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Bitcoin Protocol Explained

What Is Bitcoin? Everything You Need To Know About Bitcoin, Explained

What Is Bitcoin? Everything You Need To Know About Bitcoin, Explained

What is Bitcoin? Everything You Need to Know About Bitcoin, Explained written by Daniel Frumkin January 17, 2018 If youre new to cryptocurrency, your first question is probably what is Bitcoin?. The short answer is that Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency or digital asset made secure by cryptography. Bitcoin and most (but not all) other cryptocurrencies use blockchain technology. This article will answer the common questions that newcomers have when first learning about Bitcoin. How do blockchains work? What makes Bitcoin valuable? What is decentralization? What is mining? How do you buy Bitcoin? How do you safely store it? How do you send or receive Bitcoin from somebody else? But we wont just stop there. Once you get the basics down, well also explain how hard forks work, like the one that created Bitcoin Cash. Finally, well wrap up with a look towards the future of Bitcoin and how the network can potentially scale up to handle a transaction volume thats orders of magnitude larger than it does today. There may be blockchain-related terms in this article that you are unfamiliar with. If you come across some, dont worry about understanding immediately. Keep reading and see if the context helps clear things up. If you want to make sure you understand everything more thoroughly, you can also refer our guides to essential blockchain and cryptocurrency terms. There are many different cryptocurrencies out there that serve different purposes. Bitcoin is the first and most well-known cryptocurrency, but not all cryptocurrencies necessarily resemble Bitcoin. At its most fundamental level, a cryptocurrency is simply a peer-to-peer digital payment system. Another way to say peer-to-peer is that there is no middleman specifically banks or financial institutions that facilitate transactio Continue reading >>

Bitcoin Basics Explained: The Mnos Of Btc

Bitcoin Basics Explained: The Mnos Of Btc

Last updated on January 2nd, 2018 at 12:00 am In my earlier essays, Bitcoin Basics Explained: the ABCs of BTC , I have reviewed a number of topics from A is for Acceptability all the way to L is for Legal . Today, Id like to say M is for just one thing, but there are quite a lot of good candidates. Ive picked out three of them. One of the important discoveries in the years since David Chaum first pioneered digital cash is the need for the capability to have multiple signatures to confirm that a certain event has taken place. In developing the Bitcoin protocol , Satoshi Nakamoto was very aware of this need. Bitcoin provides for multiple signatures. Using the multisignature feature, you can have a Bitcoin address with several associated private keys, such that you need any more than one of them to spend the funds. You can specify how many keys have to sign, and have as many keys involved as you wish. Multisig escrow features are found in services provided by companies like Bitrated as well as somewhat more mainstream Bitcoin sites like Coinbase . Very detailed information about multisig and other features is found in the Bitcoin Developers Guide . Wallets featuring multisig include Greenaddress.it and BitGo. Another company with a very active interest in Bitcoin multisig is CryptoCorp. Multisignature wallets were also one of the main points of discussion in Coin Briefs interview withSam Patterson of Open Bazaar . Coin mixing is a technology used to reduce the exposure of your privacy on the public blockchain. By putting some bitcoins from other users together with the bitcoins you are spending, a mixing service deliberately confuses the trail to the users involved. A Bitcoin wiki offers 15 different sites with bitcoin mixing services . Of course, because of the nature of Continue reading >>

Bitcoins The Hard Way: Using The Raw Bitcoin Protocol

Bitcoins The Hard Way: Using The Raw Bitcoin Protocol

Xerox Alto restoration, IC reverse engineering, chargers, and whatever Bitcoins the hard way: Using the raw Bitcoin protocol All the recent media attention on Bitcoin inspired me to learn how Bitcoin really works, right down to the bytes flowing through the network.Normal people use software [1] that hides what is really going on, but I wanted to get a hands-on understanding of the Bitcoin protocol.My goal was to use the Bitcoin system directly: create a Bitcoin transaction manually, feed it into the system as hex data, and see how it gets processed.This turned out to be considerably harder than I expected, but I learned a lot in the process and hopefully you will find it interesting. (Feb 23: I have a new article that covers the technical details of mining . If you like this article, check out my mining article too.) This blog post starts with a quick overview of Bitcoin and then jumps into the low-level details: creating a Bitcoin address, making a transaction, signing the transaction, feeding the transaction into the peer-to-peer network, and observing the results. I'll start with a quick overview of how Bitcoin works [2] ,before diving into the details.Bitcoin is a relatively new digital currency [3] that can be transmitted across the Internet. You can buy bitcoins [4] with dollars or other traditional money from sites such as Coinbase or MtGox [5] , send bitcoins to other people, buy things with them at some places , and exchange bitcoins back into dollars. To simplify slightly, bitcoins consist of entries in a distributed database that keeps track of the ownership of bitcoins.Unlike a bank, bitcoins are not tied to users or accounts. Instead bitcoins are owned by a Bitcoin address, for example 1KKKK6N21XKo48zWKuQKXdvSsCf95ibHFa. A transaction is the mechanism for Continue reading >>

A Guide To Bitcoin (part I): A Look Under The Hood

A Guide To Bitcoin (part I): A Look Under The Hood

A Guide to Bitcoin (Part I): A look under the hood (Editors note: This is a four post series on Bitcoin, which willcover the virtual currencys protocol and ecosystem as well as where Europe stands in terms of Bitcoin innovation , research and opportunities. This first post sheds light on how Bitcoin works and its underlying technology.) Many are saying Bitcoin is the new black.But how many people really understand what the digital currency means for the future? Im tired of reading post after post on the economic ramifications of Bitcoin; on how this new virtual currency is unsafe for trading due to its volatile nature Fig. 1: Mt.Gox trading after the attack that made them bankrupt How about the volatile nature of the current markets after the Crimea incident, which made the FTSE 100 slip by 1.4% , or when NASDAQ halted trading for three hours disrupting the $16 billion Facebook IPO? Fig. 2: FTSE 100 trading when Russia invaded the Crimea peninsula It seems very few people writing and covering Bitcoin really understand what cryptocurrencies are all about, the genius of its design and the potential for it to change the digital landscape. To really understand Bitcoin, we have to go back to basics how does currency work in the physical world? Imagine you go to a cafe and buy a coffee. The purchasing of a coffee implies a transaction where two goods have been exchanged. In particular, the vendor hands you a beverage and you, the customer, give a token in exchange, which represents an accorded value (be it coins or bills). One property of physical currency that prevents to some degree fraudulent usage is its physical nature. When you pay with a coin or bill, the physical token gets transferred to a new pocket, the vendors, and there is a kind of validation that you were the Continue reading >>

Bitcoin Payment Protocol Explained

Bitcoin Payment Protocol Explained

What do you do with bitcoin? Why, you spend it of course! Or more precisely you pay for something or some service using it. The specific process to pay using bitcoin is called the Bitcoin Payment Protocol and it is codified in a document called BIP70. A BIP is a Bitcoin Improvement Proposal and is one of the mechanisms used by the Bitcoin core developers to improve Bitcoin. There are all sorts of BIPS on lots of great topics but lets not get diverted. Go to: and check them out yourself. Now back to BIP70 the payment protocol. The description is at: and is the basis for the technical content of this article. The abstract of the payment protocol states: This BIP describes a protocol for communication between a merchant and their customer, enabling both a better customer experience and better security against man-in-the-middle attacks on the payment process. Note that a man-in-the-middle (sometimes abbreviated MITM) attack is when a customer connects to a merchant, and it turns out that the customer is not really talking to the merchant. Rather the customer is talking to a man sitting in between (in the middle) the customer and the merchant. This man can see all of the traffic going between the customer and the vendor and is thus able to get the usernames, passwords and credit card info and all that sort of personal stuff, by imitating the vendor. With a good imitation the customer will likely be none the wiser. MITM attacks are insidious and technologies (such as the BIP70 payment protocol) to prevent them are important. Lets break down the concept of a payment protocol. First, a payment is the transfer of value from one individual to another. Second, a protocol is a specific process or sequence of messages that must take place in a particular order. As part of the proce Continue reading >>

How The Bitcoin Protocol Actually Works

How The Bitcoin Protocol Actually Works

Many thousands of articles have been written purporting to explain Bitcoin, the online, peer-to-peer currency. Most of those articles give a hand-wavy account of the underlying cryptographic protocol, omitting many details. Even those articles which delve deeper often gloss over crucial points. My aim in this post is to explain the major ideas behind the Bitcoin protocol in a clear, easily comprehensible way. Well start from first principles, build up to a broad theoretical understanding of how the protocol works, and then dig down into the nitty-gritty, examining the raw data in a Bitcoin transaction. Understanding the protocol in this detailed way is hard work. It is tempting instead to take Bitcoin as given, and to engage in speculation about how to get rich with Bitcoin, whether Bitcoin is a bubble, whether Bitcoin might one day mean the end of taxation, and so on. Thats fun, but severely limits your understanding. Understanding the details of the Bitcoin protocol opens up otherwise inaccessible vistas. In particular, its the basis for understanding Bitcoins built-in scripting language, which makes it possible to use Bitcoin to create new types of financial instruments, such as smart contracts . New financial instruments can, in turn, be used to create new markets and to enable new forms of collective human behaviour. Talk about fun! Ill describe Bitcoin scripting and concepts such as smart contracts in future posts. This post concentrates on explaining the nuts-and-bolts of the Bitcoin protocol. To understand the post, you need to be comfortable with public key cryptography , and with the closely related idea of digital signatures . Ill also assume youre familiar with cryptographic hashing . None of this is especially difficult. The basic ideas can be taught in fr Continue reading >>

Litecoin Vs. Bitcoin: The Difference Explained

Litecoin Vs. Bitcoin: The Difference Explained

Currently the third most valuable Cryptocurrency by market capitalisation, Litecoin is already well established. Yet, what is it exactly and how is it different from Bitcoin. We have previously gone into the specifics of what Bitcoin is as well as you it is mined, stored sent and received. LiteCoin shares many similarities with Bitcoin and has often been termed the Silver to Bitcoins Gold. This is mainly because Litecoin was created to improve on Bitcoin. It was started in 2011 by Charlie Lee who 2 years after Bitcoin was created. Charlie Lee is an ex Google engineer and used to work as the head of Engineering at Coinbase. When it comes to the difference between the two, it mainly boils down to how they are mined including the algorithms that are used and the constraints that are placed on the network. Users are able to notice the impact of the different protocols mainly on the speed of the transactions. When it comes to some of the biggest constraints on Bitcoin, scaling is among the most pertinent. This is mainly due to the initial assumptions and technology behind the protocols. There are also some concerns that it has become quite centralised as large mining companies take over the industry. Litecoin wanted to address these concerns and it mostly comes down to the algorithm that is used to mine. The hashing algorithm and function that is used to confirm the transactions and mine on the Bitcoin network is a SHA 256 algorithm. This hashing algorithm is one of the most complex and as such requires much more time to confirm. Litecoin, on the other hand, uses a hashing algorithm called Scrypt pronounced Script. This is generally quicker and lass complex of the two. This means that transactions can take place more quickly as blocks are cleared in a more efficient manner. Continue reading >>

The Bitcoin Protocol: How It Works

The Bitcoin Protocol: How It Works

Learn the ins and outs of the world's most popular virtual currency, including how Bitcoin and blockchain work together and how Bitcoins are created. Jan. 11, 17 Cloud Zone Site24x7 - Full stack It Infrastructure Monitoring from the cloud. Sign up for free trial. Bitcoin is a form of digital cash that allows online payments between the buyer and the seller. It works as a digital ledger that records transactions and balances of accounts. Bitcoins are exchanged using the Bitcoin Protocol built over the principles of cryptography . The protocol defines the procedure that is followed by a Bitcoin transaction from its creation, through validation and final confirmation. At the core of protocol is the Bitcoin transaction mechanism . Bitcoins are spent from electronic Bitcoin Wallets and are exchanged using Bitcoin transactions. In order to understand the protocol, let us first try to understand a transaction, the information it contains and how this information is processed. A Bitcoin transaction essentially contains the following information: ID: Unique transaction ID which is the SHA256 double-hash of the transaction data. Input: The bitcoin addresses that identify the sources of the bitcoins to be transferred. These are usually a previous transactions output and are used to verify the sender and check the available balance. Amount: The number of bitcoins to be transferred. Output: The receivers bitcoin address. In cases where there is leftover bitcoin change, the output should also include an entry for the senders address to send it back, to be collected as Transaction Fee" or to be sent to another receiver. Outputs from one transaction can be used as inputs for another transaction. This creates a chain of ownership as the bitcoin value is moved from address to address. A Continue reading >>

Why The Heck Bitcoin Might Split Intwo?

Why The Heck Bitcoin Might Split Intwo?

Why the heck Bitcoin might split intwo? Everything you wanted to understand about potential August 1 fork but were afraid toask. Theres a lot of fuss in the bitcoin community about what will happen on August 1. Will the cryptocurrency split into two new ones? Will it not? What is BIP 91? What is BIP 148? What is SegWit? The incredibly significant date is just around the corner but there are still so many unanswered questions! By the way, I am curator of a weekly newsletter, Unmade , which delivers one idea from the future to your inboxes. I have put together this guide to walk you through the whole situation to keep you informed about the developments. As of this writing, it seems like, bitcoin will avoid the chain split for now . However, even though it seems like the opposing parties have reached a joint conclusion, theres still a lot that needs to happen to avert the split. To understand whats actually happening and why the bitcoin community has split into two, its best to take a look at one of the fundamental issues of cryptocurrency or to be more exact how people disagree about how to fix that issue. On one side, there are the people who manage the open sourced software for bitcoin. They are like the organisation/community that keeps the development on the bitcoin protocol running. On the other side are the miners, who deploy computers to run the bitcoin network (blockchain). Both sides are crucial to keep the bitcoin running one side cant do it without the other. And to fully understand the issue, you need to understand the mechanics of bitcoin, and thats why Ive tried to explain the complete deal with bitcoin chain split in this guide. Death is the solution to all problems. No man no problem. JosephStalin Most people think of bitcoin as a digital currency that y Continue reading >>

Bitcoin Explained: Here's Everything You Need To Know - Cnet

Bitcoin Explained: Here's Everything You Need To Know - Cnet

What is bitcoin? Here's everything you need to know Blockchains, bubbles and the future of money. Every bitcoin story must include an image of a physical bitcoin. Note: Physical bitcoin coins do not really exist. We're guessing: yes, you have. The first and most famous digital cryptocurrency has been racking up headlines due to a breathtaking rise in value -- cracking the $1,000 threshold for the first time on Jan. 1, 2017 , topping $19,000 in December of that year and then shedding about 50 percent of its value during the first part of 2018. But the Bitcoin story has so much more to it than just headline-grabbing pricing swings. It incorporates technology, currency, math, economics and social dynamics. It's multifaceted, highly technical and still very much evolving. This explainer is meant to clarify some of the fundamental concepts and provide answers to some basic bitcoin questions. Bitcoin was invented in 2009 by a person (or group) who called himself Satoshi Nakamoto. His stated goal was to create "a new electronic cash system" that was "completely decentralized with no server or central authority." After cultivating the concept and technology, in 2011, Nakamoto turned over the source code and domains to others in the bitcoin community, and subsequently vanished. (Check out the New Yorker's great profile of Nakamoto from 2011.) Now Playing: Watch this: Bitcoin: A beginner's guide It's actually a little more complicated than that. Simply put, bitcoin is a digital currency. No bills to print or coins to mint. It's decentralized -- there's no government, institution (like a bank) or other authority that controls it. Owners are anonymous; instead of using names, tax IDs, or social security numbers, bitcoin connects buyers and sellers through encryption keys . And it Continue reading >>

Still Don't Get Bitcoin? Here's An Explanation For Five-year-olds

Still Don't Get Bitcoin? Here's An Explanation For Five-year-olds

If you still cant figure out what the heck a bitcoin is, this simple explanation for a five-year-old may help you ... Were sitting on a park bench. Its a great day.I have one apple with me, I give it to you. You now have one apple and I have zero.That was simple, right? My apple was physically put into your hand.You know it happened. I was there, you were there you touched it. We didnt need athird personthere to help us make the transfer. We didnt need to pull in Uncle Tommy (whos a famous judge) to sit with us on the bench and confirm that the apple went from me to you. The apples yours! Icantgive you another apple because I dont have any left. I cant control it anymore. The apple left my possession completely. You have full control over that apple now. You can give it to your friend if you want, and then that friend can give it to his friend, and so on. So thats what an in-person exchange looks like. I guess its really the same, whether Im giving you a banana, a book, a quarter, or adollar bill Now, let's say I have onedigitalapple. Here, Ill give you mydigitalapple. Ah! Now it gets interesting. How do you knowthatdigital apple which used to be mine, is now yours, and only yours? Think about it for a second.Its more complicated, right? How do you know that I didnt send that apple to Uncle Tommy as an email attachment first? Or your friend Joe? Or my friend Lisa too? Maybe I made a couple of copies of that digital apple on my computer. Maybe I put it up on the internet and one million people downloaded it. As you see, this digital exchange is a bit of a problem.Sendingdigitalapples doesnt look like sendingphysicalapples. Some brainy computer scientists actually have a name for this problem: its called the double-spending problem . But dont worry about it. All you need Continue reading >>

Explain Bitcoin To Me

Explain Bitcoin To Me

Get the latest security news in your inbox. Most Bitcoin articles get rushed up in the price movements of Bitcoin, and there's a place for that. This article, instead, will focus on the technical and InfoSec aspects of Bitcoin, and will aim to provide an understanding of the Bitcoin network and protocol. Bitcoin has been spoken of repeatedly in the news, nearly always on the topic of price movements and where it may go next. For more technical readers, the price movements aren't always the most important point. You may have fundamental questions that remain unanswered by these news organizations. Questions like; "How many Bitcoins are there?", "What is the Bitcoin network?", and even "How can I participate?" Firstly, what is the purpose of Bitcoin? Why does it exist? In the words of Satoshi Nakamoto, the anonymous inventor of Bitcoin: Commerce on the Internet has come to rely almost exclusively on financial institutions serving as trusted third parties to process electronic payments. While the system works well enough for most transactions, it still suffers from the inherent weaknesses of the trust based model. Completely non-reversible transactions are not really possible, since financial institutions cannot avoid mediating disputes. The cost of mediation increases transaction costs, limiting the minimum practical transaction size and cutting off the possibility for small casual transactions, and there is a broader cost in the loss of ability to make non-reversible payments for non-reversible services. With the possibility of reversal, the need for trust spreads. Merchants must be wary of their customers, hassling them for more information than they would otherwise need. A certain percentage of fraud is accepted as unavoidable. These costs and payment uncertainties ca Continue reading >>

Bitcoin Network - Wikipedia

Bitcoin Network - Wikipedia

For a broader coverage related to this topic, see Bitcoin . The bitcoin network is a peer-to-peer payment network that operates on a cryptographic protocol . Users send and receive bitcoins , the units of currency, by broadcasting digitally signed messages to the network using bitcoin cryptocurrency wallet software. Transactions are recorded into a distributed, replicated public database known as the blockchain , with consensus achieved by a proof-of-work system called mining. The protocol was designed in 2008 and released in 2009 as open source software by Satoshi Nakamoto , the name or pseudonym of the original developer/developer group. The network requires minimal structure to share transactions. An ad hoc decentralized network of volunteers is sufficient. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will. Upon reconnection, a node downloads and verifies new blocks from other nodes to complete its local copy of the blockchain. [1] [2] An actual bitcoin transaction including the fee from a webbased cryptocurrency exchange to a hardware wallet. The best chain consists of the longest series of transaction records from the genesis block to the current block or record. Orphaned records exist outside of the best chain. A bitcoin is defined by a sequence of digitally signed transactions that began with the bitcoin's creation, as a block reward. The owner of a bitcoin transfers it by digitally signing it over to the next owner using a bitcoin transaction, much like endorsing a traditional bank check . A payee can examine each previous transaction to verify the chain of ownership. Unlike traditional check endorsements, bitcoin transactions are irreversible, which eliminates risk of chargeback fraud . [3] Although it is possibl Continue reading >>

Developer Guide - Bitcoin

Developer Guide - Bitcoin

BETA: This documentation has not been extensively reviewed by Bitcoin experts and so likely contains numerous errors. Please use the Issue and Edit links on the bottom left menu to help us improve. Click here to close this disclaimer. X The Developer Guide aims to provide the information you need to understandBitcoin and start building Bitcoin-based applications, but it is not aspecification . To make the best use ofthis documentation, you may want to install the current version of BitcoinCore, either from source or from a pre-compiled executable . Questions about Bitcoin development are best asked in one of the Bitcoin development communities .Errors or suggestions related todocumentation on Bitcoin.org can be submitted as an issue or posted to the bitcoin-documentation mailing list . In the following documentation, some strings have been shortened or wrapped: []indicates extra data was removed, and lines ending in a single backslash \are continued below. If you hover your mouse over a paragraph, cross-referencelinks will be shown in blue. If you hover over a cross-reference link, a briefdefinition of the term will be displayed in a tooltip. The block chain provides Bitcoins public ledger, an ordered and timestamped recordof transactions. This system is used to protect against double spending and modification of previous transaction records. Each full node in the Bitcoin network independently stores a block chain containing only blocks validated by that node . When several nodes allhave the same blocks in their block chain , they are considered to be in consensus . The validation rules these nodes follow to maintain consensus are called consensusrules . This section describes many ofthe consensus rules used by Bitcoin Core. The illustration above shows a simplified ve Continue reading >>

The Three Major Bitcoin Protocols Explained

The Three Major Bitcoin Protocols Explained

The Three Major Bitcoin Protocols Explained By Adam Hayes, CFA | October 18, 2016 1:48 PM EDT Bitcoin , the blockchain -powered cryptocurrency has been growing steadily in size and scope since inception in 2009. Not only has the value of the bitcoin currency grown to represent over $10 billion of notional value, but its network, too, has grown exponentially. During this expansion, the system began to experience some growing pains, mainly associated with scaling up to accommodate the larger number and frequency of transactions, while at the same time preserving the virtues of privacy, security, and low transaction costs. The original protocol, written by the anonymous Satoshi Nakamoto has become known as Bitcoin QT or Bitcoin core, and what has resulted is three competing versions of the Bitcoin protocol: Bitcoin Classic, Bitcoin Unlimited and BitPay Core. These three attempts follow the controversial roll-out of Bitcoin XT, which would have increased the block size to 8MB, and was largely rejected by the community. (See also: Can Bitcoin Hard Fork? ) Bitcoin Classic seeks to mitigate the problem of more transactions, which are causing transaction backlogs and increased transaction costs, by increasing the block size - the number of kilobytes in a block of transactions - from 1MB to 2MB. According to Bitcoin Magazine, 2MB was picked purposefully based on data collected by its creators, and from conversations with many Bitcoin miners and mining pools. Its developers assert that Bitcoin Classic is endorsed by former Bitcoin Core lead and Bitcoin XT developer Gavin Andresenwas well as large mining pools such as AntPooland BW Pool, and wallet/exchanges Coinbase and OKCoin. (See also: The Future of Cryptocurrency ) Bitcoin Unlimited, as its name suggests, embraces the absenc Continue reading >>

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