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Cryptologist Vs Cryptographer

Terminology - Is There Any Difference Between Cryptography And Cryptology? - Cryptography Stack Exchange

Terminology - Is There Any Difference Between Cryptography And Cryptology? - Cryptography Stack Exchange

Is there any difference between cryptography and cryptology? Is there a difference between cryptography and cryptology, if any? An internet search suggests that both terms can be used interchangeably. Today, indeed the the terms "Cryptography" and "Cryptology" can mostly be used interchangeably. Historically things have been more interesting though, where Cryptology was the umbrella term for Cryptanalysis and (constructive) Cryptography. For example the Handbook of Applied Cryptography ( chapter 1 PDF ) has the following definition (page 15) of "Cryptology": Cryptology is the study of cryptography (Definition 1.1) and cryptanalysis. with "Cryptanalysis" being defined as (on page 15) Cryptanalysis is the study of mathematical techniques for attempting to defeat cryptographic techniques, and, more generally, information security services. and "Cryptography" being defined as (on page 4) Cryptography is the study of mathematical techniques related to aspects of information security such as confidentiality, data integrity, entity authentication, and data origin authentication. The "mostly" in the first sentence should be parsed as "everyone will understand what you mean even though there may be potentially pedants disagreeing" SEJPM Mar 25 at 13:26 I think there is a good reason that these terms are almost interchangeable nowadays: One cannot realistically be a good cryptographer without knowing cryptanalysis, and vice versa. Even though the goals are different, the required skill set is very similar, so cryptography and cryptanalysis can be seen as just two faces of the same medal. yyyyyyy Mar 25 at 14:01 I think "attempting to defeat" is a bit too broad in the definition within the book; you can perform cryptanalysis without attempting to break anything (although you need Continue reading >>

Fbi: How To Be An Expert At The Black Art Of Cryptography

Fbi: How To Be An Expert At The Black Art Of Cryptography

FBI: How to be an expert at the black art of cryptography FBI, NSA employ cryptanalysis to prevent, solve crimes Use commas to separate multiple email addresses Breaking written codes is seemingly a black art whose history dates back as long as people could write and wanted to keep secrets. In the age of supercomputers and all manner of advanced technologies it's hard to imagine much cryptography expertise is still needed. The FBI would tell you differently. The FBI this week issued a release talking up its status as the world's premier cryptographic experts saying: "Breaking such codes is the FBI's Cryptanalysis and Racketeering Records Unit unique specialty. Despite the FBI's extensive use of state-of-the-art computer technology to gather intelligence, examine evidence, and help solve crimes, the need to manually break "pen and paper" codes remains a valuable-and necessary-weapon in the bureau's investigative arsenal." RELATED: Best VPN routers for small business According to the FBI criminals who use cryptography-codes, ciphers, and concealed messages-are abundant. "Terrorists, gang members, inmates, drug dealers, violent lone offenders, and organized crime groups involved in gambling and prostitution use letters, numbers, symbols, and even invisible ink to encode messages in an attempt to hide illegal activity," the FBI stated. So what does it take to become one of these cryptographic specialist, at the FBI anyway? A basic four-month training course and plenty of continuing education to learn the age-old patterns and techniques of code makers, the FBI says. Indeed the field of cryptanalysis remains a viable career choice. Just this week the National Security Agency said it was looking to hire Cryptanalysts . Form the post: Cryptanalysis is the analytic investigatio Continue reading >>

A History Of Cryptology

A History Of Cryptology

A properly typeset version of this document is available in postscript and in pdf . If some fonts do not look right on your screen, this might befixed by configuring your browser (see the documentation here ). Cryptology is very old but has got a renewal of interest. Until the end of the80's, it was reserved to military people or diplomats, but it is nowaccessible to the general public.Cryptology contains the art of hiding information and the techniquesto break a secret. This talk is a brief survey of the history of this art. First of all, one needs to recall the precise meaning of some terms. Cryptography is the art of communicating confidentially through aninsecure channel. Cryptanalysis is the art of decipheringthose communications when one is not the legitimate receiver. And Cryptology is the union of these two domains. Two basic principles are known for cryptography: substitution, which consists in permuting the letters of thealphabet, and transposition, which permutes the letters ofthe text. During antiquity, writing was safe because only afew people could read. We can however note some simple substitutionsin India and the use of special or rare symbols by scribes inMesopotamia. In Greece and Rome, the use of cryptography increased for militarypurposes. In Sparta, in 475 B.C, was invented the scytale, which isa conic stick around which one encircles a strip of paper, and thenwrites the message vertically. Julius Caesar used a simplesubstitution system. After this period and till the fifteenth century, the only valuablecryptographic activity was in the Arabic civilization. Qalqahandi wrote anencyclopedia with a section dedicated to cryptology, with the firstappearance of cryptanalysis. Cryptology came back in occident with the Renaissance (first inItaly). A lot of Continue reading >>

Cryptographer | Define Cryptographer At Dictionary.com

Cryptographer | Define Cryptographer At Dictionary.com

the science or study of analysing and deciphering codes, ciphers, etc; cryptanalysis Derived Formscryptographer, cryptographist or cryptologist, nouncryptographic (krptrfk) or cryptographical, adjectivecryptographically, adverb Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012 Word Origin and History for cryptographer 1650s, from French cryptographie or directly from Modern Latin cryptographia, from Greek kryptos "hidden" (see crypt ) + -graphy . Related: Cryptograph; cryptographer. Online Etymology Dictionary, 2010 Douglas Harper The science of coding and decoding messages so as to keep these messages secure. Coding (see encryption ) takes place using a key that ideally is known only by the sender and intended recipient of the message. Historically used in warfare, cryptography is now used routinely in computer networks. This often pits the desire of individuals and businesses to keep Internet information private against the need of government to investigate crime and terrorism . The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition Copyright 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. Continue reading >>

How To Become A Cryptographer | Requirements For Cryptographer Jobs

How To Become A Cryptographer | Requirements For Cryptographer Jobs

What Does a Cryptographer/Cryptanalyst Do? A Cryptographer develops algorithms, ciphers and security systems to encrypt sensitive information. A Cryptanalyst analyzes and decrypts any type of hidden information (e.g. encrypted data, cipher texts, telecommunications protocols) in cryptographic security systems. You are the code maker and the code breaker, the professional who ensures that private data regarding finance, national security and other important spheres are hidden from marauding cyber-terrorists. Cryptographer/Cryptanalyst Responsibilities As the white knight of data, you may be required to: Protect important information from interception, copying, modification and/or deletion Evaluate, analyze and target weaknesses in cryptographic security systems and algorithms Design robust security systems to prevent vulnerabilities Develop statistical and mathematical models to analyze data and solve security problems Test computational models for reliability and accuracy Investigate, research and test new cryptology theories and applications Probe for weaknesses in communication lines (e.g. wireless network, secure telephone, cellphones, email, etc.) Ensure financial data (e.g. credit card, inter-bank, ATM, online transactions, etc.) are securely encrypted and accessible only to authorized users Ensure message transmission data (e.g. wireless network, secure telephone, cellphones, email, etc.) are not illegally accessed or altered in transit Decode cryptic messages and coding systems for military, political and/or law enforcement agencies Develop and update methods for efficient handling of cryptic processes Provide technical support to government, businesses and industry to solve security-related issues Advise colleagues and research staff on cryptical/mathematical m Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Cryptology And Cryptography?

What Is The Difference Between Cryptology And Cryptography?

What is the difference between cryptology and cryptography? Cryptography is a see also of cryptology. Cryptology is a related term of cryptography. As nouns the difference between cryptology and cryptography is that cryptology is the practice of analysing encoded messages, in order to decode them while cryptography is the discipline concerned with communication security (eg, confidentiality of messages, integrity of messages, sender authentication, non-repudiation of messages, and many other related issues), regardless of the used medium such as pencil and paper or computers. The practice of analysing encoded messages, in order to decode them. An umbrella term for cryptography and cryptanalysis. Cryptology is the study of mathematical, linguistic, and other coding patterns and histories. The discipline concerned with communication security (eg, confidentiality of messages, integrity of messages, sender authentication, non-repudiation of messages, and many other related issues), regardless of the used medium such as pencil and paper or computers. We might abate...the strange cryptography of Gaffarell in his Starrie Booke of Heaven. * Subfields include encoding]], [[decode, decoding, cryptanalysis, codes, ciphers, etc.* In many languages, though less so in English, cognates to "cryptology" are also used with the meaning given above, and even preferred.* Related to cryptography but distinct, steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no-one apart from the sender and intended recipient even realizes there is a hidden message. * anticryptography* asymmetric cryptography* public-key cryptography Continue reading >>

Cryptology And Number Theory

Cryptology And Number Theory

Cryptography, the science of encoding communications so that only the intended recipient can understand them, is ancient. In almost every civilization, cryptography appeared almost as soon as there was writing. For example, in 1500 B.C.E. a Mesopotamian scribe, using cuneiform signs that had different syllabic interpretations (akin to spelling "sh" as "ti," as in nation), disguised a formula for pottery glazes. According to the Greek historian Herodotus , in the fifth century B.C.E. a Greek at the Persian court used steganography, or hiding one message within another, to send a letter urging revolt against the Persians. In the fourth century B.C.E. the Spartans developed a transposition algorithm that relied on wrapping a sheet of papyrus around a wooden staff; in the same period, the Indian political classic the Arthasastra urged cryptanalysis as a means of obtaining intelligence. In the fifteenth century C.E., the Arabic encyclopedia, the Subh al-a 'sha, included a sophisticated discussion of cryptanalysis using frequency distributions. The increasing use of digitized information and the rise of the Internet has made cryptography a daily tool for millions of people today. People use cryptography when they purchase an item via the World Wide Web , when they call on a European (GSM) cell phone, or when they make a withdrawal from a bank machine. Cryptography provides confidentiality (assurance that an eavesdropper will not be able to understand the communication), authenticity (proof of the message's origin), and integrity (guarantee that the message has not been tampered with in transit). Modern communications phone, fax, or e-mailare frequently in digital form (0's and 1's), and the unencrypted string of bits, or plaintext, is transformed into ciphertext by an encryp Continue reading >>

Encryption For Kids!

Encryption For Kids!

Secret writing hasbeen employed about as long as writing has existed. Codes have been usedthroughout history whenever people wanted to keep messages private. Cryptology has long been employedby governments, military, businesses, and organizations to protect theirmessages. Today, encryption is used to protect storage of data and transactionsbetween computers. Visitthis site to learn more: In ancient timeswhen messages were carried by foot for miles, kings and rulers would encryptthe letters they would send to allies.This helped to protect the secrecy of the message in case they werestolen. In early American history,even George Washington sent coded messages to his fellow soldiers. Likewise, the members of the ContinentalCongress also encoded their documents. When the telegraph was invented, the Morse Code was used tosend understandable messages via sound patterns. Today, computerusers encrypt documents, network space, and e-mail messages as a way to protectthe confidentiality of their messages.The new types of encryption are very advanced, and sometimes complicated.but,the basic skill remains true to the ancient methods! Below you willfind a collection of links on cryptology use through history. oVisit thiswebsite to translate (and listen to!) your own message in Morse Code: NationalSecurity Agencys Code Challenge: begin your journey as a secret agent for the federal government. Click on the Start Puzzle button tobegin. If you hold up to a mirror somethingwith writing, the writing looks reversed. You can easily write notes and otherthings to look like mirror writing. Get a sheet of thin white or light coloredpaper. With a dark marker, write something on one side. Make sure you write itthick and dark enough so that it will show through on to the other side. Flipover the Continue reading >>

Ciphers And Cryptologists In Homeland Security: Jobs And Salary

Ciphers And Cryptologists In Homeland Security: Jobs And Salary

Given the focus on the nations homeland security following the events of 9/11, cryptologists are frequently being employed to decipher messages and codes in foreign languages and to find patterns in intelligence data as to identify potential domestic and international terror threats. They often work alongside such federal agencies as the FBI and the CIA, and the military remains one of the largest employers of cryptologists. The Jobs Duties of Ciphers and Cryptologists Cryptologists and ciphers are highly skilled in a number of systems related to this profession, including: electronic equipment; optical interfaces and data systems; information operations; information warfare systems; auxiliary equipment; personal computers; physical security systems; cryptologic networks; and information assurance operations. Although ciphers and cryptologists in different fields have a number of job-specific duties, in general these professionals are tasked with: Creating, modifying, and testing codes and script that allow computer applications to run Analyzing, reviewing and rewriting programs to ensure operational efficiency Analyzing encrypted electronic communications This highly specialized field involves keeping classified information concealed, while at the same time exposing, or deciphering, the secret information of others for national security purposes. In short, cryptologists and ciphers must, at all times, maintain situational awareness by collecting, analyzing, and reporting on signals and information found across a number of domains, including cyberspace, air, surface, and space communications and control systems. Cryptologists often specialize in a number of areas, including: Interpretive cryptology: Experts in linguists and deciphering information in other languages Te Continue reading >>

Cryptography Vs Cryptology : Crypto

Cryptography Vs Cryptology : Crypto

Don't forget to read our RULES PAGE ! The rules listed there are also used as this sub's report reasons. The quick version; Assume good faith and be kind. This is a friendly subreddit. Codes, simple ciphers, ARGs, and other such "weak crypto" don't belong here. (Rule of thumb: If a desktop computer can break a code in less than an hour, it's not strong crypto.) You're probably looking for /r/codes . Do not ask people to break your cryptosystem without first sharing the algorithm. Sharing just the output is like... "Crack this cipher" challenges also belong in /r/codes unless they're based on interesting crypto implementation bugs, e.g. weak RSA keys. Familiarize yourself with the following before posting a question about a novel cryptosystem, or else the risk is nobody will take their time to answer: Don't use this sub to cheat on competitions or challenges! You're expected to solve such problems yourself. You may ask for help to understand it, but you should disclose the source. Systems that use crypto are not necessarily relevant here, e.g. Bitcoin. Maybe try /r/cryptocurrency ? Political news also very rarely belong here. See the list of related subs below for alternatives. Remember that this sub is focused on the algorithms, and isn't political. Continue reading >>

Cryptography - Wikipedia

Cryptography - Wikipedia

"Secret code" redirects here. For the Aya Kamiki album, see Secret Code . "Cryptology" redirects here. For the David S. Ware album, see Cryptology (album) . Cryptography or cryptology (from Greek krypts, "hidden, secret"; and graphein, "writing", or - -logia , "study", respectively [1] ) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries . [2] More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages; [3] various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality , data integrity , authentication , and non-repudiation [4] are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics , computer science , electrical engineering , communication science , and physics . Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce , chip-based payment cards , digital currencies , computer passwords , and military communications . Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption , the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense . The originator of an encrypted message shared the decoding technique needed to recover the original information only with intended recipients, thereby precluding unwanted persons from doing the same. The cryptography literature often uses the name Alice ("A") for the sender, Bob ("B") for the intended recipient, and Eve (" eavesdropper ") for the adversary. [5] Since the development of rotor cipher machines in World WarI and the advent of computers in World WarII , the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread. Modern cry Continue reading >>

Cryptology, Cryptography, And Cryptanalysis

Cryptology, Cryptography, And Cryptanalysis

Cryptology, cryptography, and cryptanalysis Ray Alderman, VITA Standards Organization EVOLUTION OF WARFARE BLOG: Cryptography is a broad, sticky, and mathematically complex, but interesting subject and an integral part of the evolution of warfare. So lets get some definitions out of the way first. Cryptology is the study of codes, both creating and solving them. Cryptography is the art of creating codes. Cryptanalysis is the art of surreptitiously revealing the contents of coded messages, breaking codes, that were not intended for you as a recipient. Secondly, there are nomenclators and enciphers. Nomenclators are letters or numbers that represent words or phrases, like 103A means meet me at 4PM. Ciphers are alphabetical letters or numbers that are encrypted using some sequential coding process and a key. For this essay, we will refer to both as codes . Also, enciphered, encrypted and encoded mean the same thing. Additionally, there is plain text. This is the original message that is readable and understandable, uncoded or unencrypted. Once it goes through the coding process and is encrypted, the output is readable but not understandable. There are a bunch of other terms like steganography, homophones, polyphones, digraphs, bigrams, and polygrams, but they are just variations of coding and decoding techniques. Cryptology , the study of coded messages, dates back to Egypt about 1,900 BC, when a scribe carved some hieroglyphic symbols into a rock at the tomb of Khnumhotep II. Cryptology wasnt that hard back then, since most of the people were illiterate and only the elite could read any written language. Pharaohs and potentates, kings and queens, presidents and dictators, and military commanders have used cryptology to hide their communications from their enemies ever si Continue reading >>

Cryptology | Britannica.com

Cryptology | Britannica.com

Cryptology, science concerned with data communication and storage in secure and usually secret form. It encompasses both cryptography and cryptanalysis. The term cryptology is derived from the Greek krypts (hidden) and lgos (word). Security obtains from legitimate users being able to transform information by virtue of a secret key or keysi.e., information known only to them. The resulting cipher , although generally inscrutable and not forgeable without the secret key, can be decrypted by anyone knowing the key either to recover the hidden information or to authenticate the source. Secrecy, though still an important function in cryptology, is often no longer the main purpose of using a transformation, and the resulting transformation may be only loosely considered a cipher. Cryptography (from the Greek krypts and grphein, to write) was originally the study of the principles and techniques by which information could be concealed in ciphers and later revealed by legitimate users employing the secret key. It now encompasses the whole area of key-controlled transformations of information into forms that are either impossible or computationally infeasible for unauthorized persons to duplicate or undo. Cryptanalysis (from the Greek krypts and analein, to loosen or to untie) is the science (and art) of recovering or forging cryptographically secured information without knowledge of the key. Cryptology is oftenand mistakenlyconsidered a synonym for cryptography and occasionally for cryptanalysis, but specialists in the field have for years adopted the convention that cryptology is the more inclusive term, encompassing both cryptography and cryptanalysis. Cryptography was initially only concerned with providing secrecy for written messages, especially in times of war. Its princ Continue reading >>

Learn How To Become A Cryptographer And What They Do

Learn How To Become A Cryptographer And What They Do

Home Cyber Security Careers How to Become a Cryptographer In the year 2016 cyber space makes our world go round. The Internet is used by the vast majority of our population in one form or another, and this new world needs a great deal of protection. If youre interested in being one of the sheriffs of the cyber world, there are several career options available to you. Ciphers, algorithms and security systems are put into code by a Cryptographer. As a cryptographer you are in complete control of those codes and protecting those codes from the cyber hackers. Some detailed specific responsibilities might include: Guarantee financial data is protected and only available to authorized account holders Create security systems that guard against any exposures Ensure that all critical information is protected from being edited, copied or deleted Analyze data to solve any security issues using mathematical and/or statistical codes Test systems for any vulnerabilities and ensure they are accurate and reliable Aid in solving and security issues for the government or businesses Keep up to date with current research and strategies for coding and applications Cryptography is a career with options working for the government, FBI, insurance agencies, universities, and more. Specific job responsibilities will change according to your employer. A cryptographer that works for the government will have different expectations than one that works for a major university. What is required to become a cryptographer? Its important to complete the research not only of job responsibilities of a cryptographer but also what is required to obtain this critical position. Schooling plays an important role in requirements. The technical degree route is what youll need to look into. Most employers will exp Continue reading >>

What Is Cryptography? - Definition From Whatis.com

What Is Cryptography? - Definition From Whatis.com

Contributor(s): Kathleen Richards and Borys Pawliw Cryptography is a method of protecting information and communications through the use of codes so that only those for whom the information is intended can read and process it. The pre-fix "crypt" means "hidden" or "vault" and the suffix "graphy" stands for "writing." In computer science, cryptography refers to secure information and communication techniques derived from mathematical concepts and a set of rule-based calculations called algorithms to transform messages in ways that are hard to decipher. These deterministic algorithms are used for cryptographic key generation and digital signing and verification to protect data privacy, web browsing on the internet and confidential communications such as credit card transactions and email. Cryptography is closely related to the disciplines of cryptology and cryptanalysis . It includes techniques such as microdots, merging words with images, and other ways to hide information in storage or transit. However, in today's computer-centric world, cryptography is most often associated with scrambling plaintext (ordinary text, sometimes referred to as cleartext) into ciphertext (a process called encryption ), then back again (known as decryption). Individuals who practice this field are known as cryptographers. Modern cryptography concerns itself with the following four objectives: Confidentiality: the information cannot be understood by anyone for whom it was unintended Integrity: the information cannot be altered in storage or transit between sender and intended receiver without the alteration being detected Non-repudiation: the creator/sender of the information cannot deny at a later stage his or her intentions in the creation or transmission of the information Authentication: Continue reading >>

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