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Cryptosporidium Prevention In Calves

Control Of Cryptosporidiosis In Neonatal Calves: Use Of Halofuginone Lactate In Two Different Calf Rearing Systems.

Control Of Cryptosporidiosis In Neonatal Calves: Use Of Halofuginone Lactate In Two Different Calf Rearing Systems.

Generate a file for use with external citation management software. Prev Vet Med. 2010 Sep 1;96(3-4):143-51. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2010.06.017. Epub 2010 Aug 6. Control of cryptosporidiosis in neonatal calves: use of halofuginone lactate in two different calf rearing systems. Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food, Celbridge, Co. Kildare, Ireland. [email protected] To date there is no effective treatment for bovine cryptosporidiosis. This study describes the use of halofuginone lactate in preventing cryptosporidiosis in naturally infected neonatal calves on a dairy farm with a high prevalence of infection. The animals were kept in two different calf rearing systems. A randomized double-blind trial was carried out with 32 naturally infected calves, divided into four groups. The two prophylactic halofuginone lactate treated groups were kept in either individual or group pens. Similarly, the animals receiving the placebo were housed in either individual pens or together in a large pen. A total of ten faecal samples were collected periodically during the 28 days study from each calf and tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. using microscopic and molecular methods. Generalized estimating equations models were used to determine if the effects of the various treatments and/or rearing systems on the presence of diarrhoea and infection were statistically significant. Further analysis (classification trees models) was carried out to explore possible risk factors for cryptosporidiosis and interactions between treatments and rearing systems. Halofuginone lactate was shown to be effective in reducing clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis and environmental contamination. However, the treatment did not delay the Continue reading >>

Diarrhea In Calves (cryptosporidium Parvum)

Diarrhea In Calves (cryptosporidium Parvum)

Diarrhea in Calves Induced by Cryptosporidium parvum Diarrhea is a common manifestation of intestinal/ systemic homeostatic altera-tion in neonatal calves, lambs, and kids. Neonatal diarrhea may cause acute dehydration and death or lead to malnutrition and emaciation. Crypto-sporidium parvum is highly infectious and highly resistant to inactivation in the environment. There is no routinely successful form of therapy available. There is also a zoonotic implication in humans handling the animals, especially in immunocompromised humans. Etiology and Pathogenesis: Neonatal calf diarrhea usually involves the association of more than one pathogen. The most common implicated pathogens are E. coli, rotavirus, coronavirus, and Cryptosporidium parvum. Cryptosporidium parvum (disease name Crypto-sporidiosis) is a protozoan parasite transmitted by fecal-oral contamination. These protozoa invade the apical surface (brush border) of the enterocyte in the distal small intestine and proximal colon and form parasitophorus vacuoles where development occurs. Infection results in crypt and submucosal inflammation, necrosis of microvilli, villous atrophy, and decreased mucosal enzyme activity. This results in decreased absorptive ability of the intestinal tract, fermentation of nutrients within the lumen, and osmotic diarrhea. Life cycle: Infection begins by ingestion of oocysts from feces. These oocysts contain four sporozoites and initiate infection following excystation. The organism replicates asexually and then sexually to produce new oocysts that are shed into the environment in feces or reinfect the host. The definitive hosts include many mammals such as cattle, dogs, cats, and humans. Epidemiology: C. parvum oocysts are commonly found in the feces of healthy calves. The cause of di Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidiosis

Cryptosporidiosis

One of the most common problems that occur in young dairy calves in the first month of life is enteric infection with Cryptosporidium parvum. Crypto is a common parasite that infects most dairy farms. Crypto is easily transferred to people and can cause severe and prolonged diarrhoea accompanied by painful stomach cramps. Children are particularly at risk. Crypto is found in normal healthy calves but can cause overwhelming disease in calves that are immunosuppressed or in the process of developing an immune response. The clinical picture is similar to rotavirus infection in calves. Diagnostic data from veterinary pathology laboratories suggest that calf scour problems associated with crypto are on the increase. This protozoan parasite is now as common a cause of calf diarrhoea as rotavirus. Rotavirus and crypto have always been identified as the two main pathogens implicated in infectious scour problems. The latest data and feedback from our vets in the field suggest crypto incidence is on an upward trend. Scours caused by crypto are not always confined to calves kept indoors. Cryptosporidiosis can be as much of a problem on pasture, especially for late spring-born calves born outside. Calves at pasture can be very susceptible to infection, particularly if conditions underfoot are muddy around feeders. This parasite thrives in damp conditions and wet paddocks. The major source of crypto is thought to be either adult cows (which act as carriers without showing signs of disease) or infected scouring calves passing the parasite in their faeces. The infectious dose of the organism is very low. If feeders are not moved regularly, the disease threat that builds up can very similar to the level associated with calves kept indoors. Faecal contamination of feed and water trough Continue reading >>

Overview Of Cryptosporidiosis

Overview Of Cryptosporidiosis

By Peter D. Constable, BVSc (Hons), MS, PhD, DACVIM, Dean, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois Cryptosporidiosis is recognized worldwide, primarily in neonatal calves but also in lambs, kids, foals, and piglets. Cryptosporidia cause varying degrees of naturally occurring diarrhea in neonatal farm animals. The parasites commonly act in concert with other enteropathogens to produce intestinal injury and diarrhea. There are currently 19 species and 40 genotypes of Cryptosporidium. C hominis (formerly C parvum type I) is a specific human pathogen. C parvum (formerly C parvum type II) is zoonotic and infective to many animals, including people and calves. Four cryptosporidial species have been isolated from cattle (C parvum, C andersoni, C bovis, and C ryanae). C andersoni infects the abomasum of older cattle; C bovis and C ryanae are cattle adapted (cattle are the major host). C parvum is a common cause of calf diarrhea, and cryptosporidial oocysts have been detected in the feces of 70% of 1- to 3-wk-old dairy calves. Infection can be detected as early as 5 days of age, with the greatest proportion of calves excreting organisms between days 9 and 14. Many reports associate infection in calves with diarrhea occurring at 515 days of age. C parvum is also a common enteric infection in young lambs and goats. Diarrhea can result from a monoinfection but more commonly is associated with mixed infections. Infection can be associated with severe outbreaks of diarrhea, with high case fatality rates in lambs 410 days old and in goat kids 521 days old. Cryptosporidial infection in pigs is seen over a wider age range than in ruminants and has been seen in pigs from 1 wk old through market age. Most infections are asymptomatic, and the organism does not appear to be Continue reading >>

Crypto And What To Do If An Outbreak Hits Your Cattle Herd

Crypto And What To Do If An Outbreak Hits Your Cattle Herd

Crypto can quickly spread so you need to be vigilant and use good management practices. Photo:GRAPHIC: Dr. Guy Boisclair The incidence of crypto diarrhea is most definitely higher on dairy farms where calves are raised in close confinement and the wet or moist environment is conducive to the transmission of these protozoa. But large-animal veterinarians are also detecting it more often in our beef herds out west. Crypto is a protozoa with a very similar life cycle to coccidia, which is probably much more familiar to Canadian cattlemen. The detection can be difficult, but with newer tests and other methods, you may find it even in well-managed cattle operations. Dairymen watch for it diligently and beef producers should discuss it with their veterinarians. Be especially vigilant if scours crops up in older calves that seem unresponsive to traditional scour treatments. Bringing in dairy calves to be adopted onto beef cows can be a source of infection. I always suggest using calves from your own herd if possible. Crypto usually is caused by the species C. Parvum in cattle and it is also zoonotic meaning it is transmissible to humans, with most cases resulting from exposure to sick calves. So watch when handling diarrheic calves and be extra vigilant when cleaning and disinfecting the area calves have been in. As with all zoonotic diseases, people under stress or immunosuppressed are highly susceptible. Make sure especially after dealing with any diarrheic calves to clean boots, coveralls, and wash your hands thoroughly. Treat the diarrheic calves last to avoid carrying the oocysts (eggs) between calves. The organism is very similar to coccidia in the sense oocysts are passed in the manure in very large numbers (up to 10 million per gram of manure). Oocysts are ingested by Continue reading >>

Prevalence And Risk Factors For Shedding Of Cryptosporidium Spp. Oocysts In Dairy Calves Of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

Prevalence And Risk Factors For Shedding Of Cryptosporidium Spp. Oocysts In Dairy Calves Of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

Volume 1, Issue 2 , June 2016, Pages 36-41 Prevalence and risk factors for shedding of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in dairy calves of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina Author links open overlay panel Carlos J.Garroa In order to determine the prevalence and risk factors for shedding of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy calves, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the northeastern region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Fecal samples from a total of 552 calves from 27 dairy herds were collected, along with a questionnaire about management factors. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by light microscopy using Kinyoun staining. Putative risk factors were tested for association using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). Oocyst shedding calves were found in 67% (CI95%=4984) of herds (corresponding to a true herd prevalence of 98%) and 16% (CI95%=1319) of calves (corresponding to a true calve prevalence of 8%). Within-herd prevalence ranged from 0 to 60%, with a median of 8%. Cryptosporidium spp. excretion was not associated with the type of liquid diet, gender, time the calf stayed with the dam after birth, use of antibiotics, blood presence in feces, and calving season. However, important highly significant risk factors of oocyst shedding of calves was an age of less or equal than 20days (OR=7.4; 95% CI95%=316; P<0.0001) and occurrence of diarrhea (OR=5.5; 95% CI95%=211; P<0.0001). The observed association with young age strongly suggests an early exposure of neonatal calves to Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in maternity pens and/or an age-related susceptibility. Association with diarrhea suggests that Cryptosporidium spp. is an important enteropathogen primarily responsible for the cause of the observed diarrheal syndrome. Results demonstrate that Cryptospor Continue reading >>

Beware Crypto The Calf Killer, Says Vet

Beware Crypto The Calf Killer, Says Vet

Local farmer Martina McNeill discusses the unique role of Halocur in the prevention and treatment of cryptosporidium, a major cause of scour in young calves, with Banbridge vet Marcus White. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM parvum is emerging as one of the most common causes of diarrhoea in calves across NI according to AFBI scientists at Stormont, writes veterinary surgeon Fergal Morris of MSD Animal Health. Indeed an Animal Disease Surveillance report produced jointly by the Agriculture Departments in Belfast and Dublin shows that over 40% of calf deaths in the first six weeks are due to scour-related diseases. At current cattle prices this represents a huge loss of potential farm income especially in extreme cases where scour related diseases can cause the death of up to one-third of calves in a herd. However, on the majority of farms deaths represent only a small proportion of the total cost of a scour outbreak. The biggest costs are treatment and reduced lifetime performance as calves that recover from scour attack are more susceptible to other diseases and 10% lighter than their counterparts at 24 months of age. With dairy heifers, for example, this costly 10% LWG reduction delays first service and lowers yield during first lactation. Once a calf is infected Cryptosporirium spp rapidly multiplies and causes severe damage to gut lining. Within four days of infection calves start excreting oocysts in large quantities in faeces and due to their thick cell wall these oocysts can survive in the environment for long periods. Most disinfectants are ineffective and therefore the single effective method of control is to use Halocur-Halocur being the only product licensed for the treatment and prevention of cryptosporidium in calves. Cryptosporidiosis is seen in calves from 5-35 days old, Continue reading >>

Calving Tips: Going To War On Calf Scours

Calving Tips: Going To War On Calf Scours

Calving Tips: Going To War On Calf Scours Scours is one of several management disease complexes where integrated prevention strategies and attention to detail in multiple areas are required for success. Gerald Stokka & Louis Perino | Apr 01, 1999 Calf diarrhea (scours) is the primary cause of death in calves from 2 to 30 days of age. And, while advances in scours treatments may bring improved survival rates, the economic benefit of improved preventive measures far exceeds that of treatment. Scours pathogens are viruses, bacteria and microscopic parasites. Most of these pathogens do their damage in the intestinal tract. Several mechanisms go to work there, all of which cause diarrhea or scours. They cause the cells of the intestinal lining to malfunction. They can kill the intestinal lining cells. They can invade the deeper layers of the intestinal lining and rapidly destroy it. The K99 strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) causes diarrhea by impairing the ability of the intestinal lining to digest and absorb the milk nutrients. This K99 strain, however, is only capable of causing scours in calves under a week old. After that, the calf's intestine becomes resistant to its effects. The cells lining the intestine can be killed by viruses such as rotavirus and coronavirus and a protozoan parasite called Cryptosporidium. The scours tend to be yellow and watery. Because viruses and cryptosporidia aren't susceptible to antibiotics, the only treatment of this type of scours is nutritional and fluid support of the calf until the intestine lining is regenerated. Rotavirus, coronavirus and crypto are carried by healthy heifers and cows and are shed into the environment in their manure . Cryptosporidium, which is also a threat to humans, is particularly troublesome because no effec Continue reading >>

Reducing The Spread Of Cryptosporidium In Calves

Reducing The Spread Of Cryptosporidium In Calves

Home Beef Reducing the spread of cryptosporidium in calves Reducing the spread of cryptosporidium in calves Cryptosporidium parvum, a small single-celled parasite, is a leading cause of scour in in young calvesbetween one and four weeks of age, Animal Health Ireland (AHI) says. AHI says that it is highly infectiousand difficult to eradicate as the infective stage (oocyst)is not inactivated by many of the disinfectants usedon Irish farms. Transmission is via the faecal-oral routeand oocysts are readily spread in dung and on theclothes and hands of handlers.It is not possible to distinguish cryptosporidiosisfrom the other causes of calf scour on clinical signsalone. Dung samples from untreated scouring calvesshould be submitted to your vet or laboratory fordiagnostic testing. Sick calves should be isolated and given replacementfluids in addition to normal milk feeds, AHI says. Calvesdiagnosed with cryptosporidiosis may be treated withhalofuginone lactate (a prescription only medicine),which may reduce the severity of the disease, if given early in the course of infection, AHI advises. Administration of halofuginone lactate to in-contactcalves will also limit the impact of infection and goodhygiene and calf management will reduce the chanceof infection spreading, it says: Ensure all calves receive enough good qualitycolostrum within the first two hours of birth. House calves either individually or in small groups. Never mix new-born calves with calves older than three to four days. Ensure strict hygiene with feeding equipment. Replace or replenish bedding every two days. Raise feeding and water troughs off the floor. Isolate all calves with diarrhoea for at least a weekafter scouring stops. On farms that experience severe problems withcryptosporidiosis every year, calves Continue reading >>

Cattle Today: Healthy Herd Is Best Defense Against Cryptosporidiosis

Cattle Today: Healthy Herd Is Best Defense Against Cryptosporidiosis

HEALTHY HERD IS BEST DEFENSE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS Cryptosporidiosis is a protozoal disease that is similar to coccidiosis in several ways. Protozoa are one-celled animals and most kinds are harmless. But several types cause disease in animals and most of these are transmitted by the fecal-oral route; the protozoa are passed in the feces of an infected animal and are ingested by a susceptible animal via contaminated feed or water or when licking a dirty hair coat or suckling a dirty udder. The protozoa that cause cryptosporidiosis are found almost everywhere. Various types infect humans, sheep, goats, deer, squirrels, etc. but only one type infects cattle. This same type can also infect humans. Another strain affects only humans. Several strains affect humans and various other animals but not cattle. Wildlife such as raccoons occasionally pass crypto to livestock. These protozoa survive in moist conditions and can live for about 170 days in streams of water. They can also live on wet, contaminated calving grounds, but drying or freezing will eventually kill them. After being ingested, they multiply in the calf's intestine, causing diarrhea. It's rare to find this pathogen in calves older than four months old or in adults, but many beef and dairy calves are infected during their first months of life. In earlier years, this disease was a problem only in dairy cattle and was estimated to affect up to 70 percent of dairy calves one to three weeks of age, with rate of infection on some farms as high as 100 percent. Now, however, this disease appears in beef herds as well. Though cryopto is often mild and self-limiting (runs its course without treatment and the animal recovers), it can be life threatening in any human or young animal with a compromised immune system or c Continue reading >>

Staying Ahead Of Crypto

Staying Ahead Of Crypto

The author is at the College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. It's common, tough to treat, and can spread to feeders. That "ounce of prevention" is your best bet. There are products that can be added to milk or replacer that will help control crypto diarrhea. Be prepared to use fluid therapy to keep calves hydrated. Cryptosporidiosis is a common cause of diarrhea. It can be very frustrating to deal with since it occurs very commonly, is difficult or impossible to get rid of completely, and is not readily treatable. Specifically, cryptosporidiosis refers to diarrhea caused by the protozoal organism Cryptosporidium parvum. Disease caused by a protozoa is different than what we usually see in cattle. However, this is an important distinction. Many diseases we normally deal with are caused by bacteria which often are treated with antibiotics. However, protozoal organisms generally are not killed by these drugs. Other major diseases of dairy cattle are caused by viruses. These infections usually aren't treatable with antibiotics, but they often are preventable by using vaccines (respiratory disease would be a good example). There are no effective vaccines for cryptosporidia, and vaccines that protect against protozoal organisms generally are very difficult to develop. Cryptosporidial oocysts (eggs) commonly are shed by calves from 5 days of age until 3 to 4 weeks of age. Many will shed a few oocysts without having clinical signs of disease. However, high infection rates (greater numbers of eggs) leads to intestinal damage and diarrhea. Oocysts shed by one calf can contaminate the environment including feed and water. Then these eggs are picked up by other calves, and the infection continues. So crypto most commonly is passed directly from ca Continue reading >>

Nadis - National Animal Disease Information Service -

Nadis - National Animal Disease Information Service -

Dr Philip Scott, DiplECBHM, DiplECSRHM, FHEA, MPhil, DVM&S, FRCVS Cryptosporidium parvum is not host-specific andoutbreaks of calf diarrhoea may occur when there is a build up ofinfection in mixed accommodation/grazing with young lambs. Transmission from cats and vermin may also occur in somesituations. Whilst morbidity is high, mortality in uncomplicatedcases is rare. Large numbers of infective oocysts areexcreted leading to significant environmental contamination anddisease usually during the second half of the calving period. Oocysts can survive for several months in cool and moistconditions but infectivity in calf faeces is reduced after 1-4 daysof drying. Oocyst infectivity can be destroyed by exposure freezingtemperatures and ammonium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine,10% formol saline, and 5% ammonia. High stocking density of young beef calves indoors increasesthe risk of cryptosporidiosis. Mixed viral and cryptosporidiosis infections are common. Cryptosporidiosis can exacerbate concurrent viralinfections. Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic disease (readily transmitted tohumans) and has been frequently reported in school childrenvisiting open farms and petting zoos. In clinical cases of cryptosporidiosis, diarrhoea is caused bythe physical loss of absorptive lining of the intestinesexacerbating concurrent viral infections necessitating supportivefluid therapy and may cause significant losses. In someinstances, there is no diarrhoea despite isolation ofCryptosporidium spp. from faecal samples. Beef calves aged 14-21 days old are most commonly affected(dairy calves are most frequently reared in single pens so there isreduced risk of spread). There is yellow/green diarrhoea withmuch mucus present. There is only mild dehydration but thecalf rapidly looses conditio Continue reading >>

Nadis - National Animal Disease Information Service -

Nadis - National Animal Disease Information Service -

Phil Scott DVM&S BVM&S CertCHP DSHP DipECBHM FRCVS Diarrhoea or calf scour can be a major cause of poor growth andcalf mortality in many dairy herds. The incidence and severity of disease is highly dependent uponthe level of colostral protection that a calf receives within thefirst six hours of life (Fig 1). Indeed, it is generallyrecommended that calves receive three litres within the first 2hours of life. 1,2,3; first milk, within two hours, threelitres! Fig 1: The incidenceand severity of disease is highly dependent upon the level ofcolostral protection that a calf receives within the first six to12 hours of life. The most important causes of calf diarrhoea are rota- andcorona-viruses but on a small number of dairy farms Salmonellaspecies, such as Salmonella Dublin and Salmonellatyphimurium, can be a major problem. However, it is essentialto appreciate that most outbreaks of calf diarrhoea are caused byviruses. Fluid therapy is the most effective treatment strategy;antibiotics are rarely indicated and their use is contrary to theresponsible use of antibiotics in agriculture. As with all animal diseases prevention is better than cure andan effective veterinary herd health plan is essential for all dairyherds to maintain health and prevent costly diseases. Effectivevaccines are available against the most important infectious causesof calf diarrhoea but such a prevention strategy will only work ifcalves receive adequate volumes of good quality colostrum withinfew hours of birth, and in the case of viral causes, continue toreceive stored colostrum from vaccinated cows for the first twoweeks of life. Fig 2: Check for adequate colostrum ingestion ifjoint infections have become a problem in young calves on yourfarm. Recent surveys have revealed that more than two-thirds of Continue reading >>

Calf Scours

Calf Scours

Calf scours or diarrhoea can become a big problem in some herds. However, prompt treatment, hygiene and isolation measures can help to keep this problem minimised in your herd. Scroll to the bottom for treatment protocols for calves. E.coli is a bacterial diarrhoea occurring in calves around 1-4 days old. It produces a yellowy-white, watery, smelly scour. Calves get infected orally due to contaminated faeces of other animals. Calves can die very quickly of E.coli if not treated. Antibiotics such as Excenel or Vetrimoxin are required to control infection. Salmonella is most commonly seen in calves over 7 days old. Many calves carry Salmonella bacteria in their bowel, but inadequate immunity causes overgrowth of the bacteria and then infection. Salmonella is zoonotic and so can cause infection in humans so hygiene, isolation and care is needed if this bacteria is diagnosed as the cause of calf scours. Salmonella diarrhoea can range from yellow colour to bloody depending on severity of disease, and is often very smelly. The bacteria can cause death in calves within several days if not treated with appropriate antibiotics eg. Marbocyl, Noradine, or Engemycin. For colostral protection of calves, ideally cows should receive their annual Salvexin vaccination around 4 weeks prior to calving. This type of viral scours occurs in calves aged 1-3 weeks, and the diarrhoea may last for up to 10 days. Diarrhoea is profuse and watery at first, and then can become mucous and bloody. Coronavirus can be seen with other scour diseases such as Rotavirus, E.coli and Cryptosporidium. Rotavirus scours mostly occurs in calves less than 10 days old. Infection is due to contact with other affected cows and calves, and may be seen concurrently with Cryptosporidiosis. The diarrhoea from Rotavirus Continue reading >>

New Tool For Fighting Crypto In Calves

New Tool For Fighting Crypto In Calves

Like Kryptonite hidden from Superman until it was too late, a similar foe hides from dairy producers only to strike when little can be done to stop it. This dairy assailant is Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum), a parasitic protozoan and primary cause of scours. With four other common causes of scours, many producers often skip testing sick calves and try to manage the symptoms. Multiple research studies have shown that up to 92 percent of calves younger than four months test positive for C. parvum and are shedding the C. parvum organism, with or without clinical signs of disease. It is found in all calf-housing systems and in all regions. C. parvum is transmitted through ingestion of oocysts, or protozoan eggs. Hutches, water and feed supplies can be carriers of C. parvum oocysts, allowing the disease to spread within herds. Researchers have tried to find cures for C. parvum, but most treatments only focused on one stage of the disease. "In the past, researchers focused solely on the oocyst, which is the end infectious stage of protozoans like C. parvum," says Mark Welter, president of Oragen Technologies Inc. in Des Moines, Iowa. "Oocysts are shed by the animal in their feces. So they tried using oocysts as an antigen to make vaccines, but that didn't work... C. parvum has many life cycle stages, so focusing on one stage is insufficient." It's not just the calves that are in danger from C. parvum, it is also a threat to humans. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says, "Cryptosporidium has become recognized as one of the most common causes of waterborne disease (recreational water and drinking water) in humans in the United States. The parasite is found in every region of the United States and throughout the world." "The best defense against this disease i Continue reading >>

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