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3. What Is The Most Effective Way To Control Cryptosporidium

Cryptosporidiosis In Animals And Man: 3. Prevention And Control

Cryptosporidiosis In Animals And Man: 3. Prevention And Control

Cryptosporidiosis in Animals and Man: 3. Prevention and Control 1Alaa A. Ghazy, 1Sobhy Abdel-Shafy and 2Rafaat M. Shaapan 1Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Division of Veterinary Research, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt 2Department of Zoonotic Diseases, Division of Veterinary Research, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt The control of cryptosporidiosis relies mainly on hygienic measures and good management. Preventive hygienic measures are by far the most effective approach to control this parasite in animals, the objective being to destroy the external forms of the parasite (infective mature oocysts) and to prevent their transmission among animals. The destruction of oocysts on surfaces of housing facilities, pens and parturition buildings is possible using effective disinfectants such as 50% ammonia, 3% hydrogen peroxide or 10% formalin. Measures to reduce transmission between animals should be encouraged. Limiting the number of animals enclosed in the same facilities and avoidance of high stocking rates in the parturition area, maintaining a short calving period, administration of appropriated supplies of colostrum especially hyper immune colostrum from immunized dams, isolation and treatment of diarrheic infected animals; all help to prevent outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis, reduce the spread of infection within a herd and minimize mortality and morbidity in infected herds. Chemotherapeutic agents such as paromomycin, decoquinate, lasalocid, halofuginone lactate, nitazoxanide, dinitrooryzalin, $-cyclodextrin and probioties have proved a potential therapeutic effect against cryptosporidiosis in the form of reduction the duration and numbers of oocysts shedding and the incidence and severity of the diarrhea. Immunization of ruminants dur Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidiosis In Animals And Man: 3. Prevention And Control

Cryptosporidiosis In Animals And Man: 3. Prevention And Control

Cryptosporidiosis in Animals and Man: 3. Prevention and Control The control of cryptosporidiosis relies mainly on hygienic measures and good management. Preventive hygienic measures are by far the most effective approach to control this parasite in animals, the objective being to destroy the external forms of the parasite (infective mature oocysts) and to prevent their transmission among animals. The destruction of oocysts on surfaces of housing facilities, pens and parturition buildings is possible using effective disinfectants such as 50% ammonia, 3% hydrogen peroxide or 10% formalin. Measures to reduce transmission between animals should be encouraged. Limiting the number of animals enclosed in the same facilities and avoidance of high stocking rates in the parturition area, maintaining a short calving period, administration of appropriated supplies of colostrum especially hyper immune colostrum from immunized dams, isolation and treatment of diarrheic infected animals; all help to prevent outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis, reduce the spread of infection within a herd and minimize mortality and morbidity in infected herds. Chemotherapeutic agents such as paromomycin, decoquinate, lasalocid, halofuginone lactate, nitazoxanide, dinitrooryzalin, -cyclodextrin and probioties have proved a potential therapeutic effect against cryptosporidiosis in the form of reduction the duration and numbers of oocysts shedding and the incidence and severity of the diarrhea. Immunization of ruminants during pregnancy with either recombinant C. parvum sporozoites surface antigens or plasmid DNA encoding the CP15 or CP23 antigens appear to be a valuable approach for producing colostrum for the passive immunotherapy of cryptosporidiosis. Hyper immune colostrum prevented diarrhea and reduced o Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidium - Ifst Information Statement | Ifst

Cryptosporidium - Ifst Information Statement | Ifst

Cryptosporidium is a genus of parasitic protozoa that can cause cryptosporidiosis, a gastro-intestinal illness in humans, cattle and some other animals. In people, it causes abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, headaches and fever, but the infection is usually self-limiting and resolves within a few weeks. In immunocompromised patients, the infection can be more serious; it can become prolonged and rarely, fatal as a result of dehydration caused by chronic diarrhoea. These protozoa complete their life cycles in one host and their oocysts (spores) are highly infectious. It is primarily a waterborne disease spread through the faecal-oral route; the oocysts can also be transmitted by handling infected animals or person-to-person contact. The parasite can be found in soil, water or food and may be transmitted through surfaces that have been contaminated with the faeces of infected people or animals; Cryptosporidium requires a host in which to multiply and cannot grow in foods or water. The majority of water treatment plants cannot completely guarantee removal of all Cryptosporidium oocysts from the water as the oocysts are very small and resistant to chlorine, the disinfectant commonly used in these plants, so rendering much of the treatment process irrelevant. Since The Water Supply (Water Quality) (Amendment) Regulations 1999 as amended by The Water Supply (Water Quality) (Amendment) Regulations (SI 2000 No./ 31854 came into force there has been a reduction in reported cases, as demonstrated by health surveillance data. The extent to which recreational waterways such as lakes, and private wells continue to pose an occasional risk to health remains unclear, but other sources of contamination remain a cause for concern. Cryptosporidium is inactivated by UV, heat, freezing an Continue reading >>

Risk And Control Of Waterborne Cryptosporidiosis

Risk And Control Of Waterborne Cryptosporidiosis

Risk and control of waterborne cryptosporidiosis College of Marine Sciences, University of South Florida, 140 7th Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 (727) 553 3928; Fax: +1 (727) 553 1189. E-mail address: [email protected] Search for other works by this author on: College of Marine Sciences, University of South Florida, 140 7th Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA Search for other works by this author on: College of Marine Sciences, University of South Florida, 140 7th Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA Search for other works by this author on: FEMS Microbiology Reviews, Volume 26, Issue 2, 1 June 2002, Pages 113123, Joan B. Rose, Debra E. Huffman, Angela Gennaccaro; Risk and control of waterborne cryptosporidiosis, FEMS Microbiology Reviews, Volume 26, Issue 2, 1 June 2002, Pages 113123, Cryptosporidium remains at the forefront of studies on waterborne disease transmission and abatement. The impact of environmental land use patterns which contribute animal and human waste, climatic precipitation leading to a strong association with outbreaks, and community infrastructure and water treatment are now recognized as contributing factors in the potential for waterborne spread of the protozoan. Advances in detection methodologies, including the ability to genotype various strains of this organism, have shown that human wastes are often the source of the contamination and cell culture techniques have allowed insight into the viability of the oocyst populations. Currently water treatment has focused on UV and ozone disinfection as most promising for the inactivation of this protozoan pathogen. Drinking water risk , Swimming risk , UV disinfection , Cell culture viability , Cryptosporidium Cryptosporidium parvum belongs to the p Continue reading >>

The Evolution Of Respiratory Cryptosporidiosis: Evidence For Transmission By Inhalation

The Evolution Of Respiratory Cryptosporidiosis: Evidence For Transmission By Inhalation

The Evolution of Respiratory Cryptosporidiosis: Evidence for Transmission by Inhalation aDepartment of Infectious Disease and Global Health, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, Massachusetts, USA aDepartment of Infectious Disease and Global Health, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, Massachusetts, USA aDepartment of Infectious Disease and Global Health, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, Massachusetts, USA bDepartment of Public Health and Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Copyright 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium infects all major vertebrate groups and causes significant diarrhea in humans, with a spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Children and immunodeficient individuals are disproportionately affected, especially in developing countries, where cryptosporidiosis contributes substantially to morbidity and mortality in preschool-age children. Despite the enormous disease burden from cryptosporidiosis, no antiprotozoal agent or vaccine exists for effective treatment or prevention. Cryptosporidiosis involving the respiratory tract has been described for avian species and mammals, including immunocompromised humans. Recent evidence indicates that respiratory cryptosporidiosis may occur commonly in immunocompetent children with cryptosporidial diarrhea and unexplained cough. Findings from animal models, human case reports, and a few epidemiological studies suggest that Cryptosporidium may be transmitted via respiratory secretions, in addition to the more recog Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidiosis Symptoms, Treatment & Causes

Cryptosporidiosis Symptoms, Treatment & Causes

Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease caused by microscopic parasites, Cryptosporidium, that can live in the intestine of humans and animals and is passed in the stool of an infected person or animal. Both the disease and the parasite are commonly known as "Crypto." The parasite is protected by an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for long periods of time and makes it very resistant to chlorine-based disinfectants. During the past 2 decades, Crypto has become recognized as one of the most common causes of waterborne disease (recreational water and drinking water) in humans in the United States. The parasite is found in every region of the United States and throughout the world. Cryptosporidium lives in the intestine of infected humans or animals. An infected person or animal sheds Crypto parasites in the stool. Millions of Crypto germs can be released in a bowel movement from an infected human or animal. Shedding of Crypto in the stool begins when the symptoms begin and can last for weeks after the symptoms (e.g., diarrhea ) stop. You can become infected after accidentally swallowing the parasite. Cryptosporidium may be found in soil, food, water, or surfaces that have been contaminated with the feces from infected humans or animals. Crypto is not spread by contact with blood. By putting something in your mouth or accidentally swallowing something that has come into contact with stool of a person or animal infected with Crypto. By swallowing recreational water contaminated with Crypto. Recreational water is water in swimming pools, hot tubs, Jacuzzis, fountains, lakes, rivers, springs, ponds, or streams. Recreational water can be contaminated with sewage or feces from humans or animals. By swallowing water or beverages contaminated with stool fr Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidiosis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Cryptosporidiosis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

A physician may use an ultrasound to check for crypto in the bile system. There may be dilated or irregular bile ducts and a thickened gallbladder. Finally, an Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may confirm the diagnosis. An ERCP involves the insertion of a flexible, lighted tube through the mouth and into the stomach and small intestine. There are several treatment and management options for crypto. Anti-diarrheal drugs, such as nitazoxanide, can treat patients of all ages. Eighty percent of symptoms resolve in under 5 days with this drug. Swimming is not recommended for at least 2 weeks following a recovery from crypto. It is common for the infection to return. Activities such as swimming are not recommended for at least 2 weeks after symptoms have gone. People who have, or who have recently had, cryptosporidiosis should not swim in communal areas. This is because the pathogen can spread from the anal and genital areas. The oocysts continue to shed for some time. A lactose-free diet can help to soothe the digestive tract and reduce inflammation . It is important to keep hydrated. A person with severe dehydration may need intravenous fluids. Antibiotics are not usually helpful and are primarily reserved for persons with a severe presentation of the disease and a weak immune system. Crypto in patients with a weakened immune system A person with HIV or AIDS has a higher risk of catching cryptosporidiosis, because their immune system is compromised and their body cannot fight infection effectively. Antiviral treatment can enhance the immune system and increase resistance to a range of infections. Studies have suggested that drugs such as rifabutin and clarithromycin, when taken for Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) complex prophylaxis, may protect against Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidiosis Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

Cryptosporidiosis Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

If you choose to buy a filter, look for this information on the label: Cryptosporidiosis (krip-to-spo-rid-e-O-sis), often called "crypto," is a disease caused by a one-celled parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum, also known as "crypto." Crypto, which cannot be seen without a very powerful microscope, is so small that over 10,000 of them would fit on the period at the end of this sentence. Although sometimes persons infected with crypto do not get sick, when they do get sick they can have watery diarrhea , stomach cramps , an upset stomach , or a slight fever. In some cases, persons infected with crypto can have severe diarrhea and lose weight . The first symptoms of crypto may appear 2 to 10 days after a person becomes infected. How Does Crypto Affect You If Your Immune System Is Severely Weakened? In people with AIDS and in others whose immune system is weakened, crypto can be serious, long-lasting, and sometimes fatal. If your CD4+ cell count is below 200, crypto is more likely to cause diarrhea and other symptoms for a long time. If your CD4+ count is above 200, your illness may not last more than 1 to 3 weeks or slightly longer. However, you could still carry the infection, which means that the crypto parasites are living in your intestines , but are not causing illness. If your CD4+ count later drops below 200, your symptoms may reappear. You can get crypto by putting anything in your mouth that has touched the "stool" ( bowel movement ) of a person or animal with crypto. You can also get crypto by touching your mouth after touching the stool of infected persons or animals or touching soil or objects contaminated with stool. Drinking contaminated water or eating contaminated food can also give you crypto. Cryptosporidiosis is not spread by contact with blood . Yes, bu Continue reading >>

Preventing Cryptosporidiosis

Preventing Cryptosporidiosis

Be especially cautious if you have a compromised immune system Wash hands after using the bathroom and changing diapers, and before handling or eating any food. Make sure that persons with diarrhea, especially children, wash their hands carefully and frequently with soap to reduce the risk of spreading the infection. Wash raw fruits and vegetables before eating. Always wash hands after contact with farm animals, pets, animal feces, and animal environments. Learn more about the importance of handwashing and the proper way to wash hands. Avoid swallowing recreational water Do not swallow water while swimming in swimming pools, hot tubs, interactive fountains, lakes, rivers, springs, ponds, streams, or the ocean. Note: Cryptosporidium is chlorine resistant and can live in swimming pools, even those that are properly treated, for days. Protect others by not swimming if you are experiencing diarrhea. If diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis, do not swim for at least 2 weeks after diarrhea stops. CDC; Contains information on recreational waterborne illnesses. Avoid drinking untreated water Do not drink untreated water from shallow wells, lakes, rivers, springs, ponds, or streams. If you are unable to avoid drinking water that might be contaminated, then drink bottled water or treat the water yourself by:: Heating the water to a rolling boil for at least 1 minute. Using a filter that has been tested and rated by National Safety Foundation (NSF) Standard 53 or NSF Standard 58 for cyst and oocyst reduction; filtered water will need additional treatment to kill or inactivate bacteria and viruses. Do not rely on chemical disinfection of Cryptosporidium because it is highly resistant to inactivation by chlorine or iodine. Continue reading >>

Untitled Document

Untitled Document

Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum. Once a person is infected by the protozoan, the parasite resides in the intestine and then is passed into the stool of the infected person. "Crypto" as the parasite and disease are commonly known as, is a diarrheal disease; symptoms include watery diarrhea, dehydration, cramps and nausea. Crypto has gained particularly notoriety during the past two decades as it has become one of the most common causes of waterborne diseases in the United States. It is spread easily by contaminated food and water thus making cleanliness vitally important in its prevention and control. Cryptosporidium was first recognized as a cause of disease in 1976. As methods were developed to analyze stool samples, the protozoa was increasingly reported as the cause of human disease. Crypto was first categorized as a veterinary problem because the majority of the early cases were diagnosed in handlers of such farm animals as cows. 155 species of mammals have been reported to be infected wity Cryptosporidium parvum or C. parvum. Of 15 named species of Cryptosporidium infectious to nonhuman vertebrate hosts C. Baileyi, C. canis, C. felis, C. hominis, C meleagridis, C. muris, and C. parvum have been reported to also infect humans. Humans are the primary hosts for C. hominis, and except for C. parvum, which is widespread in nonhuman hosts and is the most frequently reported zoonotic species, the remaining species have been reported primarily in immunocrompomised humans. The first widely publicized outbreak of Crytpsporidiosis occurred in 1987 in Carrollton, Georgia, where approximately 13000 people became ill with the disease. The source of the outbreak was traced to a contaminated municipal water system. Six years later, in M Continue reading >>

Detailed Cryptosporidium

Detailed Cryptosporidium

DETAILED INFORMATION FOR CRYPTOSPORIDIUM FACT SHEET Cryptosporidiosis is a severe diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium parvum. C. parvum is a single-cell animal called a protozoan. Information on what protozoan parasites can be found in the What is a Protozoa? fact sheet. Many species of Cryptosporidium exist that are able to cause infection in both humans and animals, although C. parvum is one of the most common. The parasite lives in the intestines of people and a wide variety of animals, especially young cattle. Cryptosporidium is transmitted when people or animals ingest food or water contaminated with its oocysts (the infectious particles of the parasite). The first reported case of cryptosporidiosis in humans was in 1976 and since it has become recognized as one of the most common causes of waterborne disease in humans and is found throughout the world. Infections from Cryptosporidium can be caused by exposure to either drinking water or recreational waters, such as swimming pools. C. parvum is an enteric (being within the intestine) pathogen. Its oocysts are four to five micrometers in diameter, therefore making it difficult to remove them from water by filtration. C. parvum is protected by an outer shell, referred to as a thick-walled oocyst, which allows it to survive for long periods of time outside the body, and also makes it chlorine resistant. Being chlorine resistant and hard to filter out is what makes outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis hard to prevent. The infective stage of Cryptosporidium is called an oocyst. The oocyst consists of a very tough shell surrounding four individual parasites. After the oocyst is swallowed, the shell breaks open and the parasites are released. This process is called excystation (the action of an organism escaping from i Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Cryptosporidium: What We Know, Gaps, And The Way Forward

Treatment Of Cryptosporidium: What We Know, Gaps, And The Way Forward

Treatment of Cryptosporidium: What We Know, Gaps, and the Way Forward The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Curr Trop Med Rep See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Cryptosporidiosis is increasingly recognized as an important globalhealth concern. While initially reported in immunocompromised such as AIDSpatients, cryptosporidiosis has now been documented as a major cause ofchildhood diarrhea and an important factor in childhood malnutrition. Currently,nitazoxanide is the only proven anti-parasitic treatment forCryptosporidium infections. However, it is not effective inseverely immunocompromised patients and there is limited data in infants. Immunereconstitution or decreased immunosuppression is critical to therapy in AIDS andtransplant patients. This limitation of treatment options presents a majorpublic health challenge given the important burden of disease. Repurposing ofdrugs developed for other indications and development of inhibitors for noveltargets offer hope for improved therapies, but none have advanced to clinicalstudies. Keywords: Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium hominis, cryptosporidiosis, nitazoxanide, paromomycin Cryptosporidium species are increasingly recognized asimportant enteric pathogens [ 1 - 3 ]. Cryptosporidiosis was initiallyrecognized as a cause of diarrhea in compromised hosts. Shortly thereafter, zoonoticand waterborne transmission of the parasite was identified. Cryptosporidium is nowconsidered one of the major causes of childhood diarrhea. In addition,Cryptosporidium has been documented as a key component of the viciouscycle of infection and malnutrition that are major contributors to childhoodmorbidity and mortality worldwide. The majority of humanCryptosporidium Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidium- Water Contaminants, Facts/removal Methods

Cryptosporidium- Water Contaminants, Facts/removal Methods

Guidance for people with severely weakened immune systems Cryptosporidium is a parasite commonly found in lakes and rivers, especially when the water is contaminated with sewage and animal wastes. Cryptosporidium is very resistant to disinfection, and even a well-operated water treatment system cannot ensure that drinking water will be completely free of this parasite. Current EPA drinking water standards were not explicitly designed to assure the removal or killing of Cryptosporidium. Many large water systems already voluntarily take actions for greater control of Cryptosporidium and other microbial contaminants. By 2001, the water systems serving the majority of the United States population (those relying on a surface water source, such as a river, and serving more than 10,000 people) must meet a new EPA standard that strengthens control over microbial contaminants, including Cryptosporidium. EPA continues to conduct research on microbial contaminants which will be used for determining priorities for the drinking water program, including setting future standards and reevaluating existing standards. Cryptosporidium has caused several large waterborne disease outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness, with symptoms that include diarrhea, nausea, and/or stomach cramps. People with severely weakened immune systems (that is, severely immunocompromised) are likely to have more severe and more persistent symptoms than healthy individuals. Moreover, Cryptosporidium has been a contributing cause of death in some immunocompromised people. Individuals who are severely immunocompromised may include those who are infected with HIV/AIDS, cancer and transplant patients taking immunosuppressive drugs, and people born with a weakened immune system. Data are not adequate to determine how Continue reading >>

Cryptosporidiosis - Wikipedia

Cryptosporidiosis - Wikipedia

Not to be confused with Cryptococcus (fungus) . Cryptosporidiosis, also known as crypto, [1] is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium , a genus of protozoan parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa . It affects the distal small intestine and can affect the respiratory tract in both immunocompetent (i.e., individuals with a normal functioning immune system ) and immunocompromised (e.g., persons with HIV/AIDS or autoimmune disorders ) individuals, resulting in watery diarrhea with or without an unexplained cough. [2] In immunocompromised individuals, the symptoms are particularly severe and can be fatal. It is primarily spread through the fecal-oral route , often through contaminated water; [2] [3] recent evidence suggests that it can also be transmitted via fomites in respiratory secretions. [2] Micrograph showing cryptosporidiosis. The cryptosporidium are the small, round bodies in apical vacuoles on the surface of the epithelium. H&E stain . Colonic biopsy . Cryptosporidium is commonly isolated in HIV-positive patients presenting with diarrhea. [4] Despite not being identified until 1976, it is one of the most common waterborne diseases and is found worldwide. The parasite is transmitted by environmentally hardy microbial cysts (oocysts) that, once ingested, sporozoites within oocysts excyst (i.e., are released) and result in an infection of intestinal epithelial tissue . Cryptosporidiosis may occur as an asymptomatic infection , an acute infection (i.e., duration shorter than 2weeks), as recurrent acute infections in which symptoms reappear following a brief period of recovery for up to 30days, and as a chronic infection (i.e., duration longer than 2weeks) in which symptoms are severe and persistent. [2] [5] [6] [7] It may be fatal in individuals with a severely c Continue reading >>

How To Prevent Cryptosporidiosis (crypto)

How To Prevent Cryptosporidiosis (crypto)

How to Prevent Cryptosporidiosis (Crypto) Cryptosporidiosis or "Crypto" is caused by microscopic parasites. It is a diarrheal disease most commonly transmitted by water infested with the parasite. Among humans in the United States, cryptosporidium is one of the most frequent causes of waterborne disease. The following article will help prevent catching and spreading Crypto. Know if you are at higher risk. For some people Crypto can be a serious, even fatal infection. The following is a list of those who may be at higher risk: Those with inherited diseases that affect the immune system Anyone who is taking immunosuppressive drugs Practicing good hygiene and avoiding contaminated water is the most effective way of preventing Crypto. To help prevent the infection, follow these steps: Wash your hands frequently and thoroughly with soap and water, especially after changing diapers, using the toilet, and/or before eating or preparing food. Avoid swallowing water that may be contaminated. This may include: Water from untreated shallow, unprotected wells Unfiltered, untreated water from oceans, lakes, rivers, streams, and ponds Untreated water (or ice) in countries where the water supply may not be safe Avoid food that may be contaminated. This is especially important when traveling outside the U.S. where the potential for contamination is higher. It is best to avoid the following foods at that time: Avoid sexual practices, such as oral-anal contact, that bring you in contact with fecal matter. Crypto can be spread by means other than contaminated water. Here are a few ways this may occur: Accidentally swallowing something that has come in contact with the stool of a person or animal infected with Crypto. Eating uncooked food contaminated with Crypto. Raw fruits and vegetables Continue reading >>

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