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Ethereum Decode Transaction

Introduction To Ethereum Smart Contract Clients (web3js Library)

Introduction To Ethereum Smart Contract Clients (web3js Library)

Introduction to Ethereum Smart Contract Clients (Web3js Library) After some discussions around solidity smart contract design and issues in the last two articles ( Here and Here ), we will take a look at how we can integrate smart contracts with enterprise clients applications. There are multiple technologies that can interact with an ethereum node ( ethereum blockchain client ). The basic architecture of the EVM ( ethereum virtual machine ) that runs smart contracts is that all calls to the contract are executed as a transaction where the ether required for a contract method executed is transferred from the calling account address to the contract account address. The contract code resides on the contract address on the blockchain and expects the calls to come in as transactions carrying the method parameter data along with the transaction as input. To enable a standard format for all clients, the method name, and parameters need to be marshaled in a recommended format. Ethereum standard clients expose an interface for making the RPC (Remote Procedure Call) to contract code deployed on the blockchain. This is called the RPC interface serving as an HTTP post requests at default port of 8545 for the go, c++ and parity client. This can usually be customized as a command parameter or a configuration file property: --rpc --rpcaddr --rpcport The RPC format structured on the popular JSON-RPC format. The format is complex especially for marshaling parameter values based on the types. The recommended encoding scheme has to be followed as defined with the correct padding to ensure the EVM is able to decode them. Due to the low-level complexity of the JSON_RPC format, there are a number of wrapper libraries available that simplify the call format. The oldest one is a JavaScr Continue reading >>

Ethereumjs By Ethereumjs

Ethereumjs By Ethereumjs

browser-builds : browser builds of ethereumjs libraries common : the genesis data for the blockchain ethereumjs-abi : ABI encoding and decoding ethereumjs-account : account schema encoding, decoding and validation ethereumjs-block : block schema encoding, decoding and validation ethereumjs-blockchain : manage a blockchain ethereumjs-codesim : run EVM or Solidity code and examine the output ethereumjs-icap : utilities for handling ICAP (Ethereum in IBAN) encoding ethereumjs-lib : meta package for loading the other ethereumjs- modules ethereumjs-testing : transforms the official test vectors to a format suitable for ethereumjs ethereumjs-tx : transaction creation, manipulation, signing and verification ethereumjs-units : Ethereum unit conversion ethereumjs-util : a collection of frequently used methods by the other libraries ethereumjs-wallet : lightweight toolkit for managing Ethereum keys, including HD wallet support ethereumjs-vm : a complete EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) and state processing implementation geth.js : start and stop geth from Node.js helpeth : purists' commandline tool for key and transaction management keythereum : create, import and export Ethereum keys merkle-patricia-tree : This is an implementation of the modified merkle patricia tree as specified in the Ethereum yellow paper node-blockchain-server : aims to provide a full Ethereum node implementation node-devp2p : implementation of the RLPx transport protocol for Ethereum (used between nodes) node-devp2p-dpt : implementation of the RLPx DPT (peer table) protocol for Ethereum node-devp2p-eth : implementation of the Ethereum sub-protocol over RLPx node-devp2p-manager : peer manager for DPT & RLPx Continue reading >>

Help: How To Decode Input Data From Tx? : Ethereum

Help: How To Decode Input Data From Tx? : Ethereum

0xa9059cbb00000000000000000000000067fa2c06c9c6d4332f330e14a66bdf1873ef3d2b0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000de0b6b3a7640000 I know that the first 4 bytes represent the function (0xa9059cbb --> transfer) The first parameter is the _to address (0x00000000000000000000000067fa2c06c9c6d4332f330e14a66bdf1873ef3d2b) The second is _value who's type is uint256 (0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000de0b6b3a7640000). How do I decode _value in python to get the amount of tokens being moved? I understand that for javascript there is abi-decoder which does something similar but I would like to know how to perform this myself in python. I have read that the value is stored as a big endian int but when I try to read it, I do not get the value listed on etherscan for the transaction ( ) The information I have about the parameter coding is from here: Continue reading >>

How To Find $10m Just By Reading The Blockchain

How To Find $10m Just By Reading The Blockchain

How to Find $10M Just by Reading the Blockchain Two weeks ago, one Golem enthusiast and GNT holder reported a strange GNT transfer transaction bug. After investigating the data attached to the transaction, I discovered that there had to be a problem in the way the exchange was preparing data for the transaction. Oh no, I thought, this bug could be used to empty the whole GNT account on the exchange! And quite a large number of tokens were stored there! The bug was indeed the exchanges fault, but it was also related to the way Ethereum contracts see the transaction input data and Solidity ABI (e.g. the way the methods of Solidity contracts encode and decode arguments). So of course it was not specific to GNT, but indeed to all ERC20 tokens, as well as other contracts which have transfer-like methods. Yes you read it right: this could potentially work for any Ethereum-based token listed on said exchange, if only withdrawals were managed in the same way as GNT. We do not know this to be the case, but assume it was very likely. Raw Ethereum contracts have neither methods nor functions. Methods are features of high level languages like Solidity, and they use the Ethereum Contract ABI to specify how a contracts bytecode is divided into methods, as well as how different types of arguments are encoded in transaction input data. (See for a reference.) To invoke the transfer(address a, uint v) method of the GNT contract to transfer 1 GNT to address 0xabcabcabcabcabcabcabcabcabcabcabcabcabca one needs to include 3 pieces of data: 32 bytes, with the destination address (20 bytes) filled with leading zeros: 000000000000000000000000abcabcabcabcabcabcabcabcabcabcabcabcabca 32 bytes, being the value to transfer, 1 * 10 GNT: 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000de0b6b3a7640 Continue reading >>

Ethereum.transactions.transaction Python Example

Ethereum.transactions.transaction Python Example

Project: PyWalletAuthor: AndreMirasFile: pywalib.py View Source Project def transact(self, to, value=0, data='', sender=None, startgas=25000, gasprice=60 * denoms.shannon): """ Inspired from pyethapp/console_service.py except that we use Etherscan for retrieving the nonce as we as for broadcasting the transaction. Arg value is in Wei. """ # account.unlock(password) sender = normalize_address(sender or self.get_main_account().address) to = normalize_address(to, allow_blank=True) nonce = PyWalib.get_nonce(sender) # creates the transaction tx = Transaction(nonce, gasprice, startgas, to, value, data) # then signs it self.app.services.accounts.sign_tx(sender, tx) assert tx.sender == sender PyWalib.add_transaction(tx) return tx Project: eth-testerAuthor: ethereumFile: main.py View Source Project def _get_transaction_by_hash(evm, transaction_hash): for index, candidate in enumerate(evm.block.transactions): if transaction_hash == candidate.hash: return ( evm.block, candidate, index, True, ) for block_number in range(evm.chain.head.number, -1, -1): block = _get_block_by_number(evm, block_number) for index, transaction in enumerate(block.transactions): if transaction.hash == transaction_hash: return block, transaction, index, False else: raise TransactionNotFound( "Transaction with hash {0} not found".format( transaction_hash, ) ) Project: pyethereumAuthor: ethereumprojectFile: tester.py View Source Project def mkspv(self, sender, to, value, data=None, funid=None, abi=None): # pylint: disable=too-many-arguments # TODO: rewrite the method without using encode_abi/encode_datalist # since both function were removed. raise NotImplementedError() # if not HAS_SERPENT: # raise RuntimeError('ethereum-serpent package not installed') # data = data or list() # sendnonce = self.block.get_no Continue reading >>

Ethkey | Ethereum Guide

Ethkey | Ethereum Guide

ethkey is a CLI tool that allows you to interact with the Ethereum wallet. With it you can list, inspect, create, delete and modify keys and inspect, create and sign transactions. When using Ethereum you will own one or more keys. These are special files that allow you access to a particular account. Such access might allow you to spend funds, register a name or transfer an asset. Keys are standardised and compatible across major clients. They are always protected by password-based encryption. Also they do not directly identify the actual account that the key represents. To determine this, the key must be decrypted through providing the correct password. In TurboEthereum, your wallet keeps a track of each key that you own along with what address it represents. An address is just way of referring to a particular account in Ethereum. It, too, is protected by a password, which is generally provided when the client begins. While all clients have keys, some do not have wallets; these clients typically store the address in the key in plain view. This substantially reduces privacy. We'll assume you have not yet run a client such as eth or anything in the Aleth series of clients. If you have, you should skip this section. To create a wallet, run ethkey with the createwallet command: > ethkey createwalletPlease enter a MASTER passphrase to protect your key store (make it strong!): You'll be asked for a "master" passphrase. This protects your privacy and acts as a default password for any keys. You'll need to confirm it by entering the same text again. We can list the keys within the wallet simply by using the list command: We haven't yet created any keys, and it's telling us so! Let's create one. One of the nice things about Ethereum is that creating a key is tantamount to crea Continue reading >>

Deep Dive Into Ethereumlogs

Deep Dive Into Ethereumlogs

Hey kids, today we are going low level trying to understand how Ethereum events and logs work. Put web3 away for a while as it abstracts things and wed like to get as bare as it gets. Smart contracts generate logs by firing events. Heres a transaction receipt that contains one log entry. The log entry consists of one topic and a data field. The first topic refers to the specific event, but we dont know which one yet. To decode the data we need to obtain ABI of the contract found in the address field. We are interested in items with the type event. Heres a sample event. > indexed_types = [i['type'] for i in e['inputs'] if i['indexed']] > indexed_names = [i['name'] for i in e['inputs'] if i['indexed']] > indexed_values = [eth_abi.decode_single(t, v) for t, v in zip(indexed_types, log['topics'][1:])] ['0x00b46c2526e227482e2ebb8f4c69e4674d262e75', > {name: value for name, value in chain(zip(names, values), zip(indexed_names, indexed_values))} {'from': '0x00b46c2526e227482e2ebb8f4c69e4674d262e75', 'to': '0x54a2d42a40f51259dedd1978f6c118a0f0eff078', Note that Ethereum always uses integers to represent numeric values, so we got the value in the minimal denomination. Move the decimal point left by decimals found in the contract, 3 in this case. The message reads: Transfer from 0x00b4 to 0x54a2 of 5,000,000 tokens. Now you are ready to do some search. You can query the blockchain using json-rpc api which is provided by full nodes like geth or Parity or a service like Infura. Bloom filters allow you to scan the entire blockchain in seconds and find logs matching the specific topic. You can also specify search range with fromBlock and toBlock, limit the search to specific contract address and omit some of the topics with null which works like a wildcard. The full specification ca Continue reading >>

Keep Your Private Keys Close And Keep Your Smart Contracts Closerintroducing The Smart Contractwatch

Keep Your Private Keys Close And Keep Your Smart Contracts Closerintroducing The Smart Contractwatch

A Software Developer at Neufund, with a Background in Computer Engineering. Keep Your Private Keys Close and Keep Your Smart Contracts Closer Introducing The Smart ContractWatch Monitoring your servers, services or micro-services usually is considered a priority, in order to see if everything is running as it should and additionally receive instant alerts in case of any suspicious or unplanned activity. Usually, when running a regular backend service, the idea of monitoring your servers is straightforward with many options to choose from. In the blockchain (Distributed Ledger), things run a bit differently: the whole blockchain is your backend and there are no dedicated servers you can monitor in order to check your smart contracts activity. The only way to check how your smart contracts are interacting in the blockchain is to scan the blockchain block by block (as they come) for any transactions or events related to your smart contract. Like the role of the lookout in a ship, you must have the right tool that scans for anything fishy coming your way Source:This manual process of block scanning is made easier by blockchain explorers like Etherscan . They explore the whole blockchain and most of the information needed can be found using them as a platform. Blockchain explorers are a good start if you want to do quick infrequent checks but their shortcomings start to show if any serious smart contract monitoring effort is considered, for example: You have no control on what is scanned or what should be scanned, in terms of parameters or activity, as you only assume that these explorers scan and log everything. The explorers are not running locally so you are at risk if they fail, and thus have no control or guarantee that these services will keep running. These explorers Continue reading >>

Blockchain Developer Api For Ethereum | Blockcypher

Blockchain Developer Api For Ethereum | Blockcypher

# ^# / \ _ _# / ^ \ |_) | _ _ | / ._ |_ _ ._#< > |_) | (_) (_ |< \_ \/ |_) | | (/_ |# \ v / / |# \ /# v Welcome to BlockCyphers Ethereum API documentation! If youre familiar with our Bitcoin endpoints, youll feel right at home with our Ethereum API. However, there are a few differences, and they stem in part from the fundamental differences between Bitcoin and Ethereum. In the most abstract sense, Bitcoin and Ethereum are cousins; they both have blocks of transactions linked together into a chain, they both use Proof of Work to reach consensus (for now, as Ethereum plans to move to Proof of Stake in a future release), they are both about decentralizing trust. But thats where the similarities end. Here are just some of Ethereums differences: There are no UTXOs, only accounts (of two varieties) Block time is significantly shorter; 15 second target instead of 10 minutes Miners get rewards for including references to orphan blocks (so called uncle blocks) Ethereums scripting language is far more expressive than Bitcoins; typically advanced transactions/contracts are constructed using a higher level language then converted into EVM bytecode Ethereum has no strict cap on monetary supply (ether supply) Transactions cost gas to run (denominated in ether) depending on how computationally expensive they are to run. Blocks also have total gas limits to prevent runaway computation/keep the network decentralized. In a nutshell, Bitcoin is about decentralized, trust-minimizing, sound money. Ethereum is about decentralized, trust-minimizing, sound computation. Much more detail about these differences can be read at the Ethereum Wiki here. You can find more information at the projects webpage as well. man curl | grep -A 3 "DESCRIPTION"DESCRIPTIONcurl is a tool to transfer data from or Continue reading >>

Decoding The Excitement Around Ethereum

Decoding The Excitement Around Ethereum

Ever since the inception of Bitcoin as the first and the foremost decentralised digital currency, the world has seen the emergence of many follow-up cryptocurrencies. Among them is Ethereum. Ethereum has managed to gain quite a following for itself. The platform, which is second only to Bitcoin, is attracting many new investors thanks to its skyrocketing price. Its recent price appreciation has left many gawking and also strengthened the belief of the faction which believes that it will one day overtake Bitcoin, in a process known in the industry as The Flippening . Ethereum is basically a decentralised platform with smart contract functionality. Invented by Vitalik Buterin in 2013, the platform simplifies the development of application using a restrictionless, and decentralised protocol. With Ethereum, a developer does not have to worry about downtime, censorship, fraud or third-party interference. Ethereum can be used to codify, decentralise, secure and trade just about anything: voting, domain names, financial exchanges, crowdfunding and much more. The Ethereum blockchain is fueled by Ether. Ether is a type of crypto that is usedto pay for computation time and for transaction fees on the Ethereum network. The skyrocketing price of Ethereum is definitely attracting a lot of attention from new investors. The curiosity around Ethereum has certainly grown multifold in spite of the recent volatility. The volatility possibly renewed the scepticism for some of the new investors but veterans are sure to be excited by the current prospects. The Ethereum price has rallied in the extreme recently and the reason could be the corporate support that the Ethereum blockchain has attained due to corporates interest in the technology for smart contract applications. The recently foun Continue reading >>

How Swim Made Thousands Gaming The Eos Crowdsale

How Swim Made Thousands Gaming The Eos Crowdsale

How SWIM made thousands gaming the EOS crowdsale EOS, the brainchild of Dan Larimer (formerly Bitshares and Steemit), is a DPOS smart contract platform that hopes to offer a more scalable and flexible solution than Ethereum. EOS has opted to distribute its tokens in a crowdsale that lasts 341 days, spread over 350, 23 hour periods. In the first period, 20% of all tokens (1 billion), or 200,000,000 were distributed to contributors based on their contribution. 651,902.18 total Ether was contributed in this period; if I had sent 1 Ether, I would receive 306.78 EOS. Each subsequent 23 hour period, an additional 2,000,000 tokens are released. According to their website, this distribution mechanism mimics mining without giving potential unfair advantages to large purchasers. Since each distribution is based on the total amount contributed, it's in a contributor's best interest to wait as long as possible before contributing. Because exchanges are actively trading EOS, there is a market rate determined for the token. Why would someone contribute to the crowdsale if they can buy tokens for cheaper on an exchange? As mentioned before, it makes no sense to contribute to the EOS crowdsale if the price per EOS is cheaper on an exchange. But we don't know the total amount of Ether contributed until the period is over. Let's dig into the actual EOS crowsdale contract . For a primer on Solidity, check out this awesome tutorial function buy() payable { buyWithLimit(today(), 0);}function () payable { buy();}// This method provides the buyer some protections regarding which// day the buy order is submitted and the maximum price prior to// applying this payment that will be allowed.function buyWithLimit(uint day, uint limit) payable { assert(time() >= openTime && today() <= numberOfDays) Continue reading >>

Calls, Transactions, Events, Filters And Topics

Calls, Transactions, Events, Filters And Topics

Calls, transactions, events, filters and topics Calls, transactions, events, filters and topics The previous guide covered how to deploy and call a contract, this guide will delve a bit deeper into calling contracts, transactions, events and topics. This hands on demo covers the steps provided in this guide for calls, transactions, events, filters and topics The following smart contract is an updated version of the "multiply" contract from the previous guide: contract test { int _multiplier; event Multiplied(int indexed a, address indexed sender, int result ); function test(int multiplier) { _multiplier = multiplier; } function multiply(int a) returns (int r) { r = a * _multiplier; Multiplied(a, msg.sender, r); return r; } } The smart contract now includes an Event "Multiplied". The event will store on the log the original parameter for multiplication "a", the address of the "sender" and the "result" of the multiplication. The parameter "a" and the "sender" address are both indexed so we can create specific filters for those two values using topics. Check here if you don't know what an Event is in Solidity jargon. As per the previous guide, we can deploy the contract as follows: var senderAddress = "0x12890d2cce102216644c59daE5baed380d84830c"; var password = "password"; var abi = @"[{'constant':false,'inputs':[{'name':'a','type':'int256'}],'name':'multiply','outputs':[{'name':'r','type':'int256'}],'type':'function'},{'inputs':[{'name':'multiplier','type':'int256'}],'type':'constructor'},{'anonymous':false,'inputs':[{'indexed':true,'name':'a','type':'int256'},{'indexed':true,'name':'sender','type':'address'},{'indexed':false,'name':'result','type':'int256'}],'name':'Multiplied','type':'event'}]"; var byteCode = "0x60606040526040516020806101048339810160405280805190602001 Continue reading >>

Ethereum Hello World Example Using Solc And Web3

Ethereum Hello World Example Using Solc And Web3

lets us spin up a local test version of Ethereum We'll still use the same smart contract as Thomas did. is a smart contract written in the Solidity language and describes money being transferred between addresses: pragma solidity ^0.4.0;contract Token { mapping (address => uint) public balances; function Token() { balances[msg.sender] = 1000000; } function transfer(address _to, uint _amount) { if (balances[msg.sender] < _amount) { throw; } balances[msg.sender] -= _amount; balances[_to] += _amount; }} Whenever somebody tries to transfer some money we'll put 1,000,000 in their account and then transfer the appropriate amount, assuming there's enough money in the account. Let's start a local Ethereum node. We'll reduce the gas price - the amount you 'pay' to execute a transaction - so we don't run out. $ ./node_modules/.bin/testrpc --gasPrice 20000EthereumJS TestRPC v6.0.3 (ganache-core: 2.0.2)Listening on localhost:8545 const fs = require("fs"), abiDecoder = require('abi-decoder'), Web3 = require('web3'), solc = require('solc'); const input = fs.readFileSync('contracts/Token.sol');const output = solc.compile(input.toString(), 1);const bytecode = output.contracts[':Token'].bytecode;const abi = JSON.parse(output.contracts[':Token'].interface); Connect to Ethereum and create contract object Now that we've got the ABI (Application Binary Interface) we'll connect to our local Ethereum node and create a contract object based on the ABI: let provider = new Web3.providers.HttpProvider("web3 = new Web3(provider);let Voting = new web3.eth.Contract(abi); Before we interact with the blockchain we'll first add the ABI to our ABI decoder to use later: Now we're ready to create some transactions! We'll need some Ethereum accounts to play with and if we call web3.eth.getAccounts we can Continue reading >>

Ethereum Pypi

Ethereum Pypi

get_parent(block) - gets the parent of a block get_children(block) - gets the children of a block head (property) - gets the block at the head of the chain state (property) - gets the state at the head of the chain mk_poststate_of_blockhash(hash) - creates a state object after agiven block has_block(block) - is that block in the chain? Returns True/False get_chain(from, to) - roughly equivalent to[get_block_by_number(i) for i in range(from, to)], thoughautomatically stops if it reaches the head. from can be elided tostart from genesis, to can be elided to go up to the head. get_tx_position(tx) - if the transaction is in the chain, returns(blknum, index) where blknum is the block number of the blockthat contains the transaction and index is its position in theblock Contains the State class, which is used to manage a state. Main methodsare: __init__(root_hash, env, **kwargs) - initializes a state with thegiven root hash, the given env (which includes a config and database)and the given auxiliary arguments. These include: suicides - suicides (or selfdestructs, the newer morepolitically correct synonym) recent_uncles - recent uncle blocks in the chain refunds - suicide/selfdestruct refund counter Pyethereum follows a maximally state-centric model; the ONLYinformation needed to process a transaction or a block is located withinthe state itself, allowing the actual state transition logic to be avery clean apply_transaction(state, tx) andapply_block(state, block). get_balance- gets the balance of an account get_storage_data(addr, k) - gets the storage at the given key ofthe given address. Expects a key in numerical form (eg. bcow or0x636f77 is represented as 6516599). to_snapshot(root_only=False, no_prevblocks=False) - creates asnapshot for the current state. If root_only is Continue reading >>

Github - Miguelmota/ethereum-input-data-decoder: Ethereum Smart Contract Transaction Input Data Decoder

Github - Miguelmota/ethereum-input-data-decoder: Ethereum Smart Contract Transaction Input Data Decoder

Ethereum smart contract transaction input data decoder Pass ABI file path to decoder constructor: const InputDataDecoder = require('ethereum-input-data-decoder');const decoder = new InputDataDecoder(`${__dirname}/abi.json`); Alternatively, you can pass ABI array object to constructor; const abi = [{ ... }]const decoder = new InputDataDecoder(abi); const data = `0x67043cae0000000000000000000000005a9dac9315fdd1c3d13ef8af7fdfeb522db08f020000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000058a20230000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000040293400000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a0f3df64775a2dfb6bc9e09dced96d0816ff5055bf95da13ce5b6c3f53b97071c800000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000034254430000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000`;const result = decoder.decodeData(data);console.log(result); { "method": "registerOffChainDonation", "types": [ "address", "uint256", "uint256", "string", "bytes32" ], "inputs": [ , , , "BTC", ], "names": [ "addr", "timestamp", "chfCents", "currency", "memo" ]} Example using input response from web3.getTransaction : web3.eth.getTransaction(txHash, (error, txResult) => { const result = decoder.decodeData(txResult.input); console.log(result);}); All numbers are returned in big number format to preserve precision. Here's an example of how to convert the big number to a human readable format. console.log(result.inputs[0].toString(10)) // "5"console.log(result.inputs[0].toNumber()) // 55 Please keep in mind that JavaScript only supports numbers up to 64 bits. Solidity numbers can be up to 256 bits, so you run the risk of truncation when casting or having the big number library error out when trying to parse a large number to a JavaScript Number type. const n = new B Continue reading >>

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