and key wrapping. The length of a key is normally expressed in bits. A longer key makes it more difficult to crack the encrypted data; however, a longer key results in longer time periods to perform encryption and decryption processes. The CA provides the keys. The private key is given to the key requester. The public key is made public in an open access directory. Private keys never travel via the Internet and thus remain private. Continue reading >>

Examples Of Cryptography Used In Business And Government Applications

Examples Of Cryptography Used In Business And Government Applications

Asymmetric cryptography (also called public key cryptography) encryption methods are best used for key exchange and user authentication. This type of cryptography is commonly used in digital signatures. It is distinguished by the use of a private and public key that are created with one-way functions using multiplication and exponentiation. One key is public and published in a public directory while the private key is only known by the receiver of the message. The following are applications that use asymmetric cryptography: Transport Layer Standard (TLS), a communications protocol which is replacing Secure Socket Layer (SSL) for transmitting data over the Internet. RSA is used in electronic commerce protocols, software production, key exchange and digital signatures. It implements a variable size encryption block and key. PGP (or Pretty Good Privacy) is used for the authentication of data communication and encrypting/decrypting email messages. GnuPG/GPG GNU Privacy Guard is a standard that tracks specifications of OpenPGP. Elliptic curve cryptography is a standard method used by NIST, NSI and IEEE for government and financial institution use. It is based on public key encryption and used in mobile and wireless environments. Public keys are created by utilizing the following algebraic equation - y^2=x^3 + 3 + Ax + B where the x and y points on a curve are used to calculate a public key. The private key is a random number. The appeal of elliptic curve cryptography is that it offers security with smaller key sizes which result in faster computations, lower power consumption, memory and bandwidth use. Quantum cryptography methods use photons to create encrypted keys that can be sent over optical fiber networks by using beams of light. It uses qubits", which is essentially Continue reading >>

Cryptography In Everyday Life

Cryptography In Everyday Life

Authentication and digital signatures are a very important application of public-key cryptography. For example, if you receive a message from me that I have encrypted with my private key and you are able to decrypt it using my public key, you should feel reasonably certain that the message did in fact come from me. If I think it necessary to keep the message secret, I may encrypt the message with my private key and then with your public key, that way only you can read the message, and you will know that the message came from me. The only requirement is that public keys are associated with their users by a trusted manner, for example a trusted directory. To address this weakness, the standards community has invented an object called a certificate. A certificate contains, the certificate issuer's name, the name of the subject for whom the certificate is being issued, the public key of the subject, and some time stamps. You know the public key is good, because the certificate issuer has a certificate too. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is a software package originally developed by Phil Zimmerman that provides encryption and authentication for e-mail and file storage applications. Zimmerman developed his freeware program using existing encryption techniques, and made it available on multiple platforms. It provides message encryption, digital signatures, data compression, and e-mail compatibility. PGP uses RSA for key transport and IDEA for bulk encryption of messages. Zimmerman ran into legal problems with RSA over his use of the RSA algorithm in his program. PGP is now available in a couple of legal forms: MIT PGP versions 2.6 and later are legal freeware for non-commercial use, and Viacrypt PGP versions 2.7 and later are legal commercial versions of the same software. Time st Continue reading >>

An Overview Of Cryptography

An Overview Of Cryptography

1998-2018 A much shorter version of this paper first appeared in Handbook on Local Area Networks (Auerbach, Sept. 1998). Since that time, this paper has taken on a life of its own... Does increased security provide comfort to paranoid people? Or does security provide some very basic protections that we are naive to believe that we don't need? During this time when the Internet provides essential communication between literally billions of people and is used as a tool for commerce, social interaction, and the exchange of an increasing amount of personal information, security has become a tremendously important issue for every user to deal with. There are many aspects to security and many applications, ranging from secure commerce and payments to private communications and protecting health care information. One essential aspect for secure communications is that of cryptography. But it is important to note that while cryptography is necessary for secure communications, it is not by itself sufficient. The reader is advised, then, that the topics covered here only describe the first of many steps necessary for better security in any number of situations. This paper has two major purposes. The first is to define some of the terms and concepts behind basic cryptographic methods, and to offer a way to compare the myriad cryptographic schemes in use today. The second is to provide some real examples of cryptography in use today. (See Section A.4 for some additional commentary on this...) DISCLAIMER: Several companies, products, and services are mentioned in this tutorial. Such mention is for example purposes only and, unless explicitly stated otherwise, should not be taken as a recommendation or endorsement by the author. Cryptography is the science of secret writing is an anc Continue reading >>

The Theory Of Cryptography

The Theory Of Cryptography

One of the essential ingredients of e-business and enterprise computing is cryptography, which plays a critical role in J2SE and J2EE security. This chapter describes secret-key and public-key cryptographic systems as related to Java 2 Enterprise Edition, in a way that's meant to demystify the concepts and terms surrounding cryptography. One of the essential ingredients of e-business and enterprise computing is cryptography. Cryptography plays a critical role in J2SE and J2EE security, as Part IV of this book demonstrates. This chapter explains the theory of cryptography that will be used in Chapters 11, 12, and 13. First, this chapter describes secret-key cryptographic systems, as they are at the heart of most cryptographic services, including bulk-data encryption, owing to their inherent performance advantage. Next is an overview of public-key encryption, which is essential for conducting e-business, particularly across public networks, because of the relative ease of distributing cryptographic keys. In Chapter 11, secret- and public-key cryptography services are described in the context of the standard Java APIs: the Java Cryptography Architecture and the Java Cryptography Extension. For readers who may feel intimidated by the mathematical jargon associated with cryptography, we have tried to explain the mathematics associated with cryptography in a clear and simple way. Our intent is to demystify the concepts and terms surrounding cryptography. The purpose of cryptography is to protect data transmitted in the likely presence of an adversary. As shown in Figure 10.1 , a cryptographic transformation of data is a procedure by which plaintext data is disguised, or encrypted, resulting in an altered text, called ciphertext, that does not reveal the original input. The c Continue reading >>

Cryptography - Simple English Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

Cryptography - Simple English Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

Cryptography, [1] or cryptology, is the practice and study of hiding information . It is sometimes called code , but this is not really a correct name. It is the science used to try to keep information secret and safe. Modern cryptography is a mix of mathematics , computer science , and electrical engineering . Cryptography is used in ATM (bank) cards , computer passwords , and shopping on the internet . When a message is sent using cryptography, it is changed (or encrypted ) before it is sent. The method of changing text is called a "code" or, more precisely, a " cipher ". The changed text is called " ciphertext ". The change makes the message hard to read. Someone who wants to read it must change it back (or decrypt it). How to change it back is a secret . Both the person that sends the message and the one that gets it should know the secret way to change it, but other people should not be able to. Studying the cyphertext to discover the secret is called " cryptanalysis " or "cracking" or sometimes "code breaking". [2] [3] Different types of cryptography can be easier or harder to use and can hide the secret message better or worse. Ciphers use a " key " which is a secret that hides the secret messages. The cryptographic method needn't be secret. Various people can use the same method but different keys, so they cannot read each other's messages. Since the Caesar cipher has only as many keys as the number of letters in the alphabet , it is easily cracked by trying all the keys. Ciphers that allow billions of keys are cracked by more complex methods. Since the time of Caesar, many improved cyphers have been made. Some involved clever mathematics to resist clever cryptanalysis . During the 20th century computers became the principle tool of cryptography. In a symmetric Continue reading >>

Chapter 8 Review Questions 1 What Are Cryptography And Cryptanalysis

Chapter 8 Review Questions 1 What Are Cryptography And Cryptanalysis

digest(sometimescalledafingerprint)toconfirmtheidentityofaspecificmessageandconfirmthatthecontenthasnotchanged.6Whatdoesitmeantobeoutofband?Whyisitimportanttoexchangekeysoutofbandinsymmetricencryption?Anout-of-bandchannelisachannelofcommunicationthatdoesnotcarrytheciphertext.Keyexchangemusteitherbedoneoutofbandorusingasecuredmethodsothatthekeyisnotinterceptedandusedtoreadthesecretmessage.7Whatisthefundamentaldifferencebetweensymmetricandasymmetricencryption?Asymmetricencryptionisalsoknownaspublic-keyencryption.Itusestwodifferentkeystoencryptmessages:thepublickeyandtheprivatekey.Symmetricencryptionisdifferentbecauseitusesonlyonekeytoencryptanddecryptmessages.Symmetricencryptionismuchfasterforthecomputertoprocess,butitraisesthecostsofkeymanagement.Insymmetricencryption,alsocalledprivatekeyencryption,thesamekeyisusedbothtoencryptanddecryptthemessage.Boththesenderandreceivermustownencryptionofthekey.Theproblemwithsymmetricencryptionisgettingacopyofthekeytothesender.Asymmetricencryptionusestwodifferentkeys.Eitherkeymayencryptordecryptthemessage,butonekeymustbeusedforencryptiononlyandtheothermustbeusedfordecryptiononly.Thetechniquehasthegreatestvaluewhenonekeyisusedasaprivatekeyandtheotherisusedasapublickey.Thepublickeyisstoredinapubliclocationwhereanyonecanuseit.Theproblemwith This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document. Continue reading >>

Cryptography Defined/brief History

Cryptography Defined/brief History

If you want to keep information secret, you have two possible strategies: hide the existence of the information, or make the information unintelligible. Cryptography is the art and science of keeping information secure from unintended audiences, of encrypting it. Conversely, cryptanalysis is the art and science of breaking encoded data. The branch of mathematics encompassing both cryptography and cryptanalysis is cryptology. Modern cryptography uses sophisticated mathematical equations (algorithms) and secret keys to encrypt and decrypt data. Today, cryptography is used to provide secrecy and integrity to our data, and both authentication and anonymity to our communications. Cryptology was a public field in the United States until World War I, when the Army & Navy realized its value to national security and began working in secret. Through the early 1970s, cryptology was dominated by the government both because computers were very expensive and because the government released very little information. It returned to mainstream academic and scientific communities in a sort of cryptology renaissance when the computer revolution made computers more readily available and when demand for encryption increased due to fundamental changes in the ways America communicated. The increase in demand for cryptography was driven by industry interest (e.g., financial services required secure electronic transactions and businesses needed to secure trade secrets stored on computers), and individual interest (e.g., secure wireless communications). Digital communications were obvious candidates for encryption. Modern cryptographers emphasize that security should not depend on the secrecy of the encryption method (or algorithm), only the secrecy of the keys. The secret keys must not be revea Continue reading >>

More in bitcoin

  • Bitcoin Flights

    MOST stories about bitcoin, a digital currency loved and loathed in equal measure, focus on the future potential of the...

    bitcoin Apr 14, 2018
  • Bitcoin Lottery Script

    Introduction: DIY Bitcoin Lottery With Raspberry Pi There was a time when I was really into Bitcoin mining. I had a bun...

    bitcoin May 9, 2018
  • £200 In Bitcoin

    North Korea may have made as much as $200 million from Bitcoin, according to expert North Korea may have amassed hundre...

    bitcoin May 28, 2019
  • Bitcoin Visa Card Canada

    It turns out that Canada is a fairly difficult place to quickly and easily buy and sell bitcoins for CAD or USD. Well, ...

    bitcoin Apr 5, 2018
  • 1 Bitcoin A Pesos

    Ests aqu: Inicio Monedas Bitcoin Cul es el precio hoy? Una de las cosas ms extraas que se han presentado en estos ltimo...

    bitcoin May 8, 2018
  • How To Get 1 Bitcoin Fast

    You will learn (1) how bitcoin mining works, (2) how to start mining bitcoins, (3) what the best bitcoin mining softwar...

    bitcoin May 10, 2018
  • Bitcoin Help Chat

    Yes, Bitcoin.com controls Bitcoin transactions and stores bitcoins. No, Bitcoin.com has nothing to do with Bitcoin tran...

    bitcoin May 9, 2018
  • Direccion Bitcoin Xapo

    Home Noticias Tutoriales Como crear una cuenta en Xapo Xapo es un monedero donde se puede enviar y recibir bitcoins, cr...

    bitcoin May 7, 2018
  • How Do I Make A Bitcoin Wallet?

    {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/6\/6f\/Create-an-Online-Bitcoin-Wallet-Step-1-Version-2.jpg\/v4-...

    bitcoin May 10, 2018