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Towards An Optimized Blockchain For Iot

Towards An Optimized Blockchain For Iot

Towards An Optimized Blockchain For Iot

ere has been increasing interest in adopting BlockChain (BC), that underpins the crypto-currency Bitcoin, in Internet of ings (IoT) for security and privacy. However, BCs are computation- ally expensive and involve high bandwidth overhead and delays, which are not suitable for most IoT devices. is paper proposes a lightweight BC-based architecture for IoT that virtually elimi- nates the overheads of classic BC, while maintaining most of its security and privacy benets. IoT devices benet from a private immutable ledger, that acts similar to BC but is managed centrally, to optimize energy consumption. High resource devices create an overlay network to implement a publicly accessible distributed BC that ensures end-to-end security and privacy. e proposed architecture uses distributed trust to reduce the block validation processing time. We explore our approach in a smart home seing as a representative case study for broader IoT applications. ali- tative evaluation of the architecture under common threat models highlights its eectiveness in providing security and privacy for IoT applications. Simulations demonstrate that our method decreases packet and processing overhead signicantly compared to the BC Computer systems organization Embedded systems; dundancy; Robotics; Networks Network reliability; Internet of ings, Security, Privacy, BlockChain Ali Dorri, Salil S. Kanhere, and Raja Jurdak. 2017. Towards an Optimized BlockChain for IoT. In Proceedings of e 2nd ACM/IEEE International Con- ference on Internet-of-ings Design and Implementation, Pisburgh, PA USA, DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3054977.3055003 Internet of ings (IoT) has a broad range of applications including Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is gr Continue reading >>

A Blockchain Future To Internet Of Things Security: A Position Paper

A Blockchain Future To Internet Of Things Security: A Position Paper

A blockchain future to Internet of Things security: A position paper Author links open overlay panel MandritaBanerjeea Open Access funded by Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommuniocations Internet-of-Things (IoT) are increasingly found in civilian and military contexts, ranging from Smart Cities to Smart Grids to Internet-of-Medical-Things to Internet-of-Vehicles to Internet-of-Military-Things to Internet-of-Battlefield-Things, etc. In this paper, we survey articles presenting IoT security solutions published in English since January 2016. We make a number of observations, include the lack of publicly available IoT datasets that can be used by the research and practitioner communities. Given the potential sensitive nature of IoT datasets, there is a need to develop a standard for the sharing of IoT datasets among the research and practitioner communities and other relevant stakeholders. We then posit the potential for blockchain technology in facilitating secure sharing of IoT datasets (e.g. using blockchain to ensure the integrity of shared datasets) and securing IoT systems, before presenting two conceptual blockchain-based approaches. We then conclude this paper with nine potential research questions. Continue reading >>

Here Is Why Nobody Has Succeeded At Running Iot On The Blockchain

Here Is Why Nobody Has Succeeded At Running Iot On The Blockchain

Here is why nobody has succeeded at running IoT on the blockchain From the permissioned blockchain networks of IBM to the newly introduced Hashgraph technology, some of the largest technology and financial conglomerates have been testing the applicability and potential of blockchain with the Internet of Things (IoT) market since the beginning of 2016. Yet, with nearly $4 billion invested in blockchain research and development, not a single company has been able to demonstrate the successful integration of blockchain technology with IoT. In order to integrate with IoT , blockchain developers must treat each device as a unique user of the blockchain; as such, every piece of data transmitted from the IoT device is processed by the blockchain network as a transaction. For instance, if there were a blockchain-based home security system and every homeowner connected all of their devices to this blockchain network, each piece of data transmitted by a device would go through the blockchain network as a transaction. If someone was to attempt to break in, the intrusion caught on CCTV or by a sensor would generate data that would then be recorded on the blockchain to notify the owners in real time. In theory, such a system could work. But, only if the size of the data or the information provided by the home security system to its owners is limited. For this sort of system to be deployed commercially, the scale of the blockchain-based IoT network would have to increase drastically in order to support hundreds of thousands of users. This would require the system to manage tens of thousands of data points per second, all of the which would need to go through the blockchain. As Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin explained at the 3rd Annual Global Blockchain Summit hosted by Wanxiang Continue reading >>

When Will Blockchain For Iot Become Mainstream? | Iot Institute

When Will Blockchain For Iot Become Mainstream? | Iot Institute

A recent headline from the Financial Times declares: Blockchain can no longer be ignored . In tech circles, at least, it certainly hasnt been. Many proponents practically view blockchain as a panacea for everything from logistics to security. Blockchain was the Windex of 2017, said Jason Shepherd, director of IoT strategy and partnerships at Dell, referring to the film My Big Fat Greek Wedding in which a character uses the cleaning solution to treat everything from psoriasis to poison ivy. Still, while blockchain may not be able to help with dermatological ailments ( or solve world hunger ), proposals for practical industrial applications of the technology abound. There are incredible applications in security and logistics, and we havent even scratched the surface yet, Shepherd said. But the theory is a little ahead of the reality. He expects the technology to find an expanded use for applications such as IoT security and supply chain optimization this year, but he doesnt think the technology is ready to take off until 2019. Gartners 2017 hype cycle for emerging technologies concludes that blockchain hype recently reached its peak. The organization projects that the technology, which is best known for its association with cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, will reach mainstream adoption in another five to 10 years. [ Internet of Things World demonstrates how the next generation of IoT will converge to unlock the intelligence of things in the industrial, enterprise and consumer realms. See whats new for 2018. ] While many of the proposed use cases for blockchain in an IoT context are hypothetical or in the proof-of-concept phase, promising use cases for blockchain in an IoT context abound, ranging from using the technology to help provide end-to-end visibility and securi Continue reading >>

From Blockchain To Ai To Security & Beyond, The Industrial Iot Conference Announces Stellar Program

From Blockchain To Ai To Security & Beyond, The Industrial Iot Conference Announces Stellar Program

From Blockchain to AI to Security & Beyond, The Industrial IoT Conference Announces Stellar Program Trumbull, CTApril 10, 2018 TMC and Crossfire Media today announced the conference program for the Industrial IoT Conference being held June 6-7, 2018 at the Cobb Galleria Centre in Atlanta, Georgia. The Industrial IoT Conference will focus on the IoT technologies and solutions increasing the productivity and efficiency of manufacturing and production processes. During this two day event speakers will provide insight and knowledge as well as a roadmap to reaping the rewards presented by the Industrial Internet of Things. When looking at the Industrial Internet of Things the first thing that comes to mind is how to gather sensor data to optimize efficiency. Companies are gathering more information to improve mean time to repair and find new strategies in workflow and automation, said Carl Ford, CEO, Crossfire Media, executive director of content, IoT Evolution. This is the place where Big Data becomes Practical Data and digital transformation becomes reality. Opportunities for Industrial IoT in Sustainable Manufacturing A Plant Managers Guide to Securing the IIoT Bridging the OT/IT Gap With A Real-Time IIoT Gateway IIC Security Framework: Endpoint Security Hardware Optimization for your IoT Solutions Using AI with Sensor and Signal Data at the Edge and in the Cloud Industrial Machine Intelligence: The Golden Braid of Data Streams, AI, and Human Expertise Registration is now open. Early bird rates are still available through April 15th. For more information, contact Scott Kargman. For media registration, contact Jessica Seabrook. Companies interested in exhibiting, sponsorship or advertising packages should contact Dave Rodriguez at 203.852.6800 ext. 146 or Maureen Gambino Continue reading >>

Blockchain Will Be Key To Security For 'smart Cities' Of The Future

Blockchain Will Be Key To Security For 'smart Cities' Of The Future

Blockchain will be key to security for 'smart cities' of the future By Vaughan Emery, opinion contributor 03/21/18 03:15 PM EDT The views expressed by contributors are their own and not the view of The Hill The future is fast approaching in the form of smart cities. But at the same time, a global horde of hackers are close behind, ready to exploit the weakest links. Smart cities can reduce resource consumption, using IoT devices to optimize the use of electricity and water; reduce traffic congestion and air pollution through smart coordination of traffic lights, parking availability, and public transportation; and harness the power of big data and ubiquitous IoT devices to enhance the efficiency and livability of the urban environment. Technology research firm Gartner estimates there were already some 2.3 billion connected devices within cities around the world by the end of 2017, more than a 40percent increase over the year before. But the more IoT sensors that are deployed, the greater is a citys attack surface for hackers and other bad actors. And so far, cities and the rest of the IoT industry havent done a very good job of implementing security. The threats could lead to lethal chaos a hacker maliciously tampering with traffic lights; industrial mayhem through hacking of municipal power, water, or sewage systems; financial loss, for example through theft of electrical power; and a spectrum of other vulnerabilities. This increased attention to IoT security is a welcome sign. For years, it was all but ignored for two closely related reasons: on one hand, IoT devices are so small, many think, why bother? On the other hand, IoT devices have proven to be extremely difficult to secure simply because they are so small especially when it comes to the size of RAM and stora Continue reading >>

When Iot Met Blockchain

When Iot Met Blockchain

Fredric Paul is Editor in Chief for New Relic, Inc., and has held senior editorial positions at ReadWrite, InformationWeek, CNET, and PC World. His opinions are his own. What do you get when you mix IoT and blockchain -- two of the hottest technology trends in the world? Were about to find out. Use commas to separate multiple email addresses At first glance, they may not seem like they have anything to do with each other. But when technology trends as hot as the Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain are involved, you can bet that lots of smart, ambitious people are working overtime to find ways to leverage both at the same time. Read also: AI and IoT: Like peanut butter and chocolate? The biggest connection, naturally, revolves around security issues. Many companies and pundits see blockchain as a powerful way to bring scalable, decentralized security and trust to IoT devices, applications and platforms, which are similarly distributed and decentralized . Earlier this month, for example, IBM spotlighted blockchain s potential to securely unlock the business and operational value of Internet of Things. The combination could securely track and register the history of individual items and packages, creating audit trails and enabling new types of smart contracts. And blockchain technology could provide a simple infrastructure for two devices to directly transfer a piece of property such as money or data between one another with a secured and reliable time-stamped contractual handshake. The company hosted a panel Combining IoT and Blockchain Toward New Levels of Trust designed to help customers understand the benefits and constraints of blockchain as a public, decentralized, and autonomous technology that can serve as a foundational element supporting IoT solutions. One p Continue reading >>

[1712.02969] Lsb: A Lightweight Scalable Blockchain For Iot Security And Privacy

[1712.02969] Lsb: A Lightweight Scalable Blockchain For Iot Security And Privacy

Computer Science > Cryptography and Security Title:LSB: A Lightweight Scalable BlockChain for IoT Security and Privacy Authors: Ali Dorri , Salil S. Kanhere , Raja Jurdak , Praveen Gauravaram Abstract: BlockChain (BC) has attracted tremendous attention due to its immutablenature and the associated security and privacy benefits. BC has the potentialto overcome security and privacy challenges of Internet of Things (IoT).However, BC is computationally expensive, has limited scalability and incurssignificant bandwidth overheads and delays which are not suited to the IoTcontext. We propose a tiered Lightweight Scalable BC (LSB) that is optimizedfor IoT requirements. We explore LSB in a smart home setting as arepresentative example for broader IoT applications. Low resource devices in asmart home benefit from a centralized manager that establishes shared keys forcommunication and processes all incoming and outgoing requests. LSB achievesdecentralization by forming an overlay network where high resource devicesjointly manage a public BC that ensures end-to-end privacy and security. Theoverlay is organized as distinct clusters to reduce overheads and the clusterheads are responsible for managing the public BC. LSB incorporates severaloptimizations which include algorithms for lightweight consensus, distributedtrust and throughput management. Qualitative arguments demonstrate that LSB isresilient to several security attacks. Extensive simulations show that LSBdecreases packet overhead and delay and increases BC scalability compared torelevant baselines. Continue reading >>

Blockchain For The Internet Ofthings

Blockchain For The Internet Ofthings

Closet Zen master. Perpetual dabbler. Currently working with the Artificial Intelligence and Research group at Microsoft. Opinions are personal. www.akor.in John works as a graphic designer. He also runs a taxi organization in Mumbai. John doesnt have an office and prefers working from his home in Delhi. The companys management suggested Mumbai as the optimum city for him to run operations based on his preferences. He does not own any of the vehicles, they are rented through a third organization in which a number of people like John have pooled resources of value (time, money, reputation, computation). The hardware and software of the vehicles updates automatically, the vehicles decide when they need to go for servicing, tell each other about best routes for a greater return on investment. When Seema enters one of Johns taxis and asks it to take her home, the taxi recognizes her through a third party service that verifies identities called VerifyB. VerifyB automatically identifies important credentials about her, like blood group, insurance, wallet balance and sends only relevant information to Johns taxi service. As soon as the ride begins, software on the taxi begins deducting pico-payments from Seemas bank wallet which contains US dollars. Thankfully, Johns taxi service accepts USD and even if it didnt, the system can convert any currency into one that John prefers. The software on the taxi service runs a dynamic insurance pricing algorithm for the taxi as well as Seema. The model charges a higher insurance rate in accident prone areas. If Johns fleet has decided to go by the route that is safer to drive on, but slightly longer; the algorithm adjusts the price of the fare and insurance accordingly. All transactions in Seemas ride happened automatically. She never ha Continue reading >>

New Chip Links Blockchain To Industrial Iot Devices

New Chip Links Blockchain To Industrial Iot Devices

New chip links blockchain to industrial IoT devices By Tim Sandle Feb 4, 2018 in Business The harnessing of blockchain and Internet-of-Things technology has many potential applications for business, not least gaining greater visibility over the supply chain. A new chip, developed by startup Filament, aims to improve this synergy. The new chip has been developed by an industrial internet solutions startup called Filament , which is based in Reno, Nevada, U.S. the chip enables industrial Internet-of-Things devices to communicate with blockchains. This chip thus works with IoT-optimized Trusted Execution Environments. READ MORE: Are businesses simply too busy for digital transformation? A further advantage with the chip is that it has a very small footprint and low power consumption. It is also very secure, containing a robust cryptographic chain-of-custody protocol. The chip currently supports Hyperledger Sawtooth blockchain, and this will shortly be expanded to encompass the Ethereum blockchain ledger. The Filament technology stack was built upon five key principles, described as: Security, Privacy, Autonomy, Decentralization, and Exchange (SPADE). The secure contract system is called the Blocklet chip and it has been designed to allow any industrial device to interact with any blockchain technology, and for where multiple blockchains are in use. Filament have told Smart2Zero that through the use of the chip connected devices can complete transactions independently and create contracts that are captured on a blockchain. These activities, in terms of rules, can be defined by the owner. As set out in the white paper Foundations for the Next Economic Revolution , Filament provides examples of application. These include such digital supply chain innovations as connected shi Continue reading >>

Blockchain For Iot Security And Privacy

Blockchain For Iot Security And Privacy

There has been increasing interest in adopting BlockChain (BC), that underpins the crypto-currency Bitcoin, in Internet of Things (IoT) for security and privacy. However, BCs are computationally expensive and involve high bandwidth overhead and delays, which are not suitable for most IoT devices. This project, which is a collaboration between Data61 and UNSW, is designing a lightweight BC-based architecture for IoT that virtually eliminates the overheads of classic BC, while maintaining most of its security and privacy benefits. IoT devices benefit from a private immutable ledger, that acts similar to BC but is managed centrally, to optimize energy consumption. High resource devices create an overlay network to implement a publicly accessible distributed BC that ensures end-to-end security and privacy. The proposed architecture uses distributed trust to reduce the block validation processing time. Eliminates the Proof-of-Work overhead:significantly reduces processing overhead at miners Separate data and transactions flow:decreases service delay while maintaining security and privacy Distributed trust between overlay nodes:gradually reduces the proportion of transactions that require distributed verificationas nodes increase their trust Two tiers of BlockChain:a centralised private immutable ledgerat local networks to manage local transactions, and a public distributed blockchain at the overlay network. The table below compares our design to the classic bitcoin blockchain: A. Dorri, M. Steger, S. Kanhere, and R. Jurdak, BlockChain: A Distributed Solution to Automotive Security and Privacy, IEEE Communications Magazine, Volume 55, Issue 12, pages 119-125, December, 2017. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2017.1700879. M. Steger, A. Dorri, S. Kanhere, K. Romer, R. Jurdak, and M. Karner, Continue reading >>

Solving Iot Problems With Factoms Blockchain

Solving Iot Problems With Factoms Blockchain

Solving IOT Problems with Factoms Blockchain My last two articles concerning security and transaction volume mentioned briefly that the Factom Blockchain has a solution for both of these issues. While many of the blockchain projects receiving media coverage are financial in nature, the Factom Blockchain was created to secure data on a blockchain, not just record the transferring of funds. Factom has implementations in the medical and mortgage industries where billions of documents per year are created. There have even been discussions about using the Factom Blockchain to track stock market transactional data. These implementations allow systems to be audited without the need to expose private data. The Identity and transactional volume solutions in Factom to handle these systems also makes it ideal for IOT. Signatures using public-private key pairs are a standard and accepted method of proving Identity. The Factom implementation leverages these to prove Identity, but it also makes management of those keys on the blockchain simple. As mentioned in the first article , managing these on the blockchain allows Identity to be maintained without necessary software changes. The Factom implementation has multiple key pairs for various uses. With current technology, the largest risk to key pairs is human error. If a private key is compromised due to human action (or otherwise), a Factom Identity allows the authority keys to be publically and securely updated. Updating keys in a blockchain allows a company to effectively patch their device software to authority attacks without touching the software on those devices. Using Factom Chain IDs, Factom Identity is not a service or API call. It is the methodology that was used at Factom to handle the Authority servers in the network. Th Continue reading >>

Decentralizing Iot Networks Through Blockchain

Decentralizing Iot Networks Through Blockchain

Imagine a washer that autonomously contacts suppliers and places orders when its low on detergent, performs self-service and maintenance, downloads new washing programs from outside sources, schedules its cycles to take advantage of electricity prices and negotiates with peer devices to optimize its environment; a connected car, smart enough to find and choose the best deal for parts and services; a manufacturing plant where the machinery knows when to order repairs for some of its parts without the need of human intervention. Allthese scenarios and manymore will be realized thanks to the Internet of Things (IoT). Already, many of the industries that historically didnt fit well with computers have been transformed by the billions of IoT devices connected to the internet; other industries will follow suit as billions more enter the fray . The possibilities are virtually countless , especially when the power of IoT is combined with that of other technologies, such as machine learning. But some major hurdles will surface as billions of smart devices will want to interact among themselves and with their owners. While these challenges cannot be met with the current models that are supporting IoT communications, tech firms and researchers are hoping to deal with them through blockchain , the technology that constitutes the backbone of the famous bitcoin. Current IoT ecosystems rely on centralized, brokered communication models, otherwise known as the server/client paradigm. All devices are identified, authenticated and connected through cloud servers that sport huge processing and storage capacities. Connection between devices will have to exclusively go through the internet, even if they happen to be a few feet apart. While this model has connected generic computing devices Continue reading >>

Blockchain For Iot Security

Blockchain For Iot Security

With billions of connected devices filling our homes, workplaces and cities, security of data must keep pace. Could blockchain-based solutions offer a viable alternative to traditional methods? The billions of smart devices coming to the Internet of Things (IoT) could transform homes, cities and lives. But they also could create a serious security headache. The common enterprise security model of today is centralised, yet the IoT encourages exactly the opposite. While this model has connected computing devices for decades and will continue to support today IoT networks, it will not be able to respond to the growing needs of the huge IoT ecosystems of tomorrow, says Ahmed Banafa , IoT lecturer at San Jose State University. > Read more: Beware of botnets in the connected world Because blockchain is built to decentralise control, a security protocol based on such a platform should in theory be more scalable. Blockchain has strong data protections built in by design, which should prevent a vulnerable device from transmitting false information or disrupting a home, factory or even a city. It should come as no surprise then to hear that interest is growing in the use of blockchain to address the pressing challenge of IoT security. IDC forecasts that by 2020, up to ten percent of blockchain ledgers could be used for IoT. Perhaps the ultimate buzzword of the past year, blockchain to many is synonymous with Bitcoin. But although the cryptocurrency makes regular headlines, blockchain is the real innovation. The distributed database maintains a continuously growing set of data records. Rather than a traditional database model of a master computer holding the entire records, the participating nodes have a copy of the chain and data records are only added to the chain. To add a tra Continue reading >>

Heres How Iot, Blockchain, And Machine Learning Are Working Together To Seriously Innovate Supply Chain Management

Heres How Iot, Blockchain, And Machine Learning Are Working Together To Seriously Innovate Supply Chain Management

Co-Founder at Chronicled // Blockchain // Forbes 30 Under 30 Heres How IoT, Blockchain, And Machine Learning Are Working Together To Seriously Innovate Supply Chain Management Each generation grows up with a technology that defines it. For millennials, the internet went from being something we vaguely knew about as children to an essential part of our daily lives. Adoption of new technology starts out slowly. Those who are paying attention start talking about its potential for disruption. Then comes the initial implementation. The general population begins to take notice of the benefits, and then change occurs rapidly as adoption increases dramatically. Suddenly its enmeshed in everything we do. Blockchain is one of those defining technologies that will change and improve many industries, particularly the supply chain space. And its set to enter that phase where implementation moves quickly. Its already happening as we speak, and the implications are enormous. But why does the supply chain need improvement in the first place? There are three major problems with our current supply chains that blockchain can solve. Our first major problem is with data visibility. Youve likely heard about big data and the benefits of collecting and analyzing the vast amounts of data generated by a product supply chain. But right now, that data is siloed in private cloud databases. When data is segmented, the benefits of having it dwindle. But blockchain stores data on a single, federated data sheet. Take air quality monitors, for instance. These environmental data sensors track the air quality in a specific region, and we use them all over the world. Currently, the data from those sensors is segmented, controlled, and even manipulated, by governments and other organizations. Putting that Continue reading >>

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