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Cryptographic Algorithms

Encryption Algorithms

Encryption Algorithms

Encryption is the process of converting a plaintext message into ciphertext which can be decoded back into the original message.An encryption algorithm along with a key is used in the encryption and decryption of data.There are several types of data encryptions which form the basis of network security.Encryption schemes are based on block or stream ciphers. The type and length of the keys utilized depend upon the encryption algorithm and the amount of security needed.In conventional symmetric encryption a single key is used.With this key, the sender can encrypt a message and a recipient can decrypt the message but the security of the key becomes problematic.In asymmetric encryption, the encryption key and the decryption key are different.One is a public key by which the sender can encrypt the message and the other is a private key by which a recipient can decrypt the message. A modern branch of cryptography. also known as public-key cryptography in which the algorithms employ a pair of keys (a public key and a private key)and use a different component of the pair for different steps of the algorithm. These algorithms work on chunks of specific sized data along with a key resulting in blocks of cipher text.The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a federal agencythat approved the Data Encryption Standard (DES) block cipher an early encryption algorithm created in the mid 1970s.The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) also set this security algorithm as the Data Encryption Algorithm (DEA) standard.Another standard developed in the 1980s is the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES).Some commonly used block cipher algorithms are IDEA, RC2, RC5, CAST and Skipjack. The results of the previously chained block is used in the encryption of the next Continue reading >>

What Is Cryptography? | Edureka

What Is Cryptography? | Edureka

Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for securing communication and data in the presence of adversaries. Alright, now that you know what is cryptography lets see how cryptography can help secure the connection between Andy and Sam. So, to protect his message, Andy first convert his readable message to unreadable form. Here, he converts the message to some random numbers. After that, he uses a key to encrypt his message, in Cryptography, we call this Andy sends this ciphertext or encrypted message over the communication channel, he wont have to worry about somebody in the middle of discovering his private messages. Suppose, Eaves here discover the message and he somehow manages to alter it before it reaches Sam. Now, Sam would need a key to decrypt the message to recover the original plaintext. In order to convert the ciphertext into plain text, Sam would need to use the decryption key. Using the key he would convert the ciphertext or the numerical value to the corresponding plain text. After using the key for decryption what will come out is the original plaintext message, is an error. Now, this error is very important. It is the way Sam knows that message sent by Andy is not the same as the message that he received. Thus, we can say that encryption is important to communicate or share information over the network. Now, based on the type of keys and encryption algorithms, cryptography is classified under the following categories: Cryptography is broadly classified into two categories: Symmetric key Cryptography and Asymmetric key Cryptography (popularly known as public key cryptography). Now Symmetric key Cryptography is further categorized as Classical Cryptography and Modern Cryptography. Further drilling down, Classical Cryptography is divided into T Continue reading >>

Cryptography - Wikipedia

Cryptography - Wikipedia

"Secret code" redirects here. For the Aya Kamiki album, see Secret Code . "Cryptology" redirects here. For the David S. Ware album, see Cryptology (album) . Cryptography or cryptology (from Greek krypts, "hidden, secret"; and graphein, "writing", or - -logia , "study", respectively [1] ) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries . [2] More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages; [3] various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality , data integrity , authentication , and non-repudiation [4] are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics , computer science , electrical engineering , communication science , and physics . Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce , chip-based payment cards , digital currencies , computer passwords , and military communications . Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption , the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense . The originator of an encrypted message shared the decoding technique needed to recover the original information only with intended recipients, thereby precluding unwanted persons from doing the same. The cryptography literature often uses the name Alice ("A") for the sender, Bob ("B") for the intended recipient, and Eve (" eavesdropper ") for the adversary. [5] Since the development of rotor cipher machines in World WarI and the advent of computers in World WarII , the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread. Modern cry Continue reading >>

Asymmetric Algorithms

Asymmetric Algorithms

This is a Hazardous Materials module. You should ONLY use it if youre100% absolutely sure that you know what youre doing because this module isfull of land mines, dragons, and dinosaurs with laser guns. Asymmetric cryptography is a branch of cryptography where a secret key can bedivided into two parts, a public key and a private key . Thepublic key can be given to anyone, trusted or not, while the private key mustbe kept secret (just like the key in symmetric cryptography). Asymmetric cryptography has two primary use cases: authentication andconfidentiality. Using asymmetric cryptography, messages can be signed with aprivate key, and then anyone with the public key is able to verify that themessage was created by someone possessing the corresponding private key. Thiscan be combined with a proof of identity system to know what entity (personor group) actually owns that private key, providing authentication. Encryption with asymmetric cryptography works in a slightly different way fromsymmetric encryption. Someone with the public key is able to encrypt a message,providing confidentiality, and then only the person in possession of theprivate key is able to decrypt it. Continue reading >>

Encryption Algorithms

Encryption Algorithms

Encryption algorithms are commonly used in computer communications, including FTP transfers . Usually they are used to provide secure transfers. If an algorithm is used in a transfer, the file is first translated into a seemingly meaningless cipher text and then transferred in this configuration; the receiving computer uses a key to translate the cipher into its original form. So if the message or file is intercepted before it reaches the receiving computer it is in an unusable (or encrypted) form. This is an encryption algorithm called Data Encryption Standard that was first used by the U.S. Government in the late 70's. It is commonly used in ATM machines (to encrypt PINs) and is utilized in UNIX password encryption. Triple DES or 3DES has replaced the older versions as a more secure method of encryption, as it encrypts data three times and uses a different key for at least one of the versions. Blowfish is a symmetric block cipher that is unpatented and free to use. It was developed by Bruce Schneier and introduced in 1993. Advanced Encryption Standard or Rijndael; it uses the Rijndael block cipher approved by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). AES was originated by cryptographers Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen and replaced DES as the U.S. Government encryption technique in 2000. Twofish is a block cipher designed by Counterpane Labs. It was one of the five Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) finalists and is unpatented and open source. This encryption algorithm was used in Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) Version 2 and is an optional algorithm in OpenPGP. IDEA features 64bit blocks with a 128bit key. MD5 was developed by Professor Ronald Riverst and was used to create digital signatures. It is a oneway hash function and intended for 32bit machines. It Continue reading >>

Cryptographic Algorithms And Protocols

Cryptographic Algorithms And Protocols

Often, your software should provide a way toreject too small keys, and let the user set what too small is.For RSA keys, 512 bits is too small for use.There is increasing evidence that1024 bits for RSA keys is not enough either;Bernstein has suggested techniques that simplify brute-forcing RSA, andother work based on it(such as Shamir and Tromers "Factoring Large Numbers with the TWIRL device")now suggests that 1024 bit keys can be broken in a yearby a $10 Million device.You may want tomake 2048 bits the minimum for RSA if you really want a secure system.For more about RSA specifically, see RSAscommentary on Bernsteins work.For a more general discussion of key length and other generalcryptographic algorithm issues, see NISTs key management workshop in November 2001. When you need a security protocol, try to use standard-conforming protocolssuch as IPSec, SSL (soon to be TLS), SSH, S/MIME, OpenPGP/GnuPG/PGP,and Kerberos.Each has advantages and disadvantages;many of them overlap somewhat in functionality, but each tends to beused in different areas: Internet Protocol Security (IPSec).IPSec provides encryption and/or authentication at the IP packet level.However, IPSec is often used in a way thatonly guarantees authenticity of twocommunicating hosts, not of the users.As a practical matter, IPSec usually requires low-level supportfrom the operating system (which not all implement) andan additional keyring server that must be configured.Since IPSec can be used as a "tunnel" to secure packets belonging tomultiple users and multiple hosts, it is especially useful forbuilding a Virtual Private Network (VPN) and connecting a remote machine.As of this time, it is much less often used to secure communicationfrom individual clients to servers.The new version of the Internet Protoco Continue reading >>

Performance Evaluation Of Cryptographic Algorithms Over Iot Platforms And Operating Systems

Performance Evaluation Of Cryptographic Algorithms Over Iot Platforms And Operating Systems

Performance Evaluation of Cryptographic Algorithms over IoT Platforms and Operating Systems Correspondence should be addressed to Geovandro C. C. F. Pereira Received 1 May 2017; Accepted 17 July 2017; Published 23 August 2017 Copyright 2017 Geovandro C. C. F. Pereira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The deployment of security services over Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and IoT devices brings significant processing and energy consumption overheads. These overheads are mainly determined by algorithmic efficiency, quality of implementation, and operating system. Benchmarks of symmetric primitives exist in the literature for WSN platforms but they are mostly focused on single platforms or single operating systems. Moreover, they are not up to date with respect to implementations and/or operating systems versions which had significant progress. Herein, we provide time and energy benchmarks of reference implementations for different platforms and operating systems and analyze their impact. Moreover, we not only give the first benchmark results of symmetric cryptography for the Intel Edison IoT platform but also describe a methodology of how to measure energy consumption on that platform. The progressive growth of IoT applications has been broadening the spectrum of transmitted data, bringing an increasing demand of security services like data confidentiality, integrity, and source authentication. However, the attempt to employ security mechanisms that are typical of conventional networks is likely to cause undesirable effects due to hardware-related resource limitations. The most relevan Continue reading >>

A Glossary Of Cryptographic Algorithms

A Glossary Of Cryptographic Algorithms

Cryptography at its very core is math. Pure, simple, undiluted math. Math created the algorithms that are the basis for all encryption. And encryption is the basis for privacy and security on the internet. So, we love math. Even if it is a tad complicated. With that being said, algorithms have to be built to work against computers. As computers get smarter, algorithms become weaker and we must therefore look at new solutions. This is how cryptography evolves to beat the bad guys. So how is it done? First you need to build a cryptosystem that is both confidential and authentic. This cryptosystem is responsible for creating the key(s) that will be used to encrypt and then decrypt the data or message. A number of signing algorithms have been created over the years to create these keys, some of which have since been deprecated as computing power has increased. Before going through some of the main and most popular algorithms known in cryptography, it might be a good idea to recap on a couple of terms you will probably come across a lot during this article. A brute force attack or a dictionary attack as its also known is a trial and error method of obtaining the private key of an encrypted packet of data. The trial and error is done by a computer so the higher the computational power, the more tries it can have in a short space of time. As computing power and performance increases, the ability to find the private key increases, unless you increase the length of the key so that a higher number of possibilities exist. Key size or key length refers to the number of bits in a key used by a cryptographic algorithm. Only the correct key can decrypt a ciphertext (output) back into plaintext (input). As CPU power gets more advanced, the computational time required to brute force an Continue reading >>

How Can We Compare Encryption Algorithms?

How Can We Compare Encryption Algorithms?

There are some approach about encryption research and the metrics in each one are similar but not identical. In traditional cryptography the metrics are those explained before but for example in biometric encryption the metrics are cryptographic security in terms of strength of the encryption process, the length of the key if there is a key, the properties of the encryption keys and others. The other metrics are revocability and performance, the first is about the facility of the generation of some different templates from the same biometric trait and the second is about the performance of the system in terms of FAR, FRR, GAR, GRR, the computational complexity and the response time that are very important in systems operating in real time. You should read up on the AES standardisation selection process. Rijndael Being the most popular cipher in use today due its victory. It beat out 'more secure' contestants for reasons you can read up on though mainly the time needed by computers to use them being impractical for envisioned uses. Many friends have given that the complexity of encryption/decryption algorithm ensures the security of the encryption, It is not so. Algorithm should be simple and can be even made public, The strength of the crypto-system should be on the strength of the key only. "Acryptosystemshould be secure even if everything about the system, except thekey, is public knowledge. Kerckhoffs' principle was reformulated (or perhaps independently formulated) by American mathematicianClaude Shannonas "theenemyknows the system" i.e., "one should design systems under the assumption that the enemy will immediately gain full familiarity with them". Continue reading >>

Differences Between Hash Functions, Symmetric & Asymmetric Algorithms

Differences Between Hash Functions, Symmetric & Asymmetric Algorithms

Differences between Hash functions, Symmetric & Asymmetric Algorithms Cryptographic algorithms can be categorized into three classes:Hash functions, Symmetric and Asymmetric algorithms. This article sheds light on their differences, purpose and main fields of application. A lot of security services such as confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation can be provided by using cryptographic algorithms. Confidentiality serves the purpose that information is not revealed to unauthorized entities. Confidentiality is accomplished by transforming the understandable information to a state that is unintelligible except by authorized entities. This transformation mechanism is called encryption. Decryption of unintelligible data is performed to restore it to its original state. Both symmetric and asymmetric algorithms can provide encryption. Confidentiality is not only important for data at rest but also for the network communication data. Integrity is a mechanism that assures that the data has not been altered in an unapproved way. The integrity of data is maintained at the creation, transmission and storage phases. Alteration of data includes insertion, deletion and substitution breaches. Digital signatures and message authentication codes (MAC) are the cryptographic mechanisms which can be used to notice both intentional & accidental alterations. There are 2 types of authentication services which can be achieved using cryptography i.e. Source and Integrity authentication. Source authentication assures identity of the entity that originally generated/crafted the information. Integrity authentication validates that data has not been modified and the integrity of data is protected. Non-repudiation is the guarantee that no one can deny a transaction. The termino Continue reading >>

Rfc 4307 - Cryptographic Algorithms For Use In The Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (ikev2)

Rfc 4307 - Cryptographic Algorithms For Use In The Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (ikev2)

Network Working Group J. SchillerRequest for Comments: 4307 Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCategory: Standards Track December 2005 Cryptographic Algorithms for Use in the Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2)Status of This Memo This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.Copyright Notice Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).Abstract The IPsec series of protocols makes use of various cryptographic algorithms in order to provide security services. The Internet Key Exchange (IKE ( RFC 2409 ) and IKEv2) provide a mechanism to negotiate which algorithms should be used in any given association. However, to ensure interoperability between disparate implementations, it is necessary to specify a set of mandatory-to-implement algorithms to ensure that there is at least one algorithm that all implementations will have available. This document defines the current set of algorithms that are mandatory to implement as part of IKEv2, as well as algorithms that should be implemented because they may be promoted to mandatory at some future time. 1 . Introduction The Internet Key Exchange protocol provides for the negotiation of cryptographic algorithms between both endpoints of a cryptographic association. Different implementations of IPsec and IKE may provide different algorithms. However, the IETF desires that all implementations should have some way to interoperate. In particular, this requires that IKE define a set of mandatory-to-implement algorithms because IKE itself uses such algo Continue reading >>

Guide To Cryptography

Guide To Cryptography

To ensure that cryptography is safely used to protect the confidentiality and integrity of sensitive user data. Initially confined to the realms of academia and the military, cryptography has become ubiquitous thanks to the Internet. Common every day uses of cryptography include mobile phones, passwords, SSL, smart cards, and DVDs. Cryptography has permeated everyday life, and is heavily used by many web applications. Cryptography (or crypto) is one of the more advanced topics of information security, and one whose understanding requires the most schooling and experience. It is difficult to get right because there are many approaches to encryption, each with advantages and disadvantages that need to be thoroughly understood by web solution architects and developers. In addition, serious cryptography research is typically based in advanced mathematics and number theory, providing a serious barrier to entry. The proper and accurate implementation of cryptography is extremely critical to its efficacy. A small mistake in configuration or coding will result in removing a large degree of the protection it affords and rending the crypto implementation useless against serious attacks. A good understanding of crypto is required to be able to discern between solid products and snake oil. The inherent complexity of crypto makes it easy to fall for fantastic claims from vendors about their product. Typically, these are a breakthrough in cryptography or unbreakable or provide "military grade" security. If a vendor says "trust us, we have had experts look at this, chances are they weren't experts! Cryptographic systems can provide one or more of the following four services. It is important to distinguish between these, as some algorithms are more suited to particular tasks, but not Continue reading >>

An Overview Of Cryptography

An Overview Of Cryptography

1998-2018 A much shorter version of this paper first appeared in Handbook on Local Area Networks (Auerbach, Sept. 1998). Since that time, this paper has taken on a life of its own... Does increased security provide comfort to paranoid people? Or does security provide some very basic protections that we are naive to believe that we don't need? During this time when the Internet provides essential communication between literally billions of people and is used as a tool for commerce, social interaction, and the exchange of an increasing amount of personal information, security has become a tremendously important issue for every user to deal with. There are many aspects to security and many applications, ranging from secure commerce and payments to private communications and protecting health care information. One essential aspect for secure communications is that of cryptography. But it is important to note that while cryptography is necessary for secure communications, it is not by itself sufficient. The reader is advised, then, that the topics covered here only describe the first of many steps necessary for better security in any number of situations. This paper has two major purposes. The first is to define some of the terms and concepts behind basic cryptographic methods, and to offer a way to compare the myriad cryptographic schemes in use today. The second is to provide some real examples of cryptography in use today. (See Section A.4 for some additional commentary on this...) DISCLAIMER: Several companies, products, and services are mentioned in this tutorial. Such mention is for example purposes only and, unless explicitly stated otherwise, should not be taken as a recommendation or endorsement by the author. Cryptography is the science of secret writing is an anc Continue reading >>

Cryptographic Algorithm Design

Cryptographic Algorithm Design

To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 video From the course by New York University Tandon School of Engineering Course 2 of 4 in the Specialization Introduction to Cyber Security This course introduces the basics of cyber defense starting with foundational models such as Bell-LaPadula and information flow frameworks. These underlying policy enforcements mechanisms help introduce basic functional protections, starting with authentication methods. Learners will be introduced to a series of different authentication solutions and protocols, including RSA SecureID and Kerberos, in the context of a canonical schema. The basics of cryptography are also introduced with attention to conventional block ciphers as well as public key cryptography. Important cryptographic techniques such as cipher block chaining and triple-DES are explained. Modern certification authority-based cryptographic support is also discussed and shown to provide basis for secure e-commerce using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) schemes. Research Professor, NYU and CEO, TAG Cyber LLC I want to spend some time with you on Cryptographic Algorithm Design. Now, you might think you'd have to be a complete mathematical genius or total gearhead, but I want to decode a little bit for you, just to show that there is a method to the madness. And if you wanted to make up a crypto-algorithm, There's two strategies that are used frequently for creating crypto-algorithms. That's where I'm doing a replacement of one thing with another. The dumb examples are replace one letter with another letter, not the greatest substitution cipher but it gives you the idea. like it doesn't have to be one letter, another letter. have this language that they use when there are c Continue reading >>

A Comprehensive Evaluation Of Cryptographic Algorithms: Des, 3des, Aes, Rsa And Blowfish

A Comprehensive Evaluation Of Cryptographic Algorithms: Des, 3des, Aes, Rsa And Blowfish

A Comprehensive Evaluation of Cryptographic Algorithms: DES, 3DES, AES, RSA and Blowfish Author links open overlay panel PriyadarshiniPatila In today's internet era, with online transactions almost every second and terabytes of data being generated everyday on the internet, securing information is a challenge. Cryptography is an integral part of modern world information security making the virtual world a safer place. Cryptography is a process of making information unintelligible to an unauthorized person. Hence, providing confidentiality to genuine users. There are various cryptographic algorithms that can be used. Ideally, a user needs a cryptographic algorithm which is of low cost and high performance. However, in reality such algorithm which is a one stop solution does not exist. There are several algorithms with a cost performance trade off. For example, a banking application requires utmost security at high cost and a gaming application sending player pattern for analytics does not bother much about security but needs to be fast and cost effective. Thus, amongst the cryptographic algorithms existing, we choose an algorithm which best fits the user requirements. In, this process of choosing cryptographic algorithms, a study of strengths, weakness, cost and performance of each algorithm will provide valuable insights. In our paper, we have implemented and analyzed in detail cost and performance of popularly used cryptographic algorithms DES, 3DES, AES, RSA and blowfish to show an overall performance analysis, unlike only theoretical comparisons. Continue reading >>

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